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Social Sciences | Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology - incl. option to publish open access

Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology

Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology

Editor-in-Chief: Margaret A. Perkinson

ISSN: 0169-3816 (print version)
ISSN: 1573-0719 (electronic version)

Journal no. 10823

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Instructions for Authors

Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology

Manuscript Submission 

Manuscripts, in English, should be submitted to the Executive Editors Office via the journals web−based online manuscript submission and peer−review system:
Inquiries regarding journal policy and other such general topics should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief:
Margaret A. Perkinson, PhD
Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy
Doisy College of Health Sciences
Saint Louis University
3437 Caroline St.
St. Louis, MO 63104
The online system offers easy straightforward log−in and submission; supports a wide range of submission file formats [Word, WordPerfect, RTF, TXT and LaTeX for manuscripts; TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, and Postscript for figures (artwork)]; eliminates the need to submit manuscripts as hard−copy printouts, disks, and/or e−mail attachments; enables real−time tracking of manuscript status by author; and provides help should authors experience any submission difficulties (click on "Contact Us" from the toolbar).
The Journal of Cross−Cultural Gerontology is a refereed journal, published as a quarterly. No page charges are levied on authors or their institutions. Books for review should be sent to the Editor−in−Chief. Authors may suggest up to five individuals (including institutional affiliations) who can be contacted as potential reviewers. Note that the Editor is not bound to use the suggested reviewers, and may contact additional or other individuals to review the manuscript.

Preparation of the Manuscript 

Manuscripts should be written in English; four copies of the material should be submitted in the format given below. Also, the final revised manuscript should be supplied also on a 3 1/2 inch disk (preferably in Microsoft Word or WP 5.1 or higher). This point does not apply to manuscripts submitted in the online system. Manuscripts should be presented on DIN A4 or 8 ½ × 11 inch bond paper, one side only, leaving at least 2 cm margins on all sides. Please double−space all materials, including Notes, References, and Tables. All pages (including the Cover page, Notes, References, Figure−legends and Tables) should be numbered consecutively, in the right−hand upper corner.
The manuscripts should be arranged in the following order:
Cover page (page 1)
  • Title
    The Title should be concise and accurate, but should contain adequate information regarding the contents.
    Capitalize only the first letter of the first word
  • Authors full first and last names; the middle name only as initial.
    Capitalize the name(s)
    If more than one, use & for and before the last name.
  • Affiliation(s)
    Each authors affiliation(s) should be identified (including the city and country), and footnoted with superscript numerals for the respective authors.
After 4 lines, type a line across the page and then add:
Address for correspondence: Name, Full address, City, Country
On a new line: Phone number; Fax number; E−mail.
In the published version of the paper, the Address for correspondence will be printed at the last page, just after the References.
After 4 lines, type a second line across the page:
Here give an abbreviated title to be used as the running headlines as the full title may not fit on one line. The running headlines should appear on each page in the right upper corner just before the page number.
Page 2
  • Abstract
    Please provide an Abstract, brief and informative, from 100 to approx. 250 words. It is preferable that the Abstract is not in the first person, and it should not contain any mathematical formulae or cite references.
  • Key words
    Maximum of 6 and a minimum of 3, in alphabetical order, suitable for indexing.
Page 3
  • Main text
    The main text usually is arranged as Introduction, Materials (or Subjects) and Methods, Results, and Discussion, without page breaks.
    The relative importance of headings and subheadings should be clear.
    Headings and subheadings (not numbered) should be made clear by spacing and indentation.
    Capitalize only the first word; do not use all capital letters. The approximate location of Tables and Figures should be indicated within square brackets, on a separate line with a spaceline above and below, preferable after the paragraph in which it is first mentioned.
    New Paragraphs should be indicated by clear indentation (use a standard tab). Do not use spacelines between paragraphs.
    Breaking a word at the end of a line is not allowed.
    Endnotes are to be numbered consecutively and placed just before the References cited section.


Acknowledgments and grant numbers should be placed at the end after the main text, before Notes and References.


  • Each table should be mentioned in the text and its place indicated in the text.
  • The tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers, followed by a title (at the end no period), for ex.:
    Table 1. Characteristics of focus group participants, 1990−1995 (n = 39)
  • Horizontal rules should be indicated; vertical rules are not used.
  • Table−footnotes should be marked with superscript letters; if only one, an asterix (*) may be used.
  • Tables may be edited by the publisher to permit more compact typesetting.
  • Each table should be typed on a separate page.


