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Medicine - Internal Medicine | Journal of Gastroenterology – incl. option to publish open access

Journal of Gastroenterology

Journal of Gastroenterology

Editor-in-Chief: Akira Andoh
Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Yoshiyuki Ueno

ISSN: 0944-1174 (print version)
ISSN: 1435-5922 (electronic version)

Journal no. 535

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Instructions to Authors

Journal of Gastroenterology

Revised May 10, 2017

Aims and Scope 

The Journal of Gastroenterology, which is the official publication of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology, publishes Original Articles (Alimentary Tract/Liver, Pancreas, and Biliary Tract), Review Articles, Letters to the Editors and other articles on all aspects of the field of gastroenterology. Significant contributions relating to basic research, theory, and practice are welcomed. These publications are designed to disseminate knowledge in this field to a worldwide audience, and accordingly, its editorial board has an international membership.

Prerequisites for Publication 

The editors of the Journal of Gastroenterology abide by the recommendations formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org/). A Certificate of Exclusive Submission and Disclosure of Conflict of Interest, available on-line (http://www.springer.com/535), must be submitted to the journal's editorial office by uploading it as a PDF via Editorial Manager.
IMPORTANT: Upon receipt of a Certificate of Exclusive Submission and Disclosure of Conflict of Interest, manuscripts are officially recognized as submissions.

Ethical Standards 

Manuscripts submitted for publication must contain a statement to the effect that all human studies have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
It should also be stated clearly in the text that all persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. Details that might disclose the identity of the subjects under study should be omitted. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements. Authors should also follow the guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals of their institution or national animal welfare committee.

Disclosed Potential Conflict of Interest 

When submitting a manuscript to the Journal of Gastroenterology, all authors are required to disclose any financial relationship within the last 3 years with biotechnology manufacturers, a pharmaceutical companies, or other commercial entity that has any interest in the subject matter, materials, or process(es) discussed in the manuscript.
The matters requiring disclosure are outlined in the JSGE Conflict of Interest Policy, available on-line at http://www.jsge.or.jp/english/journal (V. Matters for COI disclosure and disclosure standards)
If you, your spouse, or other immediate family member has any of the listed relationships with a commercial entity that has an interest in the subject matter in your manuscript, please refer to the JSGE’s definition of potential conflicts of interest that must be disclosed. Corresponding author must submit the Certificate of Exclusive Submission and Disclosure of Conflict of Interest Form with all authors' signatures, and upload with your manuscript.
COI Disclosure Form
The COI disclosure statement form, available online (http://www.springer.com/535), must be uploaded in PDF format with your manuscript. Whether conflict of interest exists or not, this disclosure statement will be inserted between the acknowledgement and reference section in the article once accepted.

Clinical Trials Registration 

For research that started after September 1st, 2015, the journal requires all clinical trials that prospectively assign human subjects to medical interventions, comparison groups, or control groups for the purpose of examining the potential health effects of such interventions, to be registered in one of several free, publicly accessible, non-profit electronically searchable databases such as the one administered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is located at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Submitted manuscripts must include the unique registration number in the abstract as evidence of registration. For details regarding the required minimal registration data set, please go to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) site at http://www.icmje.org/#clin_trials.
The journal accepts registration in the following registries:
  • http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (Clinical Trials)
  • http://actr.org.au (Australian Clinical Trials Registry)
  • http://isrctn.org (ISRCTN Register)
  • http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp (Netherlands Trial Register)
  • http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry)

Manuscript Submission 

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
  • Permissions:
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for publication of both the print and online format. (and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers.)
  • Manuscript Submission via Editorial Manager:
Corresponding authors should submit their manuscripts online (http://www.editorialmanager.com/joga/) to facilitate even quicker and more efficient processing. Please note that all correspondence, including proofs for checking and offprint orders, will be sent to the email address of the submitting account via Editorial Manager.
Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing time and shortens overall publication time. In case you encounter any difficulties while submitting your manuscript online, click on the Get Help Now icon in the upper right corner of your screen.
  • Author Accounts:
Authors entering the journal’s Editorial Manager site can either create a new account or use an existing one. If you already have an account, use it for all your submissions; you can track their status on the same page. If you have forgotten your user ID and password, please enter your mail address in Password Help. You will then receive an automatic e-mail with your user ID and password.
  • Getting Started:
Once you have logged into your account, Editorial Manager will lead you through the submission process in an orderly, step-by-step process. If you cannot finish your submission in one visit, you can save a draft and re-enter the process later at the same point for that manuscript. While submitting your electronic manuscript, you will be required to enter data about your manuscript in the system. These include full title of the paper, author names and affiliations, and so forth. Support for special font characters is available. At any point during this process, there are Help buttons available for frequently asked questions.

