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Life Sciences - Ecology | Journal of Chemical Ecology - incl. option to publish open access (Press)

Journal of Chemical Ecology

Journal of Chemical Ecology

Editor-in-Chief: Gary W. Felton

ISSN: 0098-0331 (print version)
ISSN: 1573-1561 (electronic version)

Journal no. 10886

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Journal of Chemical Ecology - Cover Gallery

April 2018 

A nudibranch, Doriprismatica atromarginata, feeding on sponge from which they gain defensive metabolites. Image courtesy of Cedric van den Berg. In this issue Winters et al. describe the defensive compounds produced by 19 species of nudibranchs.

March 2018 

In this issue, Silva et al. report on the interspecific cross-attraction between two Cerambycid beetles. The sympatric South American cerambycid beetles Megacyllene acuta (left) and Cotyclytus curvatus (right) share (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a male-produced aggregation-sex pheromone. Cross attraction is averted by the minor pheromone components (S)-2-methylbutan-1-ol and (2S,3S)-2,3-hexanediol produced by M. acuta.

February 2018 

A feeding frenzy. A foraging aggregation of Crown-of-Thorns Sea stars (Acanthaster planci species complex) can be seen here devouring an Acroporid coral colony at Lodestone Reef on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Corals in the background have already been stripped of tissue leaving behind skeleton on which macroalgae has started to grow. In this issue, Motti et al review the chemically mediated behaviors and the molecular mechanismsof chemoreception, within the Asteroidea (sea stars and starfish).
Image was taken by Long Term Monitoring Program (LTMP). in 2003 – Lodestone Reef, first flank. Copyright AIMS.

January 2018 

In this issue, we announce that the Journal of Chemical Ecology will become the official platform for the Latin American Association of Chemical Ecology (ALAEQ). Dr. Paulo H. G. Zarbin, current president and Dr. Jan Bergmann, founding president of ALAEQ formally requested that the Journal of Chemical Ecology become the official platform for ALAEQ. During the 2017AnnualMeeting of the International Society of Chemical Ecology (ISCE) and the Pacific Association of Chemical Ecologists (APACE), both societies strongly supported this affiliation.
With the concurrence of the Journal of Chemical Ecology Editorial Board, we are delighted to have ALAEQ join APACE and ISCE in their partnerships with the Journal. The emerging excellence in chemical ecology in Latin America and the affiliation with the journal will further increase the international visibility of ALAEQ and the discipline of chemical ecology in general.

November/December 2017 

Cover illustration In this issue, Castano-Duque et al. compare resistance to western corn root worm (WCR) in two maize genotypes. The cover figure shows laser ablation tomography (LAT) cross-sections from nodal roots of genotypes Tx601 and Mp708 after 9 days of continuous infestation with WCR. Root cross-sections from control Tx601 (A) orMp708 (B) and WCR-infested Tx601 (C) and Mp708 (D).

October 2017 

The picture depicts major and minor workers of Odontotermes obesus depositing agar boluses on a plug of Pseudoxylaria. In this issue, Katariya et al show that fungus-farming termites use scents to discriminate between weedy fungi and their crop fungi. Photo by Nikhil More.

September 2017 

In this issue Mann et al. report on the scent chemistry of Heliconius wing androconia. Figure depicts the phenotype and geographic distribution of the Heliconius taxa investigated. A: Mimicry ring between H. melpomene rosina and H. erato demophoon in Panama; B: Mimicry ring between H. elevatus elevatus, H. melpomene malleti and H. timareta florencia in the Amazon basin; C: Mimicry ring between H. ismenius and H. hecale melicerta in Panama; D: Mimicry ring between H. doris and H. sara; E: Additional species/races included: H. cydno chioneus, H. cydno zelinde, H. cydno weymeri f. weymeri, H. cydno weymeri f. gustavi, hybrids of H. cydno, H. m. plesseni, H. himera and H. pardalinus butleri. Distributions for the relevant sub-species are taken from Rosser et al. (2012).

August 2017 

Photograph of an adult emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) by Daniel A. Herms. In the article by Rigsby et al. they compared emerald ash borer oviposition preferences and bark and canopy volatile organic compound emissions of resistant Manchurian ash and susceptible black ash.

July 2017 

Cover photograph of Monochamus saltuarius, a major vector of the pine wood nematode. In this issue, Lee et al. describe the identification of the male produced aggregation-sex pheromone of this insect. Photo is by Dr. Jongok Lim, Korea National Arboretum, Republic of Korea.

June 2017 

The cover picture depicts a typical gravel patch where male sea lamprey build nests and release pheromones that attract females as reported in this issue in the paper by Li et al. The animal in the picture is a male, characterized with a dorsal ridge, which is typical of males that are approaching maturation or are sexually mature. Photo credit by Anne M. Scott.

May 2017 

Female plant of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) parasitizing jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in Smoky Lake, Alberta, Canada. Monoterpene production in jack pine following dwarf mistletoe infection resulted in systemic induced resistance to a fungus associated with the non-native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (see study by Klutsch et al in this issue). Photo by Jennifer G. Klutsch, University of Alberta, Dept. of Renewable Resources.

