- Instructions for Authors
- Examples of Areas of Interest
- General Information
- Research Articles
- Style of Manuscript
- References and Citation Format
- Submission of Electronic Figures
- Submission of Scanned Figures
- Mathematical Formulas and Equations
- Review Articles
- Methods and Technical Reports
- Rapid Communications
- History and Teaching Articles
- Book Reviews
- Letters to the Editor
- Copyright Transfer
- Springer Open Choice
- Conflict of Interest
- Human Studies
- Animal Studies
- Research Data Policy
Instructions for Authors
Examples of Areas of Interest
The field of cellular and molecular bioengineering seeks to understand, so that we may ultimately control, the mechanical, chemical, and electrical processes of the cell. A key challenge in improving human health is to understand how cellular behavior arises from molecular-level interactions. CBME, an official journal of the Biomedical Engineering Society, publishes original research and review papers in the following seven general areas:
- Molecular: DNA-protein/RNA-protein interactions, protein folding and function, protein-protein and receptor-ligand interactions, lipids, polysaccharides, molecular motors, and the biophysics of macromolecules that function as therapeutics or engineered matrices, for example.
- Cellular: Studies of how cells sense physicochemical events surrounding and within cells, and how cells transduce these events into biological responses. Specific cell processes of interest include cell growth, differentiation, migration, signal transduction, protein secretion and transport, gene expression and regulation, and cell-matrix interactions.
- Mechanobiology: The mechanical properties of cells and biomolecules, cellular/molecular force generation and adhesion, the response of cells to their mechanical microenvironment, and mechanotransduction in response to various physical forces such as fluid shear stress.
- Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical activity and stimulation of cells, application-based interactions between biological cells, organic electronics and biosensors, and measurement of the intrinsic electrical properties of cells and biomolecules.
- Nanomedicine: The engineering of nanoparticles for advanced drug delivery and molecular imaging applications, with particular focus on the interaction of such particles with living cells. Also, the application of nanostructured materials to control the behavior of cells and biomolecules.
- Systems Biology: Multiple-scale analysis and simulation of complex biological systems, with a special emphasis on gene-to-cellular level phenomena. Studies that compare model predictions with existing or newly collected experimental data sets are especially encouraged.
- Clinical and Translational: The application of cellular and molecular scale devices and concepts in clinical research, personalized medicine and point-of-care diagnostics, and the translation of bioengineering research from the bench to bedside.
The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. All manuscripts are peer-reviewed. The Editor reserves the right to refuse any material for publication. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board. The Editor-in-Chief and/or Associate Editors will first determine if a submitted manuscript is suitable for review and possible publication. Manuscripts deemed suitable for peer review are immediately sent for review to at least 2 recognized experts in the field. The peer review system is closed. Reviewers are asked to complete their report within 14 days using the online peer review report system. After reviews are submitted, a recommendation of “accept”, “reject”, “major revision”, or “minor revision" (for further consideration) is made by the Associate Editor to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes the final decision. An editorial decision is taken based on the reviewers’ recommendations. Since the electronic procedure allows for rapid communication, the journal aims to reach a first decision in a timely manner, and has consistently averaged less than 30 days to reach a first decision.
Review Process Manuscripts are reviewed with due respect for the author's confidentiality. At the same time, reviewers also have rights to confidentiality, which are respected by the editors. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering uses a single-blind peer-review system, where the reviewers are aware of the names and affiliations of the authors, but the reviewer reports provided to authors are anonymous. Single-blind peer review is a traditional model of peer review that many reviewers are comfortable with, and the process supports a dispassionate critique of a manuscript. The editors ensure both the authors and the reviewers that the manuscripts sent for review are privileged communications and are the private property of the author. When submitting a manuscript for consideration for publication, authors may suggest the names of potential reviewers to invite and/or exclude.
Manuscripts are to be submitted on−line at the link below.
Research manuscripts must be original papers, submitted in English. Manuscripts are accepted for review with the understanding that the same work has not been and will not be published elsewhere, that all persons listed as authors have given their approval for the submission of the paper and further, that any person cited as a source of personal communications or whose effort is recognized in an acknowledgment has approved such citation. Written authorization may be required at the Editor's discretion. Articles published in the Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering represent the opinions of the author(s) and should not be construed to reflect the opinions of the Editor(s) or the Publisher.
