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Medicine - Internal Medicine | Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism – incl. option to publish open access

Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

Editors-in-Chief: T. Matsumoto; T. Yoneda

ISSN: 0914-8779 (print version)
ISSN: 1435-5604 (electronic version)

Journal no. 774

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Instructions for Authors

Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

August 2, 2017

Editorial Policies 

The Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism (JBMM) publishes:
(1) original articles
(2) review articles
(3) perspective
(4) case reports
(5) rapid communications
(6) short communications
Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have not been published or submitted for publication in whole or part elsewhere. This restriction does not apply to abstracts published in connection with scientific meetings. All papers are reviewed by at least two referees, and acceptance is decided by the editorial board of the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Japanese Society for Bone Morphometry.

All correspondence should be sent to: 

Editorial Office, Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
c/o Academic Square Co., Ltd.
2-348-302 Ryogae-machi, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8082, Japan
Tel 81-75-468-8772; Fax 81-75-468-8773
e-mail: jbmm@ac-square.co.jp
Prerequisites for publication: A Certification Form, included in each issue, and which also may be downloaded from: http://www.springer.com/774, must be signed by all authors and be scanned and uploaded through Editorial Manager at the same time you submit your manuscript.
IMPORTANT: Upon receipt of a Certification Form, manuscripts are officially recognized as submissions.

Manuscript Submission via Editorial Manager 

Authors should submit their manuscripts to JBMM online. Please log in directly at: https://www.editorialmanager.com/jbmm and upload your manuscript following the instructions given. If you encounter any difficulties while submitting your manuscript online, click on Help in the upper left corner.

Editorial Manager Requirements: 

Please use the Help option to see the most recently updated system requirements.
Electronic files of the manuscript text
Electronic files of the manuscript figures and illustrations

Author Accounts 

Authors entering the journal’s Editorial Manager site can either create a new account or use an existing one. When you have an existing account, use it for all your submissions;
you can track their status on the same page.
If you have forgotten your username and password, please click the link “Send Username/Password” and enter your mail address. You will then receive an automatic e-mail with your user name and password. Alternatively, please create a new account and then follow the instructions given on the screen.

Getting Started 

Once you have logged into your account, Editorial Manager will lead you through the submission process in an orderly, step-by-step process. If you cannot finish your submission in one visit, you can save a draft and re-enter the process later at the same point for that manuscript.
While submitting your electronic manuscript, you will be required to enter data about your manuscript in the system. These include full title, author names and affiliations, and so forth, as listed below under Preparation of Manuscripts. Support for special characters is available.

Uploading Files 

  • Main Documents: Main documents of articles should be uploaded in rich text format (.rtf) or as a Microsoft Word document (.doc).
  • Tables: Use the table functions of your word-processing
    program, not spreadsheets, to make tables. Tables may be uploaded separately from the main document or inserted into
    the main document.
  • Figures: Common graphic files such as GIF, JPEG, EPS, and TIFF are supported. Please upload figures that are satisfactory for the review process. If your manuscript is accepted for publication, you will be required to provide figures/illustrations of sufficient quality for printing according to Requirements for Electronically Produced Illustrations for Accepted Papers toward the end of these instructions.
After uploading the parts of the article in this manner, the system will convert the files to PDF format. You can view the result of the conversion with Adobe Acrobat Reader. You will also be notified by e-mail that your submission was successful.
At any point during this process, there are Help buttons available to see frequently asked questions.
If the total size of the files exceeds the file volume (20 MB) for online submission, reduce the resolution of large files for initial submission.

Keeping Track 

After submission, you may return and monitor the progress of your submission through the review process.

Statement of Human and Animal Rights 

When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that should be added in a separate section before the reference list that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. If these statements are not applicable, authors should state: The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included:
“All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, Springer recommends including the following sentence:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”
For retrospective studies, please add the following sentence:
“For this type of study formal consent is not required.”