April 2017 

A female millipede of Serboiulus lucifugus (Diplopoda: Julidae) from Prekonoška cave in Eastern Serbia. Serial defensive glands are visible as reddish spots at the lateral side of the body (photo by Dragan Ž. Antić). In the article by Makarov et al. they propose ethyl-benzoquinones as novel and valuable chemical characters for julid millipedes.

March 2017 

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The strawberry poison frog Oophaga pumilio from northeastern Costa Rica is in the study system reported in Bolton et al.
Photo credit: Ralph Saporito

February 2017 

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Steps of aphid alarm signaling that may be impacted by modifications to atmospheric CO2 concentration (Graphic art by Carolina Levicek).
This is highlighted in the article by Boullis et al. showing that elevated carbon dioxide modifies aphid arm signaling.

January 2017 

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Pollen generalist bees (polyleges) are assumed to rely on volatiles widespread among floral scents to locate host flowers, whereas pollen specialist bees (oligoleges) are known to rely on unusual components to recognize their specific host flowers. Campanula flowers are visited by both polylectic and oligolectic species. The scent bouquets of different Campanula species consist of common and unusual (i.e., spiroacetals) volatiles, and oligolectic Chelostoma rapunculi uses spiroacetals for host recognition. In this issue, Brandt and coworkers show that Campanula specialist bees of different genera (e.g., Hoplitis mitis, right side) are more sensitive to the Campanulatypifying spiroacetals than polylectic bees (e.g., Apis mellifera, left side). Their study provides evidence for neurological adaptations in the peripheral olfactory circuitry of the oligoleges to the hosttypifying components and suggests that Campanula specialist bees of different phylogenetic lineages use the same compounds for host recognition.
Photograph by Sergei Dering (right) and Paulo Milet-Pinheiro (left).

December 2016 

Bacteria agglomerated in the phycosphere of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Diatom). Epifluorescence microscopy x1000, cells are stained with DAPI. See the review article by Rolland et al. “Quorum sensing and quorum quenching in the phycosphere of plankton: A case of chemical interactions in ecology”.
Photo credit: P. Catala, F. Joux, I. Obernosterer (UPMC/CNRS - Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls-sur-Mer).

November 2016 

Darwin’s finches have been an iconic system in evolutionary biology for 180 years (Left- small tree finch, Camarhynchus parvulus). In recent years, they have come under attack from the invasive parasite fly, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) (Top right), the larvae of which (Bottom right) feed on the blood of chicks (warbler finch, Certhidae olivacea bottom right). Populations of Darwin’s finches including the small tree-finch, the mangrove finch, and the medium tree-finch suffer rapid population declines caused by substantial parasite-induced mortality. A multinational effort is underway to develop management tools to control P. downsi in the Galapagos Archipelago. In this issue, the paper by Cha et al. reports on the identification and optimization of microbial attractants for adult P. downsi. Photo credits: Arno Cimadom, and Stephen Teale.

October 2016 

The host manipulation hypothesis predicts that virus-infected plants should increase their nutritional quality for herbivores to attract their vectors. In this issue, Ángelez-Lopez and colleagues report that chili pepper plants respond to infection with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) with strong changes in the amino acid composition of the phloem. Amino acids in the phloem increased almost 30 fold. However, the authors observed that colonization by the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum completely reversed this effect, and this whitefly is not a vector of PepGMV. The authors conclude that the phloem composition of a virus-infected host plant can change rapidly upon arrival of an herbivore, and that these changes need to be monitored to predict the nutritional quality of the plant for putative vectors. Photo credit Martin Heil.

September 2016 

Cover photo shows a male lunamoth, Actias luna. This iconic species is one of the largest and most colorful moths in North America, but populations are threatened by loss of habitat and parasitization by egg parasitoids that were introduced for control of gypsy moth. Identification of its pheromone should help monitoring and bioconservation efforts. See article by Miller et al. this issue.
Photo credit Jocelyn Millar.

August 2016 

Tarsal hydrocarbon profiles of various insects with ability to climb up smooth surfaces are different from corresponding general cuticular secretions sampled at tibiae. The study by Gerhardt et al. identifies distinctive molecular features between tarsal secretions and corresponding tibiae. Key in this study was a representative spatially controlled in vivo sampling at tarsi and tibiae without contamination from other body parts. Pre-sampling preparation was important (top left and bottom left). Bigger insects like the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa were anesthetized with carbon dioxide, and secretions were collected at tarsi and tibiae by gentle rubbing over the respective sampling area with a non-coated silica fiber (SPME, sampling) (top left). Smaller insects like the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides did not survive such a procedure and were therefore fixed (by entanglement) with insect pins on foam before contact SPME sampling (bottom left). Insects investigated belonged to two distinct tarsal adhesion systems having either smooth (right) or hairy attachment pads that release fluids and provide a surface for contact and reversible attachment to the substrate. The image on the right shows the morphology of a smooth adhesion system exemplified by the leg of the Madagascar hissing cockroach. The leg is divided into three parts: the pre-tarsus with arolium and claw, the tarsus with euplantulum (smooth attachment pad), and the thorny tibia. The sampling procedures are gentle, insects survive, and can be sampled multiple times. Photo credit: Christian Schmitt.