Authors are encouraged to suggest potential reviewers for manuscripts. However, there is no guarantee that the suggested reviewers will be used.
Style of Manuscript
Manuscripts should meet the requirements outlined below to avoid delay in review and publication. With the exception of the style and ordering of the references, these style requirements match the "Uniform Requirements" published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (Ann. Intern. Med. 126:36−−47, 1997). An online version of the "Uniform Requirements" can be viewed at the end of the chapter.
- General Instructions:
1) Manuscripts must be double−spaced.
2) Pages should be numbered consecutively beginning with the title page. Pages should be arranged in the following order: title page, abstract and key terms, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, figure legends, figures.
3) The title page should have the title of the article, author(s), department and institution in which the work was done with address, an abbreviated title for the running head (not exceeding 55 characters including spaces between words), name and address for correspondence, and a contact telephone number, FAX number, and email.
4) The abstract and key terms should be on a separate page, double−spaced.
5) Each table should be typed on a separate page and double−spaced.
6) Figure captions should be typed double spaced on a separate page.
7) Figures should be identified with figure number and name of first author.
8) The text should be clear and concise, conforming to accepted standards of English style and usage. Unfamiliar or new terms should be defined when first used. Jargon should not be used.
The title should be informative. It should contain no unnecessary words and should not exceed 116 characters including spaces between words.
A structured abstract of not more than 250 words must accompany each manuscript, with the following four separate and labelled sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. It should state concisely the reason for the study, what was done, what was found, what was concluded, and the relevance
- Key Terms:
After the abstract, list three to ten terms not included in the title.
- Abbreviations, symbols, and terminology:
Include in the manuscript a list of new or special abbreviations used in the paper, with spelled−out form or definition. Internationally accepted biochemical abbreviations
such as ADP, NADH, and Pi do not need to be defined; other frequently used abbreviations need only to be defined at first mention. For commonly accepted abbreviations, word usage, symbols, etc., authors are referred to the CBE Style Manual (sixth edition, 1994). Chemical and biochemical terms and abbreviations should be in accordance with the recommendations of the IUPAC−IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Isotope specification should conform to the IUPAC system.
- Glossary of terms:
When only a few symbols and terms are used, define each one when it is first introduced.
The definition should include:
1) the symbol (Roman or Greek),
2) its name,
3) a definition in words, and
When many terms and equations are used a Glossary of terms is necessary. Authors are referred to the following articles for style in specialized fields: "Terminology for circulatory mass transport and exchange" (Am. J. Physiol. 250:H539−−H545, 1986); "Glossary of terms for thermal physiology" (J. Appl. Physiol. 35:941−−961, 1973).
Authors should use the International System of Units (SI) except where common usage contradicts. Authors may follow the SI units with the equivalent value in common units (usually c.g.s. system) in parentheses. Units with more than 2 components should be written without slashes or dots, using superscripts, as in ml g −1 s −1 for flow per gram of tissue. Units such as ml/g/s are unacceptable.
Follow Webster's Third New International Dictionary for spelling, compounding, and word division.
- Drugs, Chemicals, and Trade Names:
Proprietary (trademarked) names should be capitalized. Check spelling. The chemical or generic name should precede the trade name or abbreviation the first time it appears.
Avoid footnotes. Use parenthetic statements in the text instead.
At the end of the article one or more statements should specify
(a) contributions that do not justify authorship;
(b) technical help;
(c) financial and material support, specifying the nature of the support;
(d) financial relationships that may pose a conflict of interest.
Persons who have contributed intellectually to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be named and their function or contribution described. For example, "scientific advisor," "critical review of study proposal," "data collection," or "participation in clinical trial" are appropriate. Such persons must have given their permission to be named. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from persons acknowledged by name.
References and Citation Format
References are limited to pertinent published works or papers that have been accepted for publication. Usually this is achieved with fewer than 30 references. An abstract may be cited only when it is the sole source.