Types of Papers 

Please specify the word count of the manuscript on the title page based on the word limit for each type of paper.
  • Review Articles:
• Word limit: not more than 6,000 words (not including references)
• Abstract (unstructured): not more than 250 words
• References: A maximum of 150 references are permitted
• Figures/Tables: at least 1 figure or table
  • Original Articles:
The Journal of Gastroenterology publishes Alimentary Tract /Liver, Pancreas, and Biliary Tract.
• Word limit: not more than 6,000 words (including references)
• Abstract: not more than 250 words
• Figures/Tables: no more than a combined total of 7 figures and/or tables
Figures/tables exceeding the limit should be submitted as Electronic Supplementary Material.
  • Letters to the Editor:
The Journal of Gastroenterology welcomes letters to the editor, provided they are related to previously published articles in this journal, and in such cases a copy of the letter will be sent to the previous article’s author(s) to invite a response.
• Word limit: not more than 500 words (including references)
• Figures/Tables: not accepted
  • Other Articles (for editorial):
Other articles cannot exceed 800 words, not including references.

Main Documents 

The documents should be uploaded in Microsoft Word format (DOC/DOCX).
Manuscripts must be typed double-spaced with wide margins. The title page, abstract, key words, text, acknowledgments and references should begin on separate sheets and follow that order. Incomplete or improperly prepared manuscripts will be returned to authors without review.All manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English should seek the assistance of a colleague who is a native English speaker and is familiar with the field of work.
  • Title Page:
The title page should include:
• The full name(s) of the author(s)
• A concise and informative title
• The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
• Short title (not exceeding 40 letters and spaces)
• Word count of the manuscript
  • Abstract:
A structured abstract of not more than 250 words is required if not specified.
It should be divided into the following sections:
• Background
• Methods
• Results
• Conclusions
  • Keywords:
Please provide 3 to 5 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.
  • Abbreviations:
Standard abbreviations and units should be used. Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.
  • Footnotes:
Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference.
  • Text:
The body of the article should be divided into four sections:
• Introduction: The Introduction should state the purpose of the work and provide a concise summary of the rationale for the study or observation.
• Methods: In Methods, observational or experimental subjects should be described clearly. Generic names should be used for drug names. If authors so desire, brand names may be inserted in parentheses. The methods should be stated in sufficient detail to allow other researchers to reproduce the results. The statistical methods used should be outlined in enough detail to enable knowledgeable readers with access to the original data to verify the reported results.
• Results: Results should present findings in a logical sequence, with the minimum number of tables and illustrations necessary for summarizing only important observations.
• Discussion: In the Discussion, new and important findings should be discussed with reference to other reported work, and conclusions should be added. Data and other material provided in the Introduction or the Results section should not be repeated in the Discussion section.
  • Acknowledgments:
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chairperson who provided only general support. Editors should ask corresponding authors to declare whether they had assistance with study design, data collection, data analysis, or manuscript preparation. If such assistance was available, the authors should disclose the identity of the individuals who provided this assistance and the entity that supported it in the published article. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Groups of persons who have contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be listed under such headings as "clinical investigators" or "participating investigators," and their function or contribution should be described—for example, "served as scientific advisors," "critically reviewed the study proposal," "collected data," or "provided and cared for study patients."
  • Reference:
- Citation: Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Some examples:
1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3].
2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman [5].
3. This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].
- Reference list:
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Number references consecutively in the order cited in the text. Accuracy of reference data is the author’s responsibility.
Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. If such a citation is from someone other than the author(s), a letter should be submitted in which the direct quotation is given with the signature of the person quoted. Unpublished papers accepted elsewhere may be included in the list by designating the journal followed by (In press) in parentheses. Provide inclusive page numbers for all references. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. In article citations, list the first three authors only and add “et al.”
In principle, only materials published in English can be used as references. When absolutely unavoidable, papers published in a language other than English may be used, but only if they have an English abstract.
• Journal article
– Smith JJ. The world of science. Am J Sci. 1999; 36:234–5.
– Parkin DM, Clayton D, Black RJ, et al. Childhood leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: 5-year follow-up. Br J Cancer. 1996;73:1006–12.
• Article by DOI
Slifka MK, Whitton JL. Clinical implications of dysregulatedcytokine production. J Mol Med. 2000; doi:10.1007/s001090000086
• Book
Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P. Symptoms in the pharmacy: a guideto the management of common illness. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998.
• Book chapter
Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR. Cell death: the significance ofapoptosis. In: Bourne GH, Danielli JF, Jeon KW, editors. International review of cytology. London: Academic; 1980. pp. 251–306.
• Online document
Doe J. Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. 1999. http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document. Accessed 15 Jan 1999.
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php