July 2016 

Top Left: Cerambycid beetles, Anaglyptus mysticus, mating. Photo Credit: Anonymous user. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaglyptus_mysticus (Photo was cropped slightly); Creative Commons License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/legalcode.
Middle Left: Red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Photo Credit: gailhampshire https://www.flickr.com/photos/gails_pictures/8450637308 (photo was cropped slightly) Creative Commons License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode.
Bottom Left: Helicoverpa armigera moth feeding on a deposit of Magnet. Photo Credit: Peter Gregg.
Top Right: Isomate CM Mist Dispenser in apple orchard Photo Credit: Courtesy, Don Thomson, Pacific Biocontrol Corporation.
Middle Right: Rescue WHY trap with Yellow Jackets. Photo Credit: Courtesy, Sterling International, Inc.
Bottom Right: No-Mate CM dispenser. Photo Credit: Courtesy, Michael Whalen, Scentry Biologicals, Inc.
Middle Far Right: IPM Pheromones Market Analysis. Photo Credit: Courtesy, Santosh Nichani, Grand View Research.

June 2016 

Photograph of a false potato beetle (Leptinotarsa juncta) larva on its preferred host plant horsenettle (Solanum carolinense). Larvae deposit regurgitant or oral secretions during feeding, which is depicted in the figure. The secretions contain abundant symbiotic bacteria that are derived from their digestive systems. The flagellated bacteria in the secretions are depicted in the figure. Specific bacteria can trigger salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defenses when deposited on feeding sites. Because of the negative crosstalk between SA signaling and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, plants are unable to fully activate JA-mediated resistance against the herbivore. The symbiotic bacteria in the beetle oral secretions may have a more widespread role in manipulating plant induced defenses than previously indicated. See article by Wang et al., this issue.
The photograph and figure were prepared by Nick Sloff, Department of Entomology, Penn State University.

May 2016 

Left: Tree infected with the phytopathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), showing symptoms of greening disease (also called Huanglongbing or HLB) (photo credit University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science). Top right: An adult Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, the vector of CLas, feeding on a citrus leaf (photo credit Michael Flores). Middle right: Nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid feeding on a citrus young shoot (photo credit Michael Flores). Bottom right: Stunted development of sweet orange fruit from CLas infected tree (left), as compared with fruit from an uninfected tree (right).
Photo credit University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science. See article by Martini et al., this issue.

April 2016 

A colony of the parasitic thief ant, Solenopsis picea. In this issue, Emery and Tsutsui investigate the chemical ecology of a three-species ant symbiosis that occurs in the New World tropics. Two of the species, Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior, nest together in an apparent mutualistic relationship (called parabiosis), whereas S. picea is sometimes also present as a parasite. Interestingly, the two parabiotic species do not share cuticular hydrocarbon odors with each other, but the parasitic S. picea, acquires chemicals from both of them.
Photo credit: Alexander Wild

March 2016 

Juvenile Arion vulgaris slug approaching a group of first instar Pieris brassicae caterpillars on a Brassica rapa leaf. A study in this issue by Desurmont, Zemanova, and Turlings shows that slugs can directly and indirectly affect the survival of the caterpillars. Evidence suggests that the slugs can cause caterpillar mortality by consuming small caterpillars, probably accidentally. On the other hand, they also can reduce caterpillar mortality by suppressing the volatiles emitted by the plant, which renders the plants less attractive to parasitic wasps that kill the caterpillars.
Photo credit: Neil Villard, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland

February 2016 

The plant hormone gibberellin accelerates rapid clonal growth of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata more than that of its native congener W. chinensis. This seems to happen by promoting adventitious root emergence and shoot elongation. Thus, W. trilobata can spread rapidly in the field and establish monodominant populations that take over invaded habitats. See article by Du et al. this issue.
Photo credit: Dao-Lin Du

January 2016 

Bark of a ponderosa pine removed to reveal a failed attack by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the beetle-vectored fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). The initial beetle entrance hole can be seen in the center of the exposed area (see arrow), surrounded by a darker lesion encrusted with resin induced by the attack. The resin is composed mostly of various compounds from three major terpenoid groups, represented by the structures of δ-3-carene (top; monoterpene), longifolene (middle; sesquiterpene), and abietic acid (lower; diterpene). See article by Keefover-Ring et al.
Photo: Amy Trowbridge

December 2015 

A desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida) among some juniper. A population of desert woodrats in the Great Basin consume high enough levels of juniper in the field and laboratory to be classified as juniper specialists. They can therefore join a short list of vertebrates that specialize on conifers despite their low nutritional value and high plant secondary compound content.
Photo: Kevin Kohl

November 2015 

MALDI-TOF Imaging of chlorophyll catabolites along the gut of Spodoptora littoralis. Shown are ion intensity maps of the molecular ions [M+H]+ of chlorohyll a (Chl a), pheophorbide a (Phe a) and pyropheophorbide a (Pph a). Photo of the larva embedded with PVA and mounted on a MALDI-target plate. See paper by Boland et al. this issue.
Photo credit: Amarsanaa Badgaa.

October 2015 

In their review article on Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: A Meta-Analysis (this issue), Kather and Martin discuss 241 species that include the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). Both solitary and social species were considered. Pictured here are [top- Solitary bee (Melissodes sp.); Solitary Potter wasp (Pachodynerus sp)- both photos by Ethel Villalobos; and Solitary parasitic wasp (Sierola sp) photo by Karl Magnacca], and [bottom- Social honeybees (Apis sp); Social hornets (Vespa spp) - both photos by Stephen Martin; and Social Pharaohs ants (Monomorium sp) photo by Elva Robinson].