References should be typed separately, double−spaced, arranged alphabetically by author, and numbered serially, with only one reference per number. The number appropriate to each reference should be superscripted at the proper point in the text. The formats are:
- Journal articles. Last name of first author, followed by initials, initials and last names of each coauthor; title of article (first word only capitalized); name of journal (abbreviated as in Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Data Base, published by BioSciences Information Service), volume, inclusive pages, and year.
Example: 1. Haselton, F. R., R. E. Parker, R. J. Roselli, and T. R. Harris. Analysis of lung multiple indicator data with an effective diffusivity model of capillary exchange. J. Appl. Physiol. 57:98−109, 1984.
- Book references. Author(s) as above; title of book (main words capitalized); city of publication; publisher; year and pages, e.g., Thompson, D. A. W. On Growth and Form.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1961, 346 pp.
For chapter in an edited book: Glass, L. and A. Shrier. "Low
dimensional chaos in the heart." In: Theory of Heart: Biomechanics, Biophysics, and Nonlinear Dynamics of Cardiac Function , edited by L. Glass, P. Hunter, and A. McCulloch. New York: Springer−Verlag, 1991, pp. 289−−312.
References to government technical documents should be included only when their availability is assured. Citations such as "unpublished observations" or "personal communication" should not be included in the reference list but may be added in parentheses in the text. Authors are responsible for obtaining permissions for reproduced material, cited correspondence.
Figures published in the journal may be scanned using a digital scanner and integrated with the text of the article to compose completely electronic pages. Please conform with the following guidelines when preparing your illustrations for submission.
Submission of Electronic Figures
Authors are requested to supply electronic versions of figures in either Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) or TIFF format. Many other formats, e.g., Proprietary Formats, PiCT (Macintosh) and WMF (Windows), are discouraged and may require hard copy submission.
Figures should be saved in separate files without their captions, which should be included with the text of the article. Files should be named according to DOS conventions, e.g., figure1.eps. For vector graphics, EPS is the preferred format. Lines should not be thinner than 0.25pts and in−fill patterns and screens should have a density of at least 10%. Font−related problems can be avoided by using standard fonts such as Times Roman and Helvetica. For bitmapped graphics, TIFF is the preferred format. The following resolutions are optimal: black−and−white line figures — 1200 dpi; line figures with some gray or colored lines — 600 dpi; photographs — 300 dpi; screen dumps — leave as is.
Submission of Scanned Figures
- Number figures in the order in which they appear in text. Label illustrations with their number, the name of the first author, and "CMB" on the front of the figure well outside the image area. Indicate the top of the figure.
- Place only one figure per page. Place separate parts of the same figure on one sheet of paper, spaced 1/4 in. apart and leaving a 2−inch bottom margin. Label all figure parts with (a), (b), etc. Make sure each figure is straight on the page. Photocopies of artwork are not acceptable.
- Prepare illustrations in the final published size, not over−sized. Figures should be sized for one column width of the journal (3.25 in.) in order to avoid problems arising from large reductions in size during scanning. This is especially important for screened or shaded illustration. Reduction of screened/shaded originals during the digitizing process introduces a Moir pattern.
- Do not use correction fluid or tape on the illustrations. The scanner is extremely sensitive and reproduces all flaws (e.g., correction fluid, tape, smudges, dust). Do not write on the back of the figure because it will be picked up by the scanner.
- Ensure a minimum of 8−point type size (2.8 mm high; 1/8 in. high) and 1−point line width with illustrations (a 3−point line width if reduction is required.) Avoid inconsistencies in lettering within individual figures, and from one figure to the next. Lettering and symbols must not be handwritten. Avoid small open symbols that tend to fill in if any reduction is necessary.
- Author's laser−generated graphics are acceptable only if the lettering and lines are dark enough, and thick enough, to reproduce clearly, especially if reduction is necessary. Remember that fine lines in laser−generated graphics tend to disappear upon reduction.
- Submit continuous−tone photographs in final published size on white glossy or matte paper. Avoid glossy paper stock that is off−white, ivory, or colored because contrast within the illustration will be lost in reproduction. Print the photograph with more contrast than is desired in the final printed journal page. Avoid dull, textured paper stock, which will cause illustrations to lose contrast and detail when reproduced.
- Color figures: All color images submitted will be published in full color in print and online at no extra charge.
