Logo - springer
Slogan - springer

Medicine - Orthopedics | Journal of Orthopaedic Science – incl. option to publish open access

Journal of Orthopaedic Science

Journal of Orthopaedic Science

Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association

Editor-in-Chief: Takashi Nakamura

ISSN: 0949-2658 (print version)
ISSN: 1436-2023 (electronic version)

Journal no. 776

Instructions to Authors

Journal of Orthopaedic Science


The "Journal of Orthopaedic Science" is a refereed journal presenting basic and clinical articles on orthopedics and related sciences. The journal as the official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association welcomes original articles from all sources in all countries. Articles are accepted only for exclusive publication in the "Journal of Orthopaedic Science". Published articles, including figures, become the property of the journal.

Manuscript submission via Editorial Manager 

Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing time and shortens overall publication time. Please go directly to the site http://www.editorialmanager.com/orth and upload all your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen. Please use the Help option to see the most recently updated system requirements. An outline of the submission process is described in the final section of these instructions.

Copyright agreement and submission letter 

A copyright agreement signed by all authors and containing the following paragraph must accompany each manuscript: "The undersigned author(s) transfer(s) all copyright ownership of the article entitled [title of article] to the Journal of Orthopaedic Science in the event the work is published. The undersigned author(s) warrant(s) that the article is original, is not under consideration by another journal, and has not been published previously. We sign for and accept responsibility for releasing this material." (This form can be downloaded. http://www.springer.com/medicine/
When submitting a paper, the author(s) must make a full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as prior or duplicate publication of the same or very similar work. Copies of such material should be included with the submitted paper to help the editor decide how to deal with the matter. A scanned file (PDF, TIFF, or JPEG) of these forms may be uploaded as a file at the time of online submission. Alternatively, they may also be sent to the editorial office by fax, postal mail, or e-mail at the same time you submit your manuscripts via Editorial Manager.
Editorial office:
Takashi Nakamura, M.D., Ph.D., Editor-in-Chief, The Japanese Orthopaedic Association Secretariat Office, 40-8 Hongo 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8418, Japan
Phone +81-3-3816-3671 Fax +81-3-3818-2337
e-mail: takamatsu@joa.or.jp
IMPORTANT: Upon receipt of the Copyright Agreement and Submission Letter, manuscripts are officially recognized as submissions.

Instructions for manuscript preparation  

Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English should seek the assistance of a colleague who is a native English speaker and familiar with the field of the work. Authors are advised to follow the recommendations in the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication" proposed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org).
Manuscripts must be typed double (not 1.5) -spaced with wide margins on A4 paper. The manuscript parts should be in the following order, with each section beginning on a new page: title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, figure captions, and figures. Number all pages in the bottom right corner beginning with the title page.
For reports on randomized control studies, authors should refer to the CONSORT statement (www.consort-statement.org).
Standard abbreviations and SI units should be used. Define abbreviations at first appearance in the text, figure captions, and tables, and avoid their use in the title and abstract. Use generic names of drugs and chemicals.
Double-blind submission:
Because this journal follows a double-blind review policy, author information should not be included in the main document. Authors should submit the title page, the main document, and the acknowledgments separately. In order to allow a completely blinded peer review, the "Journal of Orthopaedic Science" requests that authors not include in the abstract or text the name or initials of the authors or the institution at which the study was performed. Refer to your own published work in the third person. Use "In the previous work of Author name et al. [2]", not "In our previous work [2]."

Text formatting: Manuscripts should be submitted in Word 

• Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
• Use italics for emphasis.
• Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
• Do not use fi eld functions.
• Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
• Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.

Title page 

The title should be concise but sufficiently informative to make electronic retrieval of the manuscript both effective and specific. Include important information such as the study design, i.e., clinical or basic, and in particular indicate if the study is a randomized control trial. The page should contain the article title, the full names of the authors including only major qualification such as M.D. or Ph.D., and the complete postal address of the department and institution where the work was done. A running title not exceeding 35 letters and spaces should be provided. Designate one author as a correspondent and supply his or her complete postal address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address. If the name or address for offprint requests is different, this should be stated. Every person listed as an author should have materially participated in the design, execution, and analysis of the study and should verify the accuracy of the entire manuscript before its submission. Lesser contributors may be noted in an acknowledgment section at the end of the manuscript.