• Use the table functions of your word-processing program, not spreadsheets, to make tables. Tables may be uploaded separately from the main document or inserted into the main document.
• All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
• Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
• For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
• Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
• Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lowercase letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.


• All figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals.
• Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters. If illustrations are supplied with upper case labeling, lower case letters will still be used in the figure legends and citations.
• Figures should be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
• For each figure, please supply a figure legend (caption).
• All elements in the figure should be identified in the legend.
• Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the legend.
• Acceptable formats:
- MS Office files (DOC/DOCX)
• Minimum Resolutions:
- Halftone images (e.g. Photographs with fine shading): 300 dpi
- Line art (e.g. Black and white graphic with no shading): 1200 dpi
After acceptance for publication, you will be required to provide figures/illustrations of sufficient quality for printing.
For more information about preparing figures electronically, follow the link (http://www.springer.com/535) for Artwork in the right-hand column under “Instructions to authors”. To see the instructions, click to the gray arrow.

Electronic Supplementary Material (for publication) 

Electronic Supplementary Material (ESM) for a paper will be published in the electronic edition of this journal. Please select the “Electronic Supplementary Material (for publication)” from the pull-down menu on the system.
• ESM may consist of:
- information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings (always use MPEG-1 (.mpg) format).
- information that is more convenient in electronic form, e.g., sequences, spectral data, etc.
- large quantities of original data that relate to the paper, e.g., additional tables, large numbers of illustrations (color and black-and-white), etc.
• Legends must be brief, self-sufficient explanations of the ESM. ESM is to be numbered and referred to as S1, S2, etc.
After acceptance for publication, ESM will be published as received from the author in the online version only. Reference to this material will be given in the printed version.
For more information about preparing the ESM, please follow the hyperlink (http://www.springer.com/535) to the Electronic Supplementary Material instructions.

Other Files (for peer-review only) 

If you have other supplementary files for peer-review only, please select “Other Files (for peer-review only)” from the pull-down menu on the system.

PDF Proof before Submission 

After uploading all the files of the article, the system will convert the files to PDF format. You are required to view the result of the conversion with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Check to see that all data is prepared for review at this point.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors and/or changing the order of authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the reason for the change(s) and the contribution role(s) of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

After Acceptance  

Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order Open Choice or offprints. Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
  • Open Choice:
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink. The basic fee for Springer Open Choice is USD 3,000 / EUR 2,200; excl. VAT. Invoicing will be done according to the location of the paying party (designated in the “Bill to” section of the Order Form). Customers providing payment from the Americas will be charged in US dollars, and customers providing payment from Europe, Africa, and Asia will be charged in Euros. For further information, see Springer Open Choice at http://springer.com/openchoice.
  • Copyright Transfer:
Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher (or grant the Publisher exclusive publication and dissemination rights). This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws. Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
  • Offprints:
Upon publication the corresponding authors will receive a free eOffprint of their article. Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
  • Proofreading:
Authors are informed by e-mail that a temporary URL has been created from which they can obtain their proofs. The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables, and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title, and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor. After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
  • Online First:
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the article can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

Open Choice 

Open Choice allows you to publish open access in more than 1850 Springer Nature journals, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.
  • Increased researcher engagement: Open Choice enables access by anyone with an internet connection, immediately on publication.
  • Higher visibility and impact: In Springer hybrid journals, OA articles are accessed 4 times more often on average, and cited 1.7 more times on average*.
  • Easy compliance with funder and institutional mandates: Many funders require open access publishing, and some take compliance into account when assessing future grant applications.
It is easy to find funding to support open access – please see our funding and support pages for more information.
*) Within the first three years of publication. Springer Nature hybrid journal OA impact analysis, 2018.