September 2015 

Holy frass! Fall armyworm frass accumulates in corn whorls, attenuates herbivore-induced defenses, and augments caterpillar growth on its host.
See article by Luthe et al.
Photo credit Dawn Luthe.

August 2015 

Green-headed ant (Rhytidoponera metallica) investigating the fatty acid rich capitulum of a goliath stick insect egg (Eurycnema goliath). The same fatty acids that reward ants for dispersing tree seeds, also function to cause ants to disperse the eggs of stick insects.
See article by O’Hanlon et al.
Photo credit James O’Hanlon.

July 2015 

Giant mesquite bug nymphs (Thasus neocalifornicus) feeding on their natural host, the velvet mesquite, in southwestern Arizona (left) and their scent glands subjected to fluorescent in situ hybridization using probes to detect Wolbachia bacteria (right; red and orange signals). These glands contain potent aldehydes such as (E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal that often are repellent and toxic to the bug’s predators. Treating the bugs with antibiotics decreased their level of Wolbachia infection, as well as production of defensive aldehydes, suggesting that this symbiotic bacterium might be implicated in the formation of chemicals.
See article by Becerra et al.
Images courtesy of Sarai Olivier-Espejel, Anais Castagnola, and Judith Becerra.

June 2015 

Journal of Chemical Ecology
Common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) generally eat foliage from eucalypt species belonging to the Symphyomyrtus subgenus, such as the Eucalyptus melliodora pictured here. They eat variable amounts depending on the concentration of formylated phloroglucinol compounds (FPCs) in the leaves, with low concentrations being the most preferred. Despite this, eucalypt species belonging to the Monocalyptus subgenus are rarely eaten, even though these species do not contain FPCs at all. A recent metabolomics study identified that monocalypt species contain unsubstituted B ring flavanones, and that these compounds are not present in species of Symphyomyrtus. We found that unsubstituted B ring flavanones deter feeding by brushtail possums, explaining why they reject foliage from monocalypt species.
See article by Marsh et al.
Photo credit: Karen March

May 2015 

An adult Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus perches on a log that was recently its larval habitat. This insect, a wood-boring longhorned beetle in the family Cerambycidae, is one of many species in the subfamily Cerambycinae that produce and are attracted to the aggregation-sex pheromone (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one. Many of these species may co-occur within a forest, but cross-attraction to heterospecific pheromones is minimized through a discrete pattern of seasonal and circadian activity. This system is reinforced by secondary pheromone components that segregate synchronic species by attracting conspecifics and deterring heterospecifics. Pictured are eight sympatric species that produce 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one: (large) Neoclytus m. mucronatus, (small; top-down) N. caprea, Euderces pini, Anelaphus pumilus, Cyrtophorus verrucosus, Phymatodes aereus, P. amoenus, Sarosesthes fulminans, and Xylotrechus colonus.
See article by Mitchell et al.
Photo credit: Robert Mitchell

April 2015 

Teosinte (wild maize) (bottom left) was exposed to egg deposition (center) by Chilo partellus. Headspace samples were collected. The herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIVPs) attracted both egg and larval parasitoid Cotesia sesamiae (top right). Olfactometer tests indicated that these were preferred in 4 of 5 Teosinte species. The results suggest that this induced defense is not limited to landraces but exists in ancestral wild species as well. The trait likely could be introgressed into domesticated maize lines to provide indirect defense mechanisms against stemborers.
Photo credits of Tesointe to Mickaël Gaaillard, Gaétan Glauser, and Elvria de Lange; Cotesia from Rothamsted, and Chilo eggs from ICIPE.

March 2015 

The sesquiterpene (E)-β-caryophyllene is emitted from maize (Zea mays) leaves and roots in response to herbivore attack. This compound serves as a signal for the attraction of herbivore enemies and thereby increases herbivore resistance of the plant. The paper by Fantaye et al. in this issue demonstrates that the same (E)-β-caryophyllene signal enhances the susceptibility to Colletotrichum graminicola infection. Colletotrichum graminicola is a common fungal pathogen of maize that causes stalk rot and anthracnose diseases. In the photo, disease symptoms on the leaf are highlighted by a blue circle. The microscopic insert shows appressoria and hyphae colonizing the leaf tissue. Low concentrations of (E)-β-caryophyllene released by the plant become a signal that supports colonization by the fungus. Thus, the (E)-β-caryophyllene signal may encounter a defense tradeoff when plants are exposed to herbivores and pathogens at the same time.
Photo by Chalie Assefa Fantaye, Jonathan Gershenzon and Jörg Degenhardt. Holger B. Deising at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg kindly provided the microscopic photo of Colletotrichum graminicola.

February 2015 

Since its relatively recent introduction into Europe and North America, Drosophila suzukii has become a large-scale economic pest in a variety of berry and small fruit agricultural systems. Unlike the majority of the other members of the family Drosophilidae that are opportunistic in their attack of rotten or damaged fruit, this species has demonstrated the capability of and a preference towards attacking fresh, ripe fruit. The rather unique ability of D. suzukii to seek out and damage fresh fruit appears to be linked to its heavily sclerotized ovipositor as well as a novel evolutionary shift in its olfactory receptor repertoire. Moreover, this alteration in D. suzukii olfaction appears to promote an increased attraction towards specific leaf-related odors including those leaves that are in close proximity to ripening fruit (shown is a male D. suzukii landing on a strawberry calyx). See article by Keesey, Knaden, and Hansson this issue.
Photo by Ian Keesey.

