Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Gunzburg, Antwerp, Belgium

Deputy Editors
P. Berjano, Locarno, Switzerland (Web-publishing, Social Media and AI)
S. Blumenthal, Plano, USA (Reviews)
K. Edwards, Nottingham, UK (Statistics)
M. Ismael, Edinburgh, UK(Grand Rounds, Technical Notes and Case Reports)
C. Lamartina, Milan, Italy (Clinical Science)
M. Szpalski, Brussels, Belgium (Supplements)
H.-J. Wilke, Ulm, Germany (Basic Science)
A. Zerbi, Milan, Italy (Imaging)

Editorial Office
European Spine Journal
Mrs. Irene Zintel
Pfrundstrasse 36
3176 Neuenegg, Switzerland
Tel.: +41-31-889-0050
Fax: +41-31-889-0058
email: izintel@datacomm.ch

Statistics Task Force
A. Bhattacharya, Nottingham, UK 
O. Ifesemen, Nottingham, UK  
R. Pearson, Nottingham, UK

Editorial Task Force
R. Cecchinato, Milan, Italy
C. Martini, Milan, Italy
A. Redaelli, Milan, Italy

Editorial Board
A.D. Diwan, Kogarah, Australia
D. Samartzis, Chicago, USA
K. A. Weissmann, Santiago, Chile

Advisory Board
E. Acaroglu, Ankara, Turkey
E. Aghayev, Bern, Switzerland
Y. Ahn, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
A. Alanay, Ankara, Turkey
H. Albert, Ringe, Denmark
M. Alini, Davos, Switzerland
L. Alvarez-Galovich, Spain
V. Arlet, Philadelphia, PA, USA
C. M. Bach, Innsbruck, Austria
M. Balsano, Thiene, Italy
G. Barbagallo, Catania, Italy
C. Barrey, Lyon, France
P. Barsa, Liberec, Czech Republic
V. Bartanusz, Lausanne, Switzerland
R.H.M.A. Bartels, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
T. Barz, Schwedt, Germany
T. Bas, Valencia, Spain
H. Berk, Izmir, Turkey
F. Berryman, Birmingham, UK
C. Birkenmaier, Munich, Germany
W. Börm, Flensburg, Germany
C. Bolger, Dublin, Ireland
S. Boriani, Bologna, Italy
M. Brayda-Bruno, Milan, Italy
H. Brisby, Gothenburg, Sweden
V. Bullmann, Köln, Germany
M. Cabraja, Berlin, Germany
C. Cedraschi, Geneva, Switzerland
S. Cervellati, Bologna, Italy
X.-H. Cai, Wuhan, China
Y. P. Charles, Strasbourg, France
D. Chopin, Lille, France
C. J. Colloca, Phoenix, USA
P. Côté, Toronto, Canada
M. Crostelli, Rome, Italy
M. Czyz, Nottingham, UK
H.L.A. Defino, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
A. Dezawa, Kawasaki City, Japan
A. Di Martino, Rome, Italy
M. Di Silvestre, Bologna, Italy
M. Dittmar, Zapopan, Mexico
M. Doita, Iwate, Japan
P. Dolan, Bristol, UK
R. Dunn, Cape Town, South Africa
T. R. Easwar, Palakkad, India
A. Elfering Berne, Switzerland
A. Ermund, Gothenburg, Sweden
J.C.T. Fairbank, Headington, Oxford, UK
T. F. Fekete, Zurich, Switzerland
S. Ferguson, Zurich, Switzerland
Y. Floman, Tel Aviv, Israel
J. Franke, Dortmund, Germany
B.J.C. Freeman, Adelaide, SA, Australia
V.K. Goel, Toledo, OH, USA
Z.L. Gokaslan, Baltimore, MD, USA
M. J. Goytan, Winnipeg, Canada
M. Grönblad, Helsinki, Finland
M. C. Gupta, St. Louis, MO, USA
D.J. Hall, Adelaide, Australia
D. K. Hamilton, Pittsburgh, United States
C. C. Hasler, Basel, Switzerland
P.F. Heini, Berne, Switzerland
K. Ito, Eindhoven, Netherlands
L. Jiang, Beijing, China
W. Käfer, Kusel, Germany
A. Kaelin, Geneva, Switzerland
F. Kandziora, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
R. M. Kanna, Coimbatore, India
M. Kawakami, Ito Gun, Japan
D. Kletsas, Athens, Greece
H. Koller, Bad Wildungen-Reinhardshausen, Germany
A. Korge, Munich, Germany
P. Korovessis, Patras, Greece
A. Krödel, Essen, Germany
V. Lafage, New York, NY, USA
F. Lattig, Speicher, Switzerland
J.-C. Le Huec, Bordeaux, France
I.H. Lieberman, Plano, TX, USA
U. Liljenqvist, Muenster, Germany
B. Liu, Beijing, China
T. Lund, Helsinki, Finland
A. F. Mannion, Zurich, Switzerland
D.G. Marchesi, Lausanne, Switzerland
J.Y. Margulies, Pleasantville, NY, USA
W.S. Marras, Columbus, OH, USA
H.-M. Mayer, Munich, Germany
J. McAviney, Yowie Bay, Australia
A. H. McGregor, London, United Kingdom
J. S. Mehta, Birmingham, United Kingdom
H.J. Meisel, Halle, Germany
B. Meyer, Munich, Germany
F. Meyer, Oldenburg, Germany
E. Müller, Klagenfurt, Austria
R.C. Mulholland, Nottingham, UK
E. Munting, Brussels, Belgium
S. Naderi, Izmir, Turkey
C. Neidlinger-Wilke, Ulm, Germany
C. Nnadi, Oxford, UK
M. Nordin, New York, NY, USA
S. Núñez-Pereira, Köln, Germany
I. Obeid, Bordeaux, France