Informed consent 

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies e.g. have the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered and to what they have said e.g. during a study or an interview as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) has given written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”
The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements dealing with ethical concerns. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.

Preparation of Manuscripts 

Manuscripts should be double-spaced. Leave margins of approximately 3 cm on the sides, top, and bottom of the page.
Three manuscript pages correspond to about one printed page. The title page should include the authors’ names, addresses, and affiliations. Please indicate the name, address, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the author who is to receive correspondence. Provide up to five key words.
Articles should have the following format: Title page, text, conflict of interest, references, tables, figure legends, and artwork. Number pages consecutively. Consult a current issue of the journal for the exact format.
1. Original Articles
The text should be composed of: abstract of not more than 250 words, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and acknowledgments.
The text should be kept to within approximately 24 double-spaced pages of 12-point Times Roman text, including the manuscript, references, figures, figure legends, tables, and table footnotes.
2. Review Articles
The editorial board invites selected investigators to submit review articles. Review articles should be about five to ten printed pages including figures, tables, and references. They may cover any area of clinical or basic science. Abstracts are not required: a concluding summary paragraph is preferred.
3. Perspectives
Perspectives are more focused than reviews and may be accepted from a single individual or team. Perspectives may be solicited or proposed. Proposed perspectives must be approved by the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission.
JBMM will not review perspectives that have not been approved by the Editor-in-Chief. Perspectives should review a particular field to identify outstanding issues and challenges and propose new hypotheses.
Please note that any Perspective will be subject to the standard review process.
4. Case Reports
Because of the very limited number of pages available for case reports in each issue, please note that in principle we do not accept such reports. We highly recommend that they be submitted, instead, as "Letters to the Editor". If accepted, case reports should be from three to five printed pages and may be accompanied by two figures (illustrations, micrographs, etc.) or tables. They may describe a single case or a small series of cases. Case reports that draw attention to important clinical situations, unusual clinical phenomena, or a new treatment or complication are the most appropriate. A brief summary is required.
5. Rapid Communications
Because of the very limited number of pages available for rapid communications in each issue, please note that in principle we do not accept such communications. The opportunity is provided only to authors who should rapidly publish data that they consider to be particularly novel or valuable. Rapid communications should not exceed three printed pages including figures, tables, and references.
6. Short Communications
Because of the very limited number of pages available for short communications in each issue, please note that in principle we do not accept such communications. In exceptional cases we accept short communications that provide new insights and are of high impact. They should not exceed four printed pages and they need not be restricted to the formal organization of regular papers. A brief summary is required.
7. Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor should contribute constructively and substantively to scientific dialogue, and should concern timely and important issues raised in articles recently published in the JBMM. Letters to the Editor should not exceed one printed page. No figures or tables may be included. Letters need not be restricted to the formal organization of regular papers.

Tables and Illustrations 

Prepare each table (with its title) on a separate page. Use Arabic numerals to number tables. Each table must be able to stand alone, i.e., it must contain enough information to be understood independently of the text. Details of experimental conditions, statistical significance, and the definition of all abreviations should be included in the table footnotes. Information that appears in the text should not be repeated in detail in the tables, and tables should not contain data that can be given in the text in one or two sentences.
All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals. Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.). If illustrations are supplied with uppercase labeling, lowercase letters will still be used in the figure captions and citations.For all figures, double-spaced figure legends should be supplied on a separate page. Magnifications should be included when appropriate, and all abbreviations must be defined.
All tables and figures must be cited in order in the text.
If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge its source and submit written permission from the author and publisher. The previously published source should also be included in the list of references.

Abbreviations and Nomenclature 

Abbreviations and nomenclature should follow the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the International Union of Biochemistry at the web sites, http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/jcbn/. All quantities stated should conform to the International System of Units (SI units). The list of abbreviations in Endocrinology 138: 1 (January 1997) is generally acceptable in JBMM. Drug names should always be generic. Please give the name and location (city, state, country) of the manufacturer of any equipment referred to in your manuscript.