January 2015 

Rhodinia fugax, a giant silk moth (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), is a defoliator of many trees, such as Japanese chestnut oak, keyaki ,and cherry trees. While light taps attract females, it is difficult to capture males in the field. In this photo, males are responding to a synthetic pheromone lure. See article by Yan et al., this issue.

November/December 2014 

Pictured, is the predatory African weaver ant (Oecophylla longinoda) tending to honey dew- producing scale insects on the stem of a cashew tree. The ants depend on these insects and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) borne on leaves, fruit, and inflorescence for dietary sugar. Wanjiku et al. show that O. longinoda detects terpenes released by these plant parts to locate sugar rewards.
(Photo credit; Ayuka Fombong).

October 2014 

Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae) is native to Eurasia where it co-exists peacefully with other species. However, in North America it is spreading invasively with many US states now struggling to keep it under control. Specialized metabolites in plants influence their interactions with other species, including other plants and herbivorous insects. The chemical arsenal of garlic mustard includes the glucosinolate sinigrin and alliarinoside, a hydroxynitrile glucoside with defensive properties to glucosinolateadapted specialist insects. To further our understanding of the chemical ecology of garlic mustard we investigated the metabolite profile and here report a novel natural product, petiolatamide, which is structurally related to sinigrin. The leaf content of petiolatamide, alliarinoside, sinigrin and a related glycoside varied strongly among different populations and when ingested by the glucosinolate-adapted herbivore Pieris rapae their metabolic fates were widely different, demonstrating the complex nature of the chemical interactions of garlic mustard with its surroundings. See article by Frisch, et. al., this issue.
(Map courtesy of EDDMapS, University of Georgia; garlic mustard photo by Tina Frisch; composite image by Roxanna Palmer).

September 2014 

Geographic and floral bouquet variability of three Lithophragma species in California and the North Western United States. Upper left – Key to pie diagrams. Middle right – A female Greya politella moth approaching a flowering Lithophragma bolanderi plant in Sequoia National Park, one of three study sites. (Photo - Robert Raguso).

August 2014 

(Left) The Australian cycad Macrozamia miquelii. This is a female plant and the cone is disintegrating as seed dispersal commences. The "fruit" (technically a sarcotesta) is produced in great abundance and is vividly colored. The seed inside is highly toxic, but the toxins are absent from the sarcotesta. The differential toxicity of seed and sarcotesta, is documented for the first time in both Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica, which grow sympatrically in Australia. (Top Right) Fruits of Cycas ophiolitica, showing their large size. The coin is 28mm across. (Bottom Right) Seeds of Cycas ophiloitica. In this case, probably rodents or brush tailed possums, have stripped the fruit but left behind the toxic seed intact. In view of the very large size of cycad propagules, Hall and Walter explore the idea that they are adapted for dispersal for megafauna. (Photos: J.A. Hall)

July 2014 

Recently, a renewed interest for cytokinins has allowed the characterization of these phytohormones as key regulatory molecules in plant biotic interactions. They have been proved to be instrumental in microbe- and insect-mediated plant phenotypes that can be either beneficial or detrimental for the host-plant. In parallel, insect endosymbiotic bacteria have emerged as key players in plantinsect interactions mediating directly or indirectly fundamental aspects of insect nutrition such as insect feeding efficiency or their ability to manipulate the plant physiology to overcome food nutritional imbalances. The phytophagous leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera) relies on bacterial endosymbionts to manipulate the physiology of its host-plant resulting in a ‘greenisland’ (insect feeding area). This phenotype is characterized by a photosynthetically active green patch while the remaining leaf tissues undergo leaf senescence. Through cytokinin production by their endosymbiotic partners, insects create an enhanced nutritional microenvironment in an otherwise degenerating context and maintain a nutritional homeostasis even under distinct leaf environments. See paper by Giron and Glevarec, this issue. (Photo: Mélanie Body/ David Giron)

June 2014 

Pictured is a fully blood-fed male, common bedbug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) superimposed on a scanning electronic micrograph of the terminal flagellum of a bedbug antenna. Like other haematophagous insects, bedbugs use olfactory sensilla located on the flagella to detect semiochemicals. Liu et al. have shown that different types of sensilla show highly distinctive response profiles and are more sensitive to terpene-derived chemicals than to non-terpene-derived repellents. (Photo: Feng Liu)

May 2014 

A portion of an overwintering aggregation comprised of several thousand convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens, in the San Jacinto Mountains near Idyllwild, California (elev. 1,650 m) on September 15, 2009. In the late summer and early autumn, a facultative migration carries H. convergens from lowland foraging grounds to montane habitat where migrants pass the winter season in a non-feeding developmental stage. These diapausing beetles form quiescent aggregations in the same protected hibernacula frequented by previous generations of conspecific migrants. Wheeler and Cardé show that diapausing H. convergens orient to a combination of a pyrazine (2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine) and an alkane (n-tricosane) pheromone when selecting hibernacula and forming aggregations. n-Tricosane, and at least 20 other hydrocarbons, cover the cuticle of the beetle and are deposited on their walking surfaces, thus potentially marking microsites as hibernacula for subsequently arriving conspecifics. Depending on the environmental conditions and physiological state of the receiver, n-tricosane also can induce a repellent effect, providing supporting evidence of its supplementary function as an oviposition deterrent. Additionally, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine has a supplementary function as a warning odor in the aposematic display of the beetle, of which aggregations themselves are a part. (Photo: Christopher Wheeler).