Main document 

The main document should be organized as follows: abstract, text, references, and figure captions.
  • Abstract
The abstract should be structured and contain no more than 300 words. Please bear in mind that the abstract and the title form the substantively informative portion of the article for purposes of indexing on electronic databases. The structured abstract should consist of four paragraphs: Background (including a clear description of the primary interest, purpose and context of the research), Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The abstract should be typed on a separate page, and should not include abbreviations, footnotes, statistical significance values, or references. No abstract is needed for a case report.
  • Text
The length of the text and references should not exceed 15 pages of double-spaced type. The number of figures and tables together should not exceed 20. The text of the article is usually, but not necessarily, divided into sections with the headings Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Long articles may need section subheadings to clarify their content. Do not repeat in the text all data that appear in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. A conclusion may be included in the summary paragraph of the Discussion only if it is not redundant.
  • Ethics
It is the responsibility of the authors to assure that all clinical investigations detailed in manuscripts submitted to the "Journal of Orthopaedic Science" are conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html). All case reports must include a statement indicating that informed consent has been obtained from the patient or appropriate persons for publication, including any necessary photographs. An example of such a statement would be "The patients and/or their families were informed that data from the case would be submitted for publication, and gave their consent." Do not use patients' names, initials, institutional ID numbers, or other identifying information. Articles, including their study design, originating from a particular institution are assumed to be submitted with the approval of the requisite authority on ethical issues. Articles describing research involving human subjects must include a statement in the Materials and methods section indicating that approval was given by the institutional review board (IRB) and that informed consent was obtained from each patient or candidate. Manuscripts reporting animal experiments must include a statement in the Materials and methods section indicating that approval was obtained from the institutional review board and that animal care complied with the guidelines of the authors' institution or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals. If the submitted manuscript describes original nucleotide sequence data, these data should be submitted to GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank) by the authors, and the accession number should be included in the submitted manuscript.
  • Statistics
Statistical methods should be described with sufficient detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals).
  • References
Authors are responsible for verifying the accuracy and completeness of the references. The number of references should not exceed 30. The style of the references should follow the MEDLINE/PubMed Journal Article Citation Format found at the National Center for Bibliography Information [NCBI] Web site (www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/policy/cit_format.html), where specific reference citations can be searched for.
If a non-English-language reference is listed, the original language should be indicated, as shown in the following sample:
Journal article not in English
Otani T, Hayashi S, Ueno Y, Hayashi H, Kato T, Tamegai H, Fujii K. Long-term radiographic evaluation of muscle release operation for arthritis of the hip: comparison study between the results of muscle release and the natural history of osteoarthritis. Rinshou Seikeigeka (Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery) 2004; 39:921–6 (in Japanese).
The list of references should be numbered according to the sequence of citation in the text. References should be cited in the text by numbers in square brackets. Abbreviations of journal names must conform to those used in MEDLINE/PubMed.
Avoid using abstracts as references. In the references, do not list personal communications and unpublished material (including oral and poster presentations and manuscripts not yet accepted for publication). If critical to the manuscript’s message, written personal communications and other unpublished material may be cited in the text and referenced in parentheses. Include with the submitted manuscript signed verification from the originator of any personal communication.
  • Figure captions
Figure captions (not exceeding 40 words per caption) should be typed double-spaced on a separate page. Do not use a separate page for each caption. All abbreviations should be defined at first use, even if already defined in the text. All characters and symbols appearing in the figure should also be defined.
  • Conflict-of-interest policy
All authors are expected to disclose any commercial affiliations as well as consultancies, stock ownership, or patent-licensing arrangements that could be considered to pose a conflict of interest regarding the submitted article. A conflict-of-interest statement will be forwarded to the corresponding author for signature upon acceptance of the manuscript. The signature of all authors is required. No article will be published until return of the completed form to the journal office.


Tables should be given a brief, informative title and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Type each table double-spaced on a separate page. Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables. Tables must be no larger than a single sheet of A4 paper. The table number and title should appear above the table, and the definition of all abbreviations, levels of statistical significance, and additional information should appear below the table.


Figures should be cited consecutively in the text. Include an internal scale in any micrographs or provide the magnification in the caption. Professionally produced arrows should be used to highlight the photograph's message and the illustration should be of a professional standard. If photographs of persons are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or the subject's or guardian's written permission to use the photograph must accompany the manuscript. When submitting a figure that has appeared elsewhere, give full information about previous publication and the credits to be included, and submit the written permission of the author and the publisher. The previously published source should also be included in the list of references.
For more information about preparing illustrations, please refer to the artwork guidelines available at the end of this document.