  • Each figure should be mentioned in the text and its place indicated in the text.
  • The figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers.
  • Line drawings should be in a form suitable for reproduction without modification. Extremely small type should be avoided as figures are often reduced in size. Maximum width (after reduction) 115mm.
  • Photographs should be supplied as black−and−white, high contrast glossy prints.
  • Color prints may be inserted at the authors own expense.
  • All the figure−legends should be listed on one sheet. Avoid double phrasing in figure and figure legend.


All references must be closely checked to determine that dates and spelling are consistent. Please note that the names of all authors should be given in the list of References, and et al. used only in the text. The literature references should be arranged alphabetically, typed double−spaced and in the text referred to as: author(s) and year of publication, e.g.: (Quah et al. 1991; Velkoff & Kinsella 1993). Use always & for and between two authors names. Always state the full page−numbers in the Reference section. Some examples of references are
given below:
Articles in a periodical
  • Cheung, C−K., Lee, J−J. & Chan, C−M. (1994). Selfresteem and perceptions of the elderly, Social Behavior and Personality 22: 279−290.
  • Ito, K. (1979). Keisei moji to kanji shido [Phonetic compund kanji and kanji teaching], Gengo Seikatu [Linguistic Life] 326: 68−79.
  • Koyana, W. (1989). Japanese attitudes toward the elderly: A review of research findings, Journal of Cross−Cultural Gerontology 4: 335−345.
  • Serow, W.J., Friedrich, K. & Haas III, W.H. (1996). Residential relocation and regional redistribution of the elderly in the USA and Germany, Journal of Cross−Cultural Gerontology 11: 293−306.
Article in a newspaper
  • Borgman, A. (1994). Areas Asian Americans step up political activism: Korean community flexing fledging muscle, Washington Post, 1 November 1994, pp. A1, A10.
  • Chen, E.M. (1989). The Tao Te Ching. A new translation with commentary. New York: A New Era Book.
  • Gordon, V.E. (1988) Chem starost obespechim [Why we provide for the elderly]. Moscow: Mysl.
    Juiland, A., Brodin D. & Davidovitch, C. (1970). Frequency dictionary of French words. The Hague/Paris: Mouton.
  • Quah, S.R., Chiew, S.K., Ko, Y.C. & Lee, S.M., eds. (1991). Social class in Singapore. Singapore: Times Academic Publishers.
  • Rosner, J. (1979). Helping children overcome learning disabilities, 2nd edn. New York: Walker.
Chapter in a book
  • Kwong, P. & Cai, G.X. (1992). Ageing in China: Trends, problems and strategies. In D.R. Philips (ed.), Ageing in East and Southeast Asia (pp. 105−128). London: Edward Arnold.
Unpublished papers
  • Braun, K.L. (1996). Asian and Pacifir Islander Americans. Paper presented at the 42nd annual meeting of the American Society on Aging, City, State.
  • Velkoff, V. & Kinsella, K. (1993) Aging in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Washington, DC: Bureau of Census, Center for International Research. Report No. 93/1.


The author is responsible for obtaining permission from copyright owners whenever illustrations, tables, or lengthy quotes are used from previously published materials.

Copyright Transmission 

  • Copyright for all published material is held by Springer. Submission of a paper for publication implies that copyright reverts to the publisher from the author and also that the article has not been published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.
  • Permission to reproduce, in whole or in part, any material published in Journal of Cross−CulturalGerontology must be obtained from the publishers.

Proofs and Offprints 

  • When proofs are submitted to the corresponding author, it is important that the proofs be checked and returned by airmail, together with the copy−edited manuscript, to the publisher within two days after their receipt.
  • It is the author’s responsibility to guarantee that there are no technical errors.
  • Only in proof−stage is it allowed to update references of papers, submitted or in press.
  • Alterations other than typographical errors and/or misspellings must be held to a minimum; the author can be charged for the labor required to make extensive text−changes.
  • 25 offprints of each paper will be provided free of charge to the corresponding author, together with a complete issue in which the paper is published.
  • Ordering information for additional offprints will be sent with the proofs to the corresponding author, and this order−form has to be returned together with the proofs to the publisher.
A Cumulative Index of all the published Articles, the Aging trend series, and Book reviews, published during the period 1986−1995 (Volumes 1−10), including also a Cumulative Author Index, has been published in Volume 10, No. 4 (December 1995), pp. 365−394.