April 2014 

Nest with begging chicks of the carrion crow (Corvus corone corone) alongside a chick of the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius). When they are harassed, the cuckoo chicks excrete a strong smelly substance. In this issue, Röder et al. confirm that the volatiles emitted from this substance excretion are highly repellent to predators. (Photo credit: Vittorio Baglione).

March 2014 

Journal of Chemical Ecology
The eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) is one of the most common and widespread bats in North America. It is referred to as a “tree bat” due to its solitary roosting behavior in foliage of trees or leaf litter. The fur of male eastern red bats has higher red chroma reflectance than females, causing an unusual sexual dichromatism in a vespertilionid species. Eastern red bats are also known to migrate long distances, with several hundred bats migrating as colonies between August and September. Mammalian surface lipids are comprised from sebaceous gland secretions and epidermal cells. Surface lipids may play important ecological roles in maintaining host microbiota in foliage roosting bats or reducing surface tension during migration. For the first time we have analyzed the glycerophospholipids, an input to surface lipid largely ignored, of eastern red bat fur (See paper by Pannkuk et al. this issue). (Photo credit: Liam P. McGuire)

February 2014 

Artemisia annua (left) produces the antimalarial drug artemisinin (structure) in glandular trichomes (upper right) that are located on its epidermis of its leaves (lower right), flowers and stems. In this issue, Jessing and coauthors review the literature regarding the ecological role of artemisinin. (Photograph of leaf: J’Lynn Howell; scanning electron micrograph of leaf surface: Lynn Libous-Bailey; light micrograph of trichome reproduced with permission from Ferreira JFS, Janick J. (1995) Floral Morphology of Artemisia annua with special reference to trichomes. Int. J. Plant Sci. 156: 807-815).

January 2014 

Journal of Chemical Ecology
A bark beetle attempting to establish a gallery. Its likelihood of success is largely mediated by terpenes, which interact with a broad range of lower- and higher-scale inputs. See review by Raffa. (Photo credit Erinn Powell).

November/December 2013 

November/December 2013
Chelostoma rapunculi female bee gathering pollen on a flower of Campanula trachelium. This oligolectic bee species collects pollen exclusively on flowers of Campanula, but the exact mechanism involved in host-plant recognition has been so far unknown. In this issue, Milet-Pinheiro and coauthors show that C. rapunculi bees rely on highly specific volatiles, i.e., spiroacetals, to recognize their host plants. Spiroacetals are emitted by flowers of Campanula spp., but are rarely encountered as floral scents constituents in other species. This gives Campanula species a singular identity that allows unambiguous recognition by this pollen-specialist bee. (Photo: Paulo Milet-Pinheiro).

October 2013 

October 2013
An adult female of the wolf spider Tigrosa helluo consuming a smaller syntopic wolf spider, Pardosa milvina. Pardosa milvina uses chemical cues from the larger predator to evaluate predation risk and grade antipredator responses proportional to the level of risk. Pardosa milvina can determine how recently T. helluo was in the area, its hunger level, diet, and the size of the spider using predator chemical cues alone. In this issue, herbicides have been shown to influence the predator-prey interactions between these species and their foraging behavior on crickets. See paper by Rittman et al. this issue. (Photo: Matt Persons)

September 2013 

September 2013
Visualization of the dispersion of an odor plume in a Californian almond orchard. The image depicts how a pheromone plume would disperse from a "calling" moth perched within the orchard canopy. The plume eddies and swirls create strands of higher odor concentration, while all the time moving gradually upward. The "smoke" plume shown here was created by loading titanium tetrachloride onto a 1-cm-long cotton wick (lower left), which was mounted on a horizontal 2-cm diameter pipe. This apparatus was placed in the interior canopy of an almond tree in an orchard near Shafter, CA. The image was taken on August 4, 2009 at 22:30. (Photo: R. Cardé)

August 2013 

August 2013
Carcass decomposition is responsible for nutrient recycling of animal organic matter. Rapid changes in resources during such a process support a large and dynamic arthropod community. Among the decomposing associated arthropod community, there are beetles belonging to the family Silphidae. These species are known as carrion beetles for being commonly encountered in vertebrate carcasses. Species of the genus Oxelytrum seem strictly necrophagous during larval stages, and are already being used in forensic studies to estimate post mortem interval. The picture shows carrion beetles of the species O. discicolle feeding on a rat carcass. Male beetles are attracted by volatiles from the food source and then release the pheronomal compounds, (Z)-1,8-heptadecadiene (major compound, above structure) and 1-heptadecene (minor compound, below structure). Females of species are attracted by the combination of the food volatiles plus the pheromones released by males. See article by Fockink et al. (Photo: Kleber M. Mise)