- The approximate position of each figure should be indicated in the manuscript.
- Statistical summary tables are acceptable. Tables with many lines of individual values may be submitted as Supplementary Material (see below).
- Number tables consecutively with Arabic numerals and prepare with the size of the journal page inmind: 3.25 inches wide, single column; 6.75 inches wide, double column.
- Type each table double−spaced on a separate page.
- Give each table a brief title; explanatory matter should be in footnotes, not in the title .
- Tables must not duplicate material in text or figures.
- Omit horizontal and vertical rules when possible.
- Omit nonsignificant decimal places in tabular data.
- Use short or abbreviated column heads and expand in footnotes if necessary.
- Identify statistical measures of variations, e.g., SD, s.e.m., etc.
- List table footnotes in the order of their appearance and reference them with the standard symbols (* | ? ) — consecutive superior letters should be used throughout.
- The approximate position of each table should be indicated in the manuscript.
Communications that deal with models and their application in biology, physiology, bioengineering or related areas are welcome. Manuscripts may be original research contributions, critiques, reviews, survey papers, or tutorials. Mathematics and technical jargon must be relevant and clearly explained. Articles should be self−contained. Purely theoretical studies must be of exceptional merit.
Modeling developments should conform to standard modeling practice. Appropriate measures of variability should be specified for quantitative results based all or in part on a model and experimental data. For example, if a model is used to estimate model parameter values from data, variability measures for estimates must be reported as well as the (point) estimates themselves. How such values were estimated should be indicated (what algorithms, programs, etc.), including the method for calculating variability estimates. The meaning (or lack thereof) of reported parameter values should also be discussed, in the context of the purpose of the modeling effort (e.g., physiological significance). If a model includes parameter (or variable) values estimated from data, and the model is used to predict or explain something (e.g., a physiological implication), an analysis/discussion of how the variability in estimated values affects predictions, explanations, or conclusions should be included. If the work involves a computer simulation or simulation model, and numerical values are used to generate simulated solutions pertinent to reported results, the sensitivity of such solutions/results to these parameters for the numerical values used in simulations should be evaluated. Simulations are usually used to explain or predict real system behavior, which depends on the numerical values of parameters used in the simulation. Therefore, some form of parameter sensitivity analysis is needed to support results based on the model.
Mathematical Formulas and Equations
Mathematical aspects should be addressed to readers who are not mathematicians. The presentation should include the mathematical strategy, the assumptions on which the mathematics are based, and a summary of the meaning of the final mathematical statement and its limitations. Lengthy or complex mathematical developments central to the article may be put in an appendix.
Structural chemical formulas and complicated mathematical equations should be simplified as much as possible and carefully checked. All subscripts, superscripts, Greek letters, and other unusual characters must be clearly identified in penciled notes in the margin where they first appear. Distinguish between 1 (one) and the letter l (el), 0 (zero) and the letter O, Ç and letter x. Use the slant line (/) for simple fractions (a b)/(x y) in the text rather than the built up fraction, which should be used if the equation is offset from the text. Use subscripts or superscripts wherever feasible and appropriate, because they often simplify the equations [RARD instead of RARD or (RA) (RD)]. Use circles for pools in compartmental or flow−type models and whole arrows for interconnections or flows (not arrows with half−heads, as in reversible chemical equations). Do not use nonstandard mathematical notations; e.g., do not use computer symbols in equations (* for multiplication). Use lowercase letters for time−varying symbols in compartmental model equations, preferably q(t) for masses, c(t) for concentrations, with subscripts as needed. Our convention for numerical subscripts for rate constants (k21) is the same as that used in most life sciences but opposite to that currently used in pharmacokinetics, i.e., our kij is the fractional rate of transfer from compartment j to compartment i (or to compartment i from compartment j). Our notation is consistent with standard nomenclature in applied mathematics for matrices and matrix manipulation algorithms in commercial software packages for scientific/mathematical commutations involving matrices. See Glossary of terms (above).
Review articles will ordinarily be brief reviews focused on particularly noteworthy, novel, and critical aspects of a field. Authors contemplating submission of review articles should contact the Editor.