Number references consecutively in the order cited in the text using square brackets:—as shown by Suzuki et al. [1], Fujita et al. [2], Brown and Roberts [3].
References should be listed in numerical order at the end of the article. References should include the names of all authors when 19 or less; when 20 or more, list only the first 5 names and add et al.
References should also include the full title. Journal titles should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus and inclusive page numbers should be supplied.
The styling of the reference list for
1.journal articles
2.journal articles in Japanese
4.and chapters in edited books
is as follows:
1. Tezuka K, Wada Y, Takahashi A (2005) Computersimulated bone architecture in a simple bone-remodeling model based on a reaction-diffusion system. J Bone Miner Metab 23:1–7
2. Ishida Y (1998) Studies on induction mechanism of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine especially on the cultured cells from the human spinal ligament (in Japanese). Nippon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi (J Jpn Orthop Assoc) 62:1019–1027
3. Takahashi HE (1999) Mechanical Loading of Bones and Joints. Springer, Tokyo
4. Suzuki F (1994) Regulation of cartilage differentiation and metabolism. In: Heersche JNM, Kanis JA (eds) Bone and Mineral Research 8. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 115–142

Artwork Guideline 

Electronic Figure Submission
• Supply all figures electronically.
• Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
• For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use
TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.
• Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the
• Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
Line Art
• Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
• Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
• All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
• Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
• Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
Halftone Art
• Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
• If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
• Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
Combination Art
• Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
• Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
Color Art
• Color art is free of charge for online publication.
• If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary
distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
• If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
• Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
Figure Lettering
• To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
• Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
• Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
• Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
• Do not include titles or captions into your illustrations.
Figure Numbering
• All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
• Figures should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
• Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
• If an appendix appears in your article/chapter and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices (Electronic supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered separately.
Figure Captions
• Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
• Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
• No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
• Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
• Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
Figure Placement and Size
• When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
• For most journals the figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
• For books and book-sized journals, the figures should be 80 mm or 122 mm wide and not higher than 198 mm.
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
• All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
• Patterns are used instead or in addition to colors for conveying information (color-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
• Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.

Electronic Supplementary Material 

Electronic supplementary material will be published in the online version only.
It may consist of
- Information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings
- Information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.
- Large original data, e.g. additional tables, illustrations, etc.
- Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
- Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
- To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
Audio, Video, and Animations
- Always use MPEG-1 (.mpg) format.
Text and Presentations
- Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
- A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
- Spreadsheets should be converted to PDF if no interaction with the data is intended.
- If the readers should be encouraged to make their own calculations, spreadsheets should be submitted as .xls files (MS Excel).
Specialized Formats
- Specialized formats such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
Collecting Multiple Files
- It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
- If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
- Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
- Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.
- For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
Processing of supplementary files
- Electronic supplementary material will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
- The manuscript contain a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
- Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)

Conflict of Interest Policy 

Authors are required to disclose commercial or similar relationships to products or companies mentioned in or related to the subject matter of the article being submitted. Affiliations of authors should include corporate appointments relating to or in connection with products or companies mentioned in the article, or otherwise bearing on the subject matter thereof. Sources of funding for the article should be included in the acknowledgments. Other pertinent financial relationships, such as consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interests or patent-licensing arrangements, should be disclosed in the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, on a separate conflict of interest page in the manuscript (see below for examples of how to format the conflict of interest page in your manuscript) and on the conflict of interest form accompanying the article at the time of submission. The conflict of interest form, which is available at: http://www.springer.com/774, should be signed, scanned, and submitted through Editorial Manager. The conflicts of interest disclosed on the conflict of interest form should be the same as those disclosed on the conflict of interest page in the manuscript. Questions about this policy should be directed to the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note: When considered necessary, the raw data of a manuscript will be requested to be submitted and examined by a third-party.
The conflict of interest page should take the form of a statement as shown in the following examples.
- Dr. YYYYY serves as a consultant for Company X.
- Dr. XXXXX is an employee of Company Y.
- Dr. XXXXX owns stock in Company Z.
- All other authors have no conflicts of interest.
- If no author has a conflict, the statement should read “All authors have no conflicts of interest.”