July 2013 

July 2013
The surrounding waters of Galeta Point (background image), located on the Caribbean side of Panama, are home to a unique and diverse collection of marine organisms including many octacorals. It has been proposed that microbiota that inhabit corals play a critical role in the defense of their host against pathogens by secretion of specialized metabolites. A Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain with strong antifungal properties was found to be associated with the coral Muriceopsis bayeriana collected at Galeta Point. MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry was used to study the microbial interaction of this Bacillus (bottom colony on left and right images) with fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus (top colony on left and right images) at the molecular level. This technique was applied directly to the microbes grown on agar with minimal sample manipulation. The distribution of the antifungal metabolites secreted by the Bacillus (example in green; right image), and fungal metabolites secreted by A. fumigatus (example in pink; right image) were visualized using false colors and transposed on the image of this interkingdom interaction. In conjunction with MS/MS network analysis, the antifungal factors were identified as iturin molecules (general structure shown on right).

June 2013 

Journal of Chemical Ecology 06. 2013
Secondary metabolites produced by mangroves, seagrasses, and salt marsh angiosperms function as chemical defenses against herbivores, pathogens, and fouling organisms, act as directional cues for settling larvae, and can influence ecosystem processes at multiple spatial scales. Thus, marine angiosperms provide a tractable system to explore new avenues in chemical ecology research.
(Top panel): The foundation salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora produces multiple phenolic compounds including orientin (pictured) to deter grazing snails, as well as fatty acid derivatives that inhibit fungi commonly farmed by snails on plant tissues.
(Middle panel): Sulfated compounds such as luteolin 7-O-β-Dglucopyranosyl-2” sulfate (pictured) from Thalassia testudinum defend seagrasses against microbial pathogens and fouling organisms.
(Bottom panel): Mangroves provide a treasure trove for new natural products like the macrocyclic polydisulfide gymnorrhizol (pictured) isolated from Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. However, ecological function(s) are known for very few of these natural products.
(All photos courtesy of R. Drew Sieg).

May 2013 

Field collection of human skin volatiles on young children volunteers affected by malaria, Burkina Faso. Odors emitted by feet have been proved to strongly influence the behavior of several blood-sucking mosquitoes, such as for the main human malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis. The picture shows the test of a new method, “contact SPME”, for the sampling of skin volatiles under field conditions: SPME fibers are lightly stroked over the skin of the foot for a few minutes, instead of being exposed a longer time in close proximity to the skin, as in classical “headspace” SPME.

April 2013 

The cover image displays a vertical confocal section of the olfactory epithelium of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), immunolabeled with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, red) and acetylated α-tubulin (green), and counterstained with DAPI (blue) to show the cell nuclei. GFAP marked an olfactory crypt cell soma and its axon, while the olfactory cilia of this cell and other, presumed ciliated olfactory receptor neurons are acetylated α-tubulin-positive. (Photo courtesy of Oliver Schmachtenberg).

March 2013 

The oriental moth, Monema flavescens Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) (upper left) is well-known for its cocoon, which looks like a small bird egg with a hard shell (upper right). The shell, which is composed of proteins, calcium oxalate and uric acid, can withstand up to 6-7 kg weight. The adult appears after skillful cutting around the top of the cocoon (lower left). This univoltine defoliator of many kinds of trees, such as Chinese plum and persimmon, inhabits Japan, China, and Korea. Since the larvae (lower right) have spines containing a peptide poison that causes serious irritation and inflammation in humans, fruit growers need assistance to deal with the larvae. (Photo: H. Naka. See paper by Shibasaki et al. this issue).

February 2013 

Upper left: Banana plants intercropped with chive, a method used to control Panama disease (Fusarium wilt) in South China. Volatiles from growing chive roots inhibit spore germination of the fungus. See article by Zhang et al. (Photo courtesy of Rensen Zeng)
Upper right: Tomato plants with rye mulch on the soil surface, showing good suppressive ability, mainly due to phytotoxic benzoxazinones. Untreated plots on left side of photo show weeds overgrowing. See article by Schulz et al. (Photo courtesy of Margot Schulz).
Lower Left: Pinus halepensis invading abandoned agricultural land. During colonization, open habitats of diverse plant communities are rapidly replaced by Aleppo pine forest (developed in background). Both allelochemicals and microorganisms play key roles. See article by Fernandez et al. (Photo courtesy of Catherine Fernandez).
Lower right: Cogongrass-invaded pine savannah in Florida. The problematic invasive cogongrass, spreads rapidly from open grassland/unimproved pastures into pine ecosystems. Allelochemicals differ both qualitatively and quantitatively from native grasses. See article by Hagan et al. (Picture courtesy of Shibu Jose).

January 2013 

The photo shows a female Australian redback spider, Latrodectus hasselti (Theridiidae), in her web. In the lower right a male is seen courting, while another one did not survive his attempts (upper left). The females releases a pheromone, N-3-methylbutyryl-O-(S)-2-methylbutyryl- L-serine, present on the silk, that elicits courtship of the males. This unique pheromone is not known from other natural sources and one of the very few amino acid derived pheromones of arthropods. Latrodectus hasselti is a widow spider potentially harmful to humans because of its toxins. Although the larger females are usually restricted to their web, bites occur in Australia and may require treatment with antiserum.