Methods and Technical Reports
Special communications describe new methods, new apparatuses with applications, techniques with physiological adaptability, and critiques of methods and techniques. They should be brief, from a half to a few pages.
Rapid Communications contain results of unusual interest in a short form. Review is accelerated and papers appear in the next available issue after acceptance. These communications must not exceed four journal pages in length, including figures, tables, and references. Rapid Communications will be accepted with no more than minor revisions.
History and Teaching Articles
These concern the teaching of specific topics or experiments, the evaluation of specific curricular strategies, the assessment of computerized learning programs, etc. Length should be comparable to a research report.
Books, after publication, may be submitted for possible review in the journal. The Society does not accept the obligation to review all books received but will list them in order to acknowledge receipt. Books not reviewed will be returned on request.
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor are encouraged, especially those that highlight controversies, ambiguities, or misapplications of theory or method. Letters must be typewritten, double−spaced, and include a title. Three copies should be submitted. They should be short. Letters are reviewed by the appropriate editor and are subject to editing and possible abridgment. If a letter is found acceptable, a copy will be sent to the author of the article under discussion. The author will have an opportunity to respond with material that will be also considered for publication.
The Journal is copyrighted for the protection of authors and the Society. A copyright transfer form will be sent to the author who submits the manuscript. The transfer form, must be completed and returned before the work will be typeset.
Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, they agree to the Springer Open Choice License
One set of proofs are sent to the corresponding author via email in PDF format. Paper proofs are available upon request.
Authors may order reprints using the Online order form sent with the page proofs. 25 free reprints will be supplied to the corresponding author of the article. Authors requesting the 25 free reprints should order them online.
Springer Open Choice
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option:
Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription−based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springers online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please visit the link below to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription−model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.
Conflict of Interest
When authors submit a manuscript, they are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that might bias their work. To prevent ambiguity, each author must state explicitly whether potential conflicts do or do not exist. For example, each author must indicate whether or not they have a financial relationship with the organization that sponsored the research. For each source of funds, both the research funder and the grant number should be given. Potential conflicts of interest exist when an author is related to a for-profit company or institution in any of the following ways:
2. Consultancies in the last 3 years (please list)
3. Honoraria in the last 3 years (please list)
4. Stock ownership/ options other than mutual funds (current; please list)
5. Expert testimony in the last 3 years (please list)
6. Grants received in the last 3 years (please list)
7. Grants pending (please list)
8. Patents received
9. Patents pending
10. Royalties (describe)
11. Other relationships (please specify)
Conflict of interest disclosures must be present on every manuscript immediately before the References section. The disclosure must mention each author separately by name. Recommended wording (modified appropriately if needed) is as follows:
Author X declares that s/he has no conflict of interest. Author Y has received research grant(s) number xxx, yyy from Organization A, Organization B…
Author Z has received a speaker honorarium from Organization A and owns stock in Organization B.
If multiple authors declare no conflict, this can be done in one sentence, e.g.: Author X, Author Y … and Author Z declare that they have no conflict of interest.
If the authors did not carry out human studies as part of their article they must include the following statement in the manuscript immediately before the References section:
No human studies were carried out by the authors for this article
For studies involving human subjects, the following sample statement must be included immediately before the References section:
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
Any experimental protocol must be approved, and owing to US regulations (the recent Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - HIPAA) even studies without any experimental protocol merely reporting patients or patient material require approval; these regulations require review for any studies involving patient identity, including retrospective chart, radiographic reviews, or removed tissues or materials.
If any identifying information about patients is included in the article, the following sentence must also be included:
Additional informed consent was obtained from all patients for which identifying information is included in this article.
If the authors did not carry out animal studies as part of their article they must include the following statement in the manuscript immediately before the References section:
No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article
For studies involving animals a statement indicating that the work was conducted with the approval and in accordance with the guidelines of the institution(s) where it was performed. A statement to this effect must be included in the manuscript immediately before the References section. The following is recommended sample text:
All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed and approved by the appropriate institutional committees.
The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
Research Data Policy
The journal encourages authors, where possible and applicable, to deposit data that support the findings of their research in a public repository. Authors and editors who do not have a preferred repository should consult Springer Nature’s list of repositories and research data policy.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may also be used.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.