Special features 

  • Invited articles
Invited articles such as Editorials, Invited reviews, and Instructional lectures should be submitted through Editorial Manager. The submission process is described below. Details of manuscript preparation are described in the letter of invitation sent by the Editor-in-Chief.
  • Rapid short communications
Concise articles of a very notable and original nature may be submitted as Rapid short communications. The length of the text, acknowledgments, and references should not exceed six double-spaced pages (two printed pages). An abstract is not required. One figure and/or a table may be included in this type of article. The criterion for acceptance is rigid; if extensive revision is required, the submission will lose its rapid communication status.
  • Case reports
Case reports will be considered for publication if they contribute to an understanding of the diagnosis, treatment, and/or pathogenesis of diseases related to orthopedic surgery; however, the acceptance rate of case reports is low in comparison to that of original articles. Manuscripts should include the headings Introduction, Report of the case, and Discussion. Do not forget to clearly indicate that consent for publication has been obtained from the patient or his/her nearest relative.
  • Review articles
These are commissioned, as authors are invited by the editor to contribute review articles.
  • Letters to the editor
Letters to the editor of sufficient interest about published articles will be considered for publication. Letters should be typed double-spaced and limited to 1000 words. A copy of the letter will be sent to the previous article’s author(s) to invite a response.
  • Editorial policies
Statements and opinions expressed in articles and communications are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the editor or the publisher. The editor and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material.
  • Japanese authors
Japanese authors are requested to submit title and abstract pages in Japanese as attached pages via Editorial Manager together with the manuscript. The style should be structured and the length of the abstract in Japanese should not exceed 1200 letters; one figure or table can be attached. The names or initials of the authors or the institution at which the study was performed should not be included.

Electronic supplementary material 

Electronic supplementary material will be published in the online version only. It may consist of
-Information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings
-Information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.
-Large original data, e.g., additional tables, illustrations, etc.
  • Submission
-Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
-Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
-To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
  • Audio, video, and animations
-Always use MPEG-1 (.mpg) format.
  • Text and presentations
-Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
-A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
  • Spreadsheets
-Spreadsheets should be converted to PDF if no interaction with the data is intended.
-If the readers should be encouraged to make their own calculations, spreadsheets should be submitted as .xls files (MS Excel).
  • Specialized formats
-Specialized formats such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
  • Collecting multiple files
-It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
  • Numbering
-If any supplementary material is supplied, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
-Refer to the supplementary files as "Online Resource", e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", "... additional data are given in Online Resource 4".
-Name the files consecutively, e.g. "ESM_3.mpg", "ESM_4.pdf".
  • Captions
-For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
  • Processing of supplementary files
-Electronic supplementary material will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
  • Accessibility
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
-The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
-Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)

After acceptance 

Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page. Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs. You will also receive a separate e-mail for ordering offprints and printing of figures in color.

Open Choice 

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles. Springer Open Choice [http://springer.com/openchoice]


Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.

Color illustrations 

Online publication of color illustrations is free of charge. For color in the print version, authors will be expected to make a contribution towards the extra costs (152,000 yen per article). Otherwise the figures will be printed in black and white. Please note that, in such cases, it is the authors’ responsibility to prepare figures to be illustrative enough to convey the necessary information even after they are converted into black and white.

Proof reading 

The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables, and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title, and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor. After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.

Online First 

The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

Artwork guidelines 

  • Electronic figure submission
-Supply all figures electronically.
-Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
-For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.
-Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
-Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
  • Line art
-Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
-Do not use faint lines and/or lettering, and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
-All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
-Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
-Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
  • Halftone art
-Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
-If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
-Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
  • Combination art
-Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
-Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
  • Color art
-Color art is free of charge for online publication.
-If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
-If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
-Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
  • Figure lettering
-To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans-serif fonts).
-Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
-Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
-Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
-Do not include titles or captions in your illustrations.
  • Figure Numbering
-All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
-Figures should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
-Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
-If an appendix appears in your article/chapter and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices (Electronic supplementary material) should, however, be numbered separately.
  • Figure captions
-Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
-Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
-No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
-Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
-Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
  • Figure placement and size
-When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
-For most journals the figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge figures.


If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.


In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
-All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
-Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (color-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
-Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.

Read this Journal on Springerlink

For authors and editors

  • Journal Citation Reports®
    2015 Impact Factor
  • 1.154
  • English Language Editing

    English Language Editing


  • Author Academy: Training for Authors
  • Copyright Information

    Copyright Information


    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institute where the work has been carried out: that, if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright; and that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright holders.

    All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, where covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article (e.g. as offprints) as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic data bases, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from The Japanese Orthopaedic Association.

    The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. While the advice and information in this journal is believed to be true and accurate at the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

    Special regulation for photocopies in the USA: Photocopies may be made for personal or in-house use beyond the limitations stipulated under Section 107 or 108 of US Copyright Law, provided a fee is paid. This fee is US$0.20 per page per copy, plus a basic fee of US$2.00 per article. All fees should be paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA, stating the ISSN number, the volume, and the first and last page numbers of each article copied. The copyright owner’s consent does not include copying for general distribution, promotion, new works, or resale. In these cases, specific written permission must first be obtained from the publisher.

    Other regulations: Authors publishing in this journal can, under certain conditions, benefit from library and photocopy fees collected by VG WORT. Authors of Germany nationality and citizens of Austria, Switzerland and member countries of the European Community, may apply to VG WORT, Abteilung Wissenschaft, Goethestrasse 49, D-8000 München 2, for detailed information.


    © The Japanese Orthopaedic Association