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors and/or changing the order of authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the reason for the change(s) and the contribution role(s) of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

After acceptance 

Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order offprints or printing of figures in color. Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
Copyright transfer
Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer. This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws.
Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
Color illustrations
Online publication of color illustrations is free of charge. For color in the print version, authors will be expected to make a contribution towards the extra costs (€950 per article). If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
Proof reading
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor. After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
Online First
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
Commercial bulk printing from the online publication site is strictly prohibited
Springer is implementing certain technical restrictions on PDF files published online to prevent the printing of bulk copies commercially. We will be forced to take legal action,
i.e. sue for damages, if evidence of such misuse of online publications is discovered.

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For authors and editors

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  • Aims and Scope

    Aims and Scope


    The Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism (JBMM) provides an international forum for researchers and clinicians to present and discuss topics relevant to bone, teeth, and mineral metabolism, as well as joint and musculoskeletal disorders. The journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts from any country. Membership in the society is not a prerequisite for submission. Acceptance is based on the originality, significance, and validity of the material presented. The journal is aimed at researchers and clinicians dedicated to improvements in research, development, and patient-care in the fields of bone and mineral metabolism.    

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  • Instructions for Authors

    Instructions for Authors


  • Certification Form (pdf, 33 kB)
  • Conflict of Interest Form (pdf, 34 kB)
  • Submission information

    How to submit your manuscript


  • English Language Editing

    English Language Editing


  • Author Academy: Training for Authors
  • Copyright Information

    Copyright Information


    Copyright Information

    For Authors

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as – tacitly or explicitly – by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

    Author warrants (i) that he/she is the sole owner or has been authorized by any additional copyright owner to assign the right, (ii) that the article does not infringe any third party rights and no license from or payments to a third party is required to publish the article and (iii) that the article has not been previously published or licensed. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. Transfer of copyright to Springer (respective to owner if other than Springer) becomes effective if and when a Copyright Transfer Statement is signed or transferred electronically by the corresponding author. After submission of the Copyright Transfer Statement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted by Springer.

    The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is assigned for good and valuable consideration to Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

    The copyright assignment includes without limitation the exclusive, assignable and sublicensable right, unlimited in time and territory, to reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, make available and store the article, including abstracts thereof, in all forms of media of expression now known or developed in the future, including pre- and reprints, translations, photographic reproductions and microform. Springer may use the article in whole or in part in electronic form, such as use in databases or data networks for display, print or download to stationary or portable devices. This includes interactive and multimedia use and the right to alter the article to the extent necessary for such use.

    Authors may self-archive the Author's accepted manuscript of their articles on their own websites. Authors may also deposit this version of the article in any repository, provided it is only made publicly available 12 months after official publication or later. He/she may not use the publisher's version (the final article), which is posted on SpringerLink and other Springer websites, for the purpose of self-archiving or deposit. Furthermore, the Author may only post his/her version provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link is inserted to the published article on Springer's website. The link must be accompanied by the following text: "The final publication is available at link.springer.com".

    Prior versions of the article published on non-commercial pre-print servers like arXiv.org can remain on these servers and/or can be updated with Author's accepted version. The final published version (in pdf or html/xml format) cannot be used for this purpose. Acknowledgement needs to be given to the final publication and a link must be inserted to the published article on Springer's website, accompanied by the text "The final publication is available at link.springer.com". Author retains the right to use his/her article for his/her further scientific career by including the final published journal article in other publications such as dissertations and postdoctoral qualifications provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication.

    Author is requested to use the appropriate DOI for the article. Articles disseminated via link.springer.com are indexed, abstracted and referenced by many abstracting and information services, bibliographic networks, subscription agencies, library networks, and consortia.

    For Readers

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