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Life Sciences - Entomology | Apidologie - incl. option to publish open access

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Apidologie

Apidologie

Official journal of the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) and Deutschen Imkerbundes e.V. (D.I.B.)

Managing Editor: Marianne Peiffer

ISSN: 0044-8435 (print version)
ISSN: 1297-9678 (electronic version)

Journal no. 13592

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Instructions for Authors

Types of Articles 

The journal Apidologie publishes original articles, review articles, scientific notes, proceedings of scientific meetings and extensive bibliographies in English. It is the author‟s responsibility to ensure that the manuscript is written in appropriate English. Non English-speaking authors are strongly encouraged to consult a professional proof-reading service prior to submission. The editorial board maintains the option of returning, before evaluation, manuscripts which do not meet the instructions and/or acceptable standards of English.
Original and review articles have an abstract in English.
A- Original articles: they should be no longer that ten pages as a rule, i.e. about 30,000 characters (spaces excluded), including references, tables and figures (see ‘Manuscript structure’ for more information). The number of references should not exceed 60.
B- Review articles: Their length is limited to about 60,000 characters, spaces excluded but all items included (text, references, tables, figures...). The usual division into ‘materials and methods, results and discussion’ may be replaced by a more adapted structure.
C- Scientific notes: Apidologie publishes brief notes to report information and observation for which replication is not possible or additional data cannot be easily obtained and which have an exceptional scientific interest. The authors must justify in the cover letter the appropriateness of presenting their data as a Scientific Note. The length of such notes will be strictly restricted to 3 pages (i.e about 9,000 characters, spaces excluded, if only text and references) and publication will depend on the availability of space in the journal and general interest to readers of Apidologie. This form is intended to augment scientific communication and is by no means for articles that are not of sufficient rigor to be published as full papers. All submissions must include ‘scientific note’ in the title. Only the title is translated in French and German; there is no Abstract.
D- Proceedings of scientific meetings: Summaries of communications are limited to 1700 characters, spaces excluded. They have no chapters, bibliographic references, tables or acknowledgements and are published, online only, by prior arrangement with the Editorial Board.

PEER REVIEW PROCESS 

All manuscripts are examined initially by Apidologie scientific editors for their appropriateness to the journal. Those which do not match the scope of Apidologie or are of
insufficient general interest are sent promptly to their authors. Other manuscripts are sent to a minimum of two experts chosen by the handling editor. Reviewers are invited to present their comments and/or suggestions within 4 weeks after getting access to the manuscript.
Reviewers’ comments are sent to the authors without their names to remain anonymous. Final acceptance is a decision of the handling editor and is based on the reviewers’ reports and the editorial board advice.
In case of revision, the authors must indicate in which ways the comments and suggestions were taken into account or why they were not. The corrected version should be returned to the handling editor within 2 months after the decision has been made. After this delay, it will be
considered as a new manuscript. Depending on the handling editor’s decision, revised manuscripts may be sent out to reviewers a second time.

SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Please read these instructions carefully before submitting your manuscript: the Editorial Board maintains the option of returning to authors, before the reviewing process, any manuscript not in compliance with these recommendations.
Submission of a paper implies that it reports original unpublished work, that it has not been accepted and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. All authors must have read and approved the manuscript.
The accepted language is English. The papers (original and review articles) are published with an abstract in English.
- How to submit
Authors have to submit their manuscripts online https://www.editorialmanager.com/apid/ . Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
- Permissions
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
- Manuscript structure
The manuscript should be submitted in Word and typed in Times 12 double-spaced with margins of at least 3 cm at the top, bottom and sides for editor’s marking. Lines and pages should be numbered.
The manuscripts (original articles) should be arranged as follows: title page, authors’ names and addresses, short title, running title, Abstract and keywords, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion/conclusion; acknowledgements, references, figures captions, tables, figures. The General Summary is no longer required.
Tables and figures, with their captions, should not appear in the text, but be placed together in the end of the text.
1. Introduction
2. Material and Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion/ Conclusion
Acknowledgements
The name of the funding organizations should be written in full.
Please do not use more than three levels of displayed headings.
- Title
With no more than 150 characters, spaces excluded (i.e. 3 lines max. on the printed page).
If there are Latin names of plants and animals, please do not mention the name of the author in the title. (This authority needs to appear only once in the article, with the first mention of the taxon in the text)
Authors:
First names (in full) and last names of each author.
Address of all authors; detailed address of the corresponding author with his/her mail address.
Short title:
No more that 45 characters, including spaces.
- Abstract
It should be no more that 850 characters and should contain no paragraphs, footnotes, references, cross-references to figures or tables and undefined abbreviations.
- Keywords
Up to five keywords should be supplied.
- Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
References
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. An author citing a paper 'in press' should either provide a DOI or a proof of acceptance to the editors, otherwise it should be cited as 'unpubl. data'.
Unpublished data or personal communication should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text as ‘unpubl. data’.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. In case of a reference with more than 10 authors, list only the first 5 authors and then ‘et al.’ If an author has several publications, the order is as follows : publications of the single author in chronological order, publications of this senior author with one co-author in chronological order, publications of this author with more than one co-author in chronological order.
The titles of the journals should be abbreviated, with punctuation marks, according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations (see : www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php)
The authors’ initials should be punctuated as well.
Exemples of the layout and punctuation to be used are given below :
Article of a journal :
Burgett, M., Burikam, I. (1985) Number of adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) occupying a comb: a standard for estimating colony populations. J. Econ. Entomol. 78 (6), 1154-1156
Article by DOI:
Bevk, D., Kralj J., Cokl, A. (2011) Coumaphos affects food transfer between workers of honeybee Apis mellifera. Apidologie, DOI:10.1007/s13592-011-0113-x
Book:
Bailey, L., Ball, B. V. (1991) Honey Bee Pathology. Academic Press Ltd., London.
Book Chapter:
Henderson, P. J. F. (1992) Statistical analysis of enzyme kinetic data, in: Eisenthal, R. and Danson, M. J. (Eds.), Enzyme assays: a practical approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 277-316
Electronic material:
Agreste, MAAPRAT (2011) Répartition du Territoire. 2009-2010 semi-définitive [online] http://www.agreste.agriculture.gouv.fr/thematiques/territoire-environnement (accessed on 05 July 11)
Citation in the text: refer to author(s) and year of publication (Dupont 1956). When there are more than two authors, give the first author’s name followed by ‘et al.’.
Miscellaneous points
- Abbreviations:
The acronyms and scientific abbreviations should be defined at first mention in the text, except for the common ones (DNA, RFLP, PCR, ANOVA, etc.).
The authors’ initials and the abbreviated titles of the journals should be presented with punctuation marks in the list of references.
- Units
Units should be from the International System of Units (SI) (English version available at :
http://www.bipm.org/en/si/).
For example, hectares and ppm do not belong to the SI and should be changed into m2 and
mg/kg or μL/L, respectively.
On the SI website you also find the official abbreviation of each unit. For example :
1 h = 60 min = 3600 s and 1 d = 24 h
The official abbreviation of liter is L. We use L to discriminate from 1 (one).
Time is expressed as follows : 1150 h for 11h50 a.m. and 1715 h for 5h15 p.m.
- Latin names
The Latin names as well as the authority must be cited in full at the first mention in the text and then the genus abbreviated in the following citations. The authority should not appear in the title or the abstract. Latin genus and species must be italicised.
- Varroa
The word should not be used like a common noun (varroa) but be replaced either by the latin binomial (V. destructor or V. jacobsoni) or by « mites » when the meaning is unequivocal.
- Races of honeybees
The honeybee subspecies should be mentioned in Latin only if morphometric or genetic proof of the race can be produced. If not, use a circumlocution such as « derived from Carnolian honeybees”. For the sake of accuracy, the terms European-derived and African-derived should
be used for studies involving honey bees in the New World in which the origins or racial makeup of the study population needs to be stated.
- Geographical coordinates
When the location of the experiment is meaningful, geographic coordinates of the place should be added.
- DNA Sequences
Apidologie requires that sequence data generated and used in studies published in the journal be submitted to Genbank prior to publication and the Accession numbers then placed in the manuscript text (or in figures and tables). [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/submit.html]

References 

Citation

Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
  • Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
  • This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
  • This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995a, b; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999, 2000).

Reference list

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Order multi-author publications of the same first author alphabetically with respect to second, third, etc. author. Publications of exactly the same author(s) must be ordered chronologically.
  • Journal article
    Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
    Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
    Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
  • Article by DOI
    Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001090000086
  • Book
    South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
  • Book chapter
    Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
  • Online document
    Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
  • Dissertation
    Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.
For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of in-text citations and reference list.

TABLES AND ARTWORKS 

- Tables
• All tables are to be numbered using Latin numerals.
• Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
• For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
• Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
• Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
- Artwork
For the best quality final product, it is highly recommended that you submit all of your artwork – photographs, line drawings, etc. – in an electronic format. Your art will then be produced to the highest standards with the greatest accuracy to detail. The published work will directly reflect the quality of the artwork provided.
- Electronic Figure Submission
• Supply all figures electronically.
• Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
• For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.
• Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
• Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
- Line Art
• Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
• Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
• All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
• Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
• Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Halftone Art
• Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
• If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
• Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
- Combination Art
• Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
• Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
- Color Art
• Color art is free of charge for online publication.
• If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
• If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
• Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
- Figure Lettering
• To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
• Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
• Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
• Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
• Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.
- Figure Numbering
• All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
• Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
• Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
• If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices (Electronic Supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered separately.
- Figure Captions
• Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
• Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
• No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
• Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
• Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
- Figure Placement and Size
• When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
• For most journals the figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
• For books and book-sized journals, the figures should be 80 mm or 122 mm wide and not higher than 198 mm.
- Permissions
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
- Accessibility
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
+ All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
+ Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (color-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
+ Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1

ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL 

Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.
- Submission
• Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
• Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
• To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
- Audio, Video, and Animations
• Always use MPEG-1 (.mpg) format.
Text and Presentations
• Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
• A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
- Spreadsheets
• Spreadsheets should be converted to PDF if no interaction with the data is intended.
• If the readers should be encouraged to make their own calculations, spreadsheets should be submitted as .xls files (MS Excel).
- Specialized Formats
• Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
Collecting Multiple Files
• It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
- Numbering
• If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
• Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
• Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.
- Captions
• For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
Processing of supplementary files
• Electronic supplementary material will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
Accessibility
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
+ The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
+ Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
  • The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
  • A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
  • Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
  • Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
  • Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
  • Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
    - an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
    - an expression of concern may be placed with the article
    - or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed
  • A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.

