Instructions for authors
A. Aims and scope
The purpose of the journal Radiological Physics and Technology is to provide a mechanism for sharing new knowledge related to research and development in radiological science and technology, which includes medical physics and radiological technology in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy among many other radiological disciplines, and to contribute to progress and improvements in medical practice and health care of patients.
B. Types of contributions
- B-1. Review Articles are intended to be authoritative reviews of a subject of significance to the field of radiological science and technology. An article may be either invited or proffered, but will be refereed as usual (maximum length, 20 printed pages (approx. 14,700 words)).
- B-2. Research Articles are based on new findings in original experimental and/or theoretical research, development of new methods and techniques, and/or new devices and commissioning of large facilities in radiological science and technology (maximum length, 14 printed pages (approx. 10,200 words)).
- B-3. Technical Notes are concise reports on new results obtained from experimental and/or theoretical studies, on development of methods and techniques, and/or on a device that may provide a solution to a specific problem in radiological science and technology (maximum length, 6 printed pages (approx. 4,200 words)).
- B-4. Clinical Procedures and Techniques are concise reports on new procedures and/or techniques, or a new device that may provide a technical solution to a commonly encountered problem in radiological clinical practice. Reports may include technical and clinical evaluation on new devices. Clinical Procedures and Techniques emphasize the validity and utility of new results (maximum length, 6 printed pages (approx. 4,200 words)).
- B-5. Letters to the Editor are comments (maximum length, 2 printed pages (approx. 1,200 words), 5 references, and 1 figure/table) on published research in the journal, and should include an illustrative title, but no abstract or subheadings.
C. Editorial Procedure
Manuscripts are initially reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief, who will then usually select a Deputy Editor for additional review. The Deputy Editor chooses an Associate Editor, who is responsible for further evaluation and peer review. Manuscripts are reviewed by the Associate Editor and by a referee, who is chosen by the Associate Editor. The final decision on acceptance will be made by the Editor-in-Chief in consultation with the Deputy Editor.
At the time of a manuscript’s submission, authors may submit up to three names of Associate Editors (AE) of this Journal as their preferred AE. Although the Editor-in-Chief will attempt to select one of them, it may not be possible to make such an arrangement in all cases. A submission confirmation email will be sent to all co-authors to verify that they have made substantive intellectual contributions to the study. Please note that replies from all co-authors are necessary to proceed to the peer review process. If one or more replies are missing, the corresponding author will be asked to either have the co-author(s) verify their authorship or delete their name(s) from the manuscript.
D. Publishing Ethics
Submission of a manuscript requires: that the work described has not been published before in English or any other language; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities, tacitly or explicitly, at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.Please thoroughly read requirements on publishing ethics before submission (http://bit.ly/2o1ESN2).
- D-1. Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavor. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice.
✔ Important note: the journal uses software to screen for plagiarism.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue.
Authors should state that they have full control of all primary data and that they agree to allow the journal to review their data if requested. Therefore 1) the manuscript must be accompanied by the “Prerequisites for Publication Form” at the time of submission 2) the corresponding author must collect, but does not need to submit, the “Conflict of Interest Disclosure Forms” from all authors. These forms can be obtained from the bottom of this section.
- D-2. Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” before the references when submitting a paper:
▪ Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
▪ Research involving human participants and animal
▪ Informed consent
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
- D-3. Conflict of Interest
Authors must indicate whether they have a financial relationship with the organization that sponsored the research. The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
▪ Funding: "This study was funded by X (grant number X)."
▪ Conflict of Interest: "Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z."
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
▪ Conflict of Interest: “The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.”
- D-4. Statement of Human and Animal Rights
◆ D-4-1. Statement of human rights
When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB) and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
▪ Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
For retrospective studies, if approved by the IRB for all retrospective studies or this specific study, please add the following sentence.
▪ Ethical approval: “For this type of study formal consent is not required in our Institution.” or “The IRB was obtained without patients’ informed consent.”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants, please include the following statement:
▪ Ethical approval: “This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed.”
◆ D-4-2. Statement of animal rights
The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals have been followed, and that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists).
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section.
▪ Ethical approval: “All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If applicable (where such a committee exists):
▪ Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.”