Copyright and license term – CC BY

Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Contact Information 

Editorial Office
The Editor, Journal of Gastroenterology,
The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology,
Shimbashi i-Mark Building, 6th Floor,
2-6-2 Shimbashi, Minato-ku,
Tokyo 105-0004, Japan.
Fax: +81 3 6811 2352
e-mail: edi.board@jsge.or.jp

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For authors and editors

  • Journal Citation Reports®
    2017 Impact Factor
  • 5.561
  • Aims and Scope

    Aims and Scope


    The Journal of Gastroenterology, which is the official publication of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology, publishes Original Articles (Alimentary Tract/Liver, Pancreas, and Biliary Tract), Review Articles, Letters to the Editors and other articles on all aspects of the field of gastroenterology. Significant contributions relating to basic research, theory, and practice are welcomed. These publications are designed to disseminate knowledge in this field to a worldwide audience, and accordingly, its editorial board has an international membership.

  • Submit Online
  • Open Choice - Your Way to Open Access
  • Instructions to Authors

    Instructions to Authors


  • - Certification and COI Disclosure Form ...
  • - Artwork (pdf, 165 kB)
  • Author Academy: Training for Authors
  • Copyright Information

    Copyright Information


    Copyright Information

    For Authors

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as – tacitly or explicitly – by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

    Author warrants (i) that he/she is the sole owner or has been authorized by any additional copyright owner to assign the right, (ii) that the article does not infringe any third party rights and no license from or payments to a third party is required to publish the article and (iii) that the article has not been previously published or licensed. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. Transfer of copyright to the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology becomes effective if and when a Copyright Transfer Statement is signed or transferred electronically by the corresponding author. After submission of the Copyright Transfer Statement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted by Springer.

    The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is assigned for good and valuable consideration to the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

    The copyright assignment includes without limitation the exclusive, assignable and sublicensable right, unlimited in time and territory, to reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, make available and store the article, including abstracts thereof, in all forms of media of expression now known or developed in the future, including pre- and reprints, translations, photographic reproductions and microform. Springer may use the article in whole or in part in electronic form, such as use in databases or data networks for display, print or download to stationary or portable devices. This includes interactive and multimedia use and the right to alter the article to the extent necessary for such use.

    Authors may self-archive the Author's accepted manuscript of their articles on their own websites. Authors may also deposit this version of the article in any repository, provided it is only made publicly available 12 months after official publication or later. He/she may not use the publisher's version (the final article), which is posted on SpringerLink and other Springer websites, for the purpose of self-archiving or deposit. Furthermore, the Author may only post his/her version provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link is inserted to the published article on Springer's website. The link must be accompanied by the following text: "The final publication is available at link.springer.com".

    Prior versions of the article published on non-commercial pre-print servers like arXiv.org can remain on these servers and/or can be updated with Author's accepted version. The final published version (in pdf or html/xml format) cannot be used for this purpose. Acknowledgement needs to be given to the final publication and a link must be inserted to the published article on Springer's website, accompanied by the text "The final publication is available at link.springer.com". Author retains the right to use his/her article for his/her further scientific career by including the final published journal article in other publications such as dissertations and postdoctoral qualifications provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication.

    Author is requested to use the appropriate DOI for the article. Articles disseminated via link.springer.com are indexed, abstracted and referenced by many abstracting and information services, bibliographic networks, subscription agencies, library networks, and consortia.

    For Readers

    While the advice and information in this journal is believed to be true and accurate at the date of its publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

    All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article (e.g., as offprints), as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic data bases, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.

    Springer has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink service to offer a variety of options for reusing Springer content. For permission to reuse our content please locate the material that you wish to use on link.springer.com or on springerimages.com and click on the permissions link or go to copyright.com, then enter the title of the publication that you wish to use. For assistance in placing a permission request, Copyright Clearance Center can be connected directly via phone: +1-855-239-3415, fax: +1-978-646-8600, or e-mail: info@copyright.com.

    © Japanese Society of Gastroenterology

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