English Language Editing 

For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
  • Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
  • Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
  • Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.


● 请一位以英语为母语的同事审核您的稿件是否表意清晰。
● 查看一些有关英语写作中常见语言错误的教程。
● 使用专业语言编辑服务,编辑人员会对英语进行润色,以确保您的意思表达清晰,并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。


・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。


영어 원고의 경우, 에디터 및 리뷰어들이 귀하의 원고에 실린 결과물을 정확하게 평가할 수 있도록, 그들이 충분히 이해할 수 있을 만한 수준으로 작성되어야 합니다. 만약 영작문과 관련하여 도움을 받기를 원하신다면 다음의 사항들을 고려하여 주십시오:
• 귀하의 원고의 표현을 명확히 해줄 영어 원어민 동료를 찾아서 리뷰를 의뢰합니다.
• 영어 튜토리얼 페이지에 방문하여 영어로 글을 쓸 때 자주하는 실수들을 확인합니다.
• 리뷰에 대비하여, 원고의 의미를 명확하게 해주고 리뷰에서 요구하는 문제점들을 식별해서 영문 수준을 향상시켜주는 전문 영문 교정 서비스를 이용합니다. Nature Research Editing Service와 American Journal Experts에서 저희와 협약을 통해 서비스를 제공하고 있습니다. Springer 저자들이 본 교정 서비스를 첫 논문 투고를 위해 사용하시는 경우 10%의 할인이 적용되며, 아래의 링크를 통하여 확인이 가능합니다.
영문 교정 서비스는 게재를 위한 요구사항은 아니며, 해당 서비스의 이용이 피어 리뷰에 논문이 선택되거나 게재가 수락되는 것을 의미하거나 보장하지 않습니다.
원고가 수락될 경우, 출판 전 저희측 편집자에 의해 원고의 철자 및 문체를 검수하는 과정을 거치게 됩니다.

Springer Open Choice 

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription−based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springers online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please visit http://www.springeronline.com/openchoice to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription−model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors and/or changing the order of authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the reason for the change(s) and the contribution role(s) of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest 

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Although an author may not feel there are conflicts, disclosure of relationships and interests affords a more transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of real or perceived conflicts of interests is a perspective to which the readers are entitled and is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement on the title page that is separate from their manuscript, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Read this Journal on Springerlink

For authors and editors

  • Aims and Scope

    Aims and Scope


    The Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology is an international and interdisciplinary journal providing a forum for scholarly discussion of the aging process and issues of the aged throughout the world. The journal emphasizes discussions of research findings, theoretical issues, and applied approaches and provides a comparative orientation to the study of aging in cultural contexts


    The core of the journal comprises a broad range of articles dealing with global aging, written from the perspectives of history, anthropology, sociology, political science, psychology, population studies, health/biology, etc. We welcome articles that examine aging within a particular cultural context, compare aging and older adults across societies, and/or compare sub-cultural groupings or ethnic minorities within or across larger societies. Comparative analyses of topics relating to older adults, such as aging within socialist vs. capitalist systems or within societies with different social service delivery systems, also are appropriate for this journal. With societies becoming ever more multicultural and experiencing a `graying' of their population on a hitherto unprecedented scale, the Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology stands at the forefront of one of the most pressing issues of our times.

  • Submit Online
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    Instructions for Authors


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  • Copyright Information

    Copyright Information


    Copyright Information

    For Authors

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as – tacitly or explicitly – by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

    Author warrants (i) that he/she is the sole owner or has been authorized by any additional copyright owner to assign the right, (ii) that the article does not infringe any third party rights and no license from or payments to a third party is required to publish the article and (iii) that the article has not been previously published or licensed. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. Transfer of copyright to Springer (respective to owner if other than Springer) becomes effective if and when a Copyright Transfer Statement is signed or transferred electronically by the corresponding author. After submission of the Copyright Transfer Statement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted by Springer.

    The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is assigned for good and valuable consideration to Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

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    Authors may self-archive the Author's accepted manuscript of their articles on their own websites. Authors may also deposit this version of the article in any repository, provided it is only made publicly available 12 months after official publication or later. He/she may not use the publisher's version (the final article), which is posted on SpringerLink and other Springer websites, for the purpose of self-archiving or deposit. Furthermore, the Author may only post his/her version provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link is inserted to the published article on Springer's website. The link must be accompanied by the following text: "The final publication is available at link.springer.com".

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