If articles do not contain studies with animals, please include the following statement:
▪ Ethical approval: “This article does not contain any studies with animals performed.”
- D-5. Informed Consent
All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included.
▪ Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
▪ Informed consent: “Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”
- D-6. Authorship
The Editors of Radiological Physics and Technology adhere to recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [http://www.icmje.org] regarding criteria for authorship. Accordingly, each person listed as an author or coauthor for a submitted manuscript must meet all three criteria. An author or coauthor shall have:
1. Conceived, planned, and performed the work leading to the manuscript, or interpreted the evidence presented thus making an intellectual contribution, or both;
2. Written the manuscript or reviewed successive versions and participated in their revision;
3. Approved the final version.
Meeting these criteria should provide each author with sufficient knowledge of and participation in the work to allow him or her to accept public responsibility for the manuscript.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owners and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to have originated from the authors.
G. Online Submission
Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Please connect directly to the site and upload all your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
- G-1. Uploading Files
▪ Main Documents
Main documents of articles should be uploaded in rich text format (.rtf) or as Microsoft Word documents (.doc).
Use the table functions of your word-processing program, not spread sheets, to make tables. Tables may be uploaded separately from the main document or inserted into the main document after the reference section.
Common graphic files such as GIF, JPEG, EPS, and TIFF are supported. Please upload figures that are satisfactory for the review process.
▪ Prerequisites for Publication Form
This form must be submitted with all of the authors' signatures at the time of submission.
After the parts of the article have been uploaded in this manner, the system will convert the files to PDF format. You can view the result of the conversion with Adobe Acrobat Reader. You will also be notified by e-mail that your submission was successful. At any point during this process, there are Help buttons available to see frequently asked questions.
If the total size of the files exceeds the file volume (20 MB) for online submission, reduce the resolution of large files for initial submission. However, if your manuscript is accepted for publication, you might be required to provide figures/illustrations of sufficient quality for printing according to Requirements for Electronically Produced Illustrations toward the end of these instructions.
H. Manuscript Preparation
Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by an English-speaking person who understands the material, before submission for the journal. (If English expressions were very poor at an unacceptable level for this Journal, the author may be requested to obtain professional editing service by a native-English-speaking person and to provide a proof of the editing service.) Manuscripts will be reviewed by our editorial assistant in an initial assessment of readability and English expressions. As initial polishing, suggestions for changes and some questions may be provided to indicate your chance for improving the manuscript, prior to formal review by an associate editor and reviewer(s). Question marks/comments indicate unclear expressions and/or improper words. Although you do not need to incorporate all of the suggestions, it is recommended to revise the manuscript by taking into account these suggestions and questions where you may consider it appropriate or where your manuscript may be improved. Once the contents of the manuscript will be accepted technically by reviewers, Associate Editor and Deputy Editor, the manuscript will be reviewed for final polishing, and the author will have the last chance to improve the manuscript before publication.
- H-1. Style
Manuscripts for Research Articles and Technical Notes should include separate sections for Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. All acronyms and abbreviations should be clearly defined when they first appear in the text. Generic names of drugs and pesticides are preferred; if trade names are used, the generic name should be given at first mention. Authors need not attempt to lay out an article or format it for styling, because the format will be changed as necessary when the article is processed. Manuscripts must be typewritten with wide margins and double spacing.
- H-2. Title Page
The title page should include:
▪ The name(s) of the author(s)
▪ A concise and informative title
▪ The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
▪ The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author
- H-3. Abstract
The abstract should concisely describe the content of the article, and should normally have no more than 250 words for Research Articles (150 words for Technical Notes and for Clinical Procedures and Techniques). Abbreviations and references must be avoided in the abstract.
- H-4. Keywords
Up to six keywords should be listed. These terms should be relatively independent of each other.
- H-5. Text
◆ H-5-1. Text formatting
▪ Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 12-point Times New Roman) for text.
▪ All lines also must be numbered consecutively from the title page, including the acknowledgements, references and tables.
▪ Use italics for emphasis.
▪ Use the automatic page-numbering function to number the pages.
▪ Do not use field functions.
▪ Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
▪ Use the table function of your word-processing program, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
▪ Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
▪ Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format (older Word versions).