December 2012 

December 10886_038_012
Oplostomus haroldi (Witte) (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae), an Afro-tropical scarab pest of honey bee colonies with a few mating pairs of the beetle on a honey bee comb. Despite the complexity of the volatile chemistry of the hive environment, opposite sexes of the beetle are able to find each other for mating, suggesting the involvement of contact chemical communication in mate recognition in this social nest invader. (Photo: A. T. Fombong/B. Torto).

November 2012 

Nov 10886_038_011
Top left: Tetrodotoxin-resistant larval caddisflies (Limnephilus flavastellus) prey upon newt eggs and sequester the toxin. Top right: Two tetrodotoxin laden eggs deposited by a female rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). Photos: Brian Gall. Bottom left: Tetrodotoxin-containing Pleurobranchaea maculata on sub-tidal sand-flat, Auckland, New Zealand. (Photo: D Taylor, Cawthron. Bottom right: 3D model of the tetrodotoxin molecule).

October 2012 

Oct 10886_038_010
Chemical investigation of natural surfaces, especially in aquatic systems, has been technologically limited until recently. With advancements in mass spectrometry under ambient conditions this has become not only possible but readily available. Here, we present a chemical image of a red alga, Phacelocarpus neurymenioides, using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). The power of such chemical images lies in not only the ability to map the spatial distribution of specific chemicals on the surface, but also in the ability to identify and localize specific compounds using their mass spectral information. (Photo: R. Mitchell Parry).

September 2012 

Sept 10886_038_009
Scarab beetle pollinators of the genus Cyclocephala (Scarabaeidae) are attracted to 4-methyl-5vinylthiazole, a floral scent compound isolated in Neotropical Araceae, (Monocotyledonae) and Annonaceae (Dicotyledonae). Above, Caladium bicolor (Araceae). Below, Annona dioica (Annonaceae). (Photo: Artur Campos, D. Maia, and Gerhard Gottsberger).

August 2012 

The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. This cross-section of an apple shows two galleries, one that is deserted (left) and one with a last-instar larva (right). Larvae do not range the entire apple, but build voluminous galleries that contain Metschnikowia yeasts. Yeast is essential for larval nutrition and strongly reduces the incidence of fungal infestations. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological, and behavioral analysis demonstrates that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. It is therefore important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. (Photo: Peter Witzgall).

July 2012 

Like many other mammalian species, horses use olfactory communication to coordinate their reproductive activities. Stallions spent significantly more time sniffing synthetic p-cresol and showed the highest extent of erection to a sample comprised of the diestrous urine of a mare containing synthetic p-cresol at a level that is equivalent to half the amount of p-cresol found in the estrous urine samples. Thus, p-cresol functions as the sex pheromone component in horses, providing one more linkage to the intriguing similarities between insect and mammal pheromones. In this photo, a stallion Žakas of Lithuanian Heavy Draught breed enjoys exercise in a winter stockyard at the Vilnius stud farm. (Photo courtesy of Raimondas Mozuraitis).

June 2012 

Depicted are some of the key players in the rhizosphere that determine the performance of plants, in this case a maize seedling. The chemically mediated interactions among these and other soil organisms are the topic of this special issue. When properly understood, these interactions can be exploited to protect crops and to increase yield. The corn rootworm (center) is a devastating root pest of maize in the USA and Europe that can be controlled by entomopathogenic nematodes (right) if the maize roots the right chemical attractants (photographs: Matthias Held, Christelle Robert, and Ivan Hiltpold, University of Neuchâtel). Plant performance can be further enhanced with growth promoting bacteria such as Pseudomonas fluorescens (left), which may induce plant resistance to pests, and in some cases kill insects directly (Photo: Christoph Keel, University of Lausanne).

May 2012 

Healthy Delisea pulchra in its natural environment (Botany Bay, Sydney). Environmental stress interferes with the production of halogenated furanones, causing downstream processes that ultimately result in disease of the algal holobiont (Photo: Alexandra Campbell).

April 2012 

The picture shows a female of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma on the surface of an apple, a common breeding substrate of its host Drosophilia melanogaster. The upper left corner shows the chemical structure of (-)-iridomyrmecin, a novel natural compound that is used as a defensive compound by the wasps. It is synthesized in the wasp’s head and released upon encounter of ants. Ants are, besides spiders, the top predators of small parasitoid wasps and strongly avoid (-)-iridomyrmecin. The repellant effect is much weaker for the other enantiomer, (+)-iridomyrmecin, or other stereoisomers like isoiridomyrmecin. (Photo courtesy of Johannes Stökl).

March 2012 

Smallholder farmers growing their own open pollinated maize (corn) variety Nyamula with “smart” signaling properties. (Photo courtesy of Professor Zeyaur Khan, ICIPE, Kenya).

February 2012 

Photograph of two adult male common carp pursuing an ovulated female attempting to spawn in aquatic vegetation in a Minnesota lake. Males recognize females by a prostaglandin based pheromone complex which they release when ovulated. Females (and males) can be stimulated to release this pheromone for extended periods of time by inserting osmotic pumps that contain an F-prostaglandin into their body cavities. This technique may be useful to attract and control this and other species of invasive fish. (Photo: David Florenzano).

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