Fundamental errors

Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.

Suggesting / excluding reviewers

Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.

Authorship principles 

These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.

Authorship clarified

The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:

Disclosures and declarations

All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.

Data transparency

All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations. Please check the Instructions for Authors of the Journal that you are submitting to for specific instructions.

Role of the Corresponding Author

One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
  • ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
  • managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
  • providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
  • making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Author contributions

Please check the Instructions for Authors of the Journal that you are submitting to for specific instructions regarding contribution statements.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:

Affiliation

The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.

Changes to authorship

Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.

Author identification

Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.

Deceased or incapacitated authors

For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.

Authorship issues or disputes

In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.

Confidentiality

Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest 

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals 

1) Statement of human rights

When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
If a study was granted exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee that granted the exemption and the reasons for the exemption).
Authors must - in all situations as described above - include the name of the ethics committee and the reference number where appropriate.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (include name of committee + reference number) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
Ethical approval retrospective studies
Although retrospective studies are conducted on already available data or biological material (for which formal consent may not be needed or is difficult to obtain) ethical approval may be required dependent on the law and the national ethical guidelines of a country. Authors should check with their institution to make sure they are complying with the specific requirements of their country.

2) Statement on the welfare of animals

The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals have been followed, and that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists). Please provide the name of ethics committee and relevant permit number.
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If applicable (where such a committee exists): “All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.(include name of committee + permit number)”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, please select one of the following statements:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”

Informed consent 

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”

Research Data Policy 

A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.
The journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Persistent identifiers (such as DOIs and accession numbers) for relevant datasets must be provided in the paper
For the following types of data set, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory:
Mandatory depositionSuitable repositories
Protein sequencesUniprot
DNA and RNA sequencesGenbank
DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ)
EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (ENA)
DNA and RNA sequencing dataNCBI Trace Archive
NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA)
Genetic polymorphismsdbSNP
dbVar
European Variation Archive (EVA)
Linked genotype and phenotype datadbGAP
The European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA)
Macromolecular structureWorldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB)
Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB)
Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB)
Microarray data (must be MIAME compliant)Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)
ArrayExpress
Crystallographic data for small moleculesCambridge Structural Database

Data availability

The journal encourages authors to provide a statement of Data availability in their article. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found, including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. Data availability statements can also indicate whether data are available on request from the authors and where no data are available, if appropriate.
Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):
  • 1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
  • 2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • 3. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • 4. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
  • 5. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:
This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

Open Choice 

Open Choice allows you to publish open access in more than 1850 Springer Nature journals, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.
Article processing charges (APCs) vary by journal – view the full list
Benefits:
  • Increased researcher engagement: Open Choice enables access by anyone with an internet connection, immediately on publication.
  • Higher visibility and impact: In Springer hybrid journals, OA articles are accessed 4 times more often on average, and cited 1.7 more times on average*.
  • Easy compliance with funder and institutional mandates: Many funders require open access publishing, and some take compliance into account when assessing future grant applications.
It is easy to find funding to support open access – please see our funding and support pages for more information.
*) Within the first three years of publication. Springer Nature hybrid journal OA impact analysis, 2018.

Copyright and license term – CC BY

Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Authors Contribution: 

This information is now mandatory and we require the following kind of format (please use initials to refer to each author's contribution):
  • AC, TK and BN conceived this research and designed experiments; JY participated in the design and interpretation of the data; TM performed experiments and analysis; AC and TK wrote the paper and participated in the revisions of it. All authors read and approved the final manuscript."
OR:
  • "Both authors have contributed equally to the work"

Definition of the authorship

An "author" is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study.
To qualify as an author one should 1) have made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) have given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support.

English Language Editing 

For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
  • Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
  • Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
  • Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.

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  • Aims and Scope

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    Apidologie is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to the biology of insects belonging to the superfamily Apoidea (Michener, 1944), the term "biology" being used in the broader sense.

    The main topics include: behavior, ecology, pollination, genetics, physiology, toxicology and pathology. Systematic research can also be submitted to the extent that it concerns the Apoidea. Also accepted are research papers on the rearing, exploitation and practical use of Apoidea and their products, as far as they make a clear contribution to the understanding of bee biology. Papers which are only of descriptive kind and of local interest are not accepted.

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