▪ We prefer to accept manuscripts in Word format at the time of submission; however, if you wish to send your manuscript with mathematical content in LaTeX format, you can do so. LaTeX Macro Package (https://www.springer.com/gp/livingreviews/latex-templates)
◆ H-5-2. Heading levels, numbering
Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.
◆ H-5-3. SI units, numbers
Always use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (i.e., SI units).
◆ H-5-4. Footnotes
Footnotes on the title page are not given reference symbols. Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively.
- H-6. Mathematics
Mathematical expressions must be formatted as completely as possible. Do not use mathematical derivations that are easily found elsewhere in the literature. Please use the standard mathematical notation for formulae, symbols, etc.:
▪ Italic for single letters that denote mathematical constants, variables, and unknown quantities.
▪ Roman/upright for numerals, operators, and punctuation, and commonly defined functions or abbreviations, e.g., cos, det, e or exp, lim, log, max, min, sin, tan, d (for derivative).
▪ Bold for vectors, tensors, and matrices.
- H-7. Tables
All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
▪ Tables should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
▪ For each table, please supply a table title. The table title should explain clearly and concisely the components of the table.
▪ Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table heading.
▪ Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lowercase letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
- H-8. Illustrations
All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
▪ Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters. If illustrations are supplied with uppercase labeling, lowercase letters will still be used in the figure legends and citations.
▪ Figures should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
▪ For each figure, please supply a figure caption (figure legend).
▪ In the caption be sure to identify all elements in the figure.
▪ Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the caption.
▪ Each figure legend should be submitted in the same file as its respective figure.
For detailed information on artwork, please visit (http://bit.ly/2n9D1aa).
- H-9. Compliance with Ethical Standards
Authors should include the following statements in a separate section before the reference list. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest, research involving human participants and animal, informed consent. Please refer to the instructions under "publishing ethics".
- H-10. Citation in Text
Citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Reference list entries should be numbered consecutively. Some examples:
º Negotiation research spans many disciplines .
º This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman .
º This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].
- H-11. References
The list of References should include only works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be mentioned only in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
▪ Journal article
Mori S, Endo M, Nishizawa K, Tsunoo T, Aoyama T, Fujiwara H, Murase K. Enlarged longitudinal dose profiles in cone-beam CT and the need for modified dosimetry. Med Phys. 2005;32:1061-9.
Pratt KP. Digital image processing. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1978. p. 345-77.
▪ Chapter in a book
Chan HP, Doi K. Monte Carlo simulation in diagnostic radiology. In: Morin RL, editors. Monte Carlo simulation in the radiological sciences. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1988. p. 251-306.
▪ Article by DOI
Ding GX, Duggan DM, Coffey CW, Shokrani P, Cygler JE. First macro Monte Carlo based commercial dose calculation module for electron beam treatment planning—new issues for clinical consideration. Phys Med Biol. 2006;51:2781-99. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/51/11/007.
▪ Online document
Doe J. Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. 1999. http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document. Accessed 15 Jan 1999.
- H-12. Electronic Supplementary Material
If Electronic supplementary material (ESM) is submitted, it will be published as received from the author in the online version only.
ESM may consist of
▪ information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings
▪ information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.
▪ large original data sets, e.g. additional tables, illustrations, etc.
▪ If supplying any ESM, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables (e.g., ". . . as shown in Animation 3.").
For more information on electronic supplementary materials, please visit (http://bit.ly/2n9D1aa).
I. After Acceptance
Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order OpenChoice and offprints. Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
- I-1. Copyright
All authors must sign a Copyright Transfer Statement before an article can be published. This transfer agreement enables JSRT and JSMP to protect the copyrighted material for the authors, but does not relinquish the authors’ proprietary rights.
- I-2. Open Choice
Open Choice allows you to publish open access, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.
Article processing charges (APCs) vary by journal –view the full list.
Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
- I-4. Offprints
Upon publication the corresponding authors will receive either an electronic offprint (PDF-format) or 30 printed offprints of their article free of charge. Additional offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
- I-5. Color illustrations
Publication of color illustrations is free of charge.
- I-6. Proof reading
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.
After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
- I-7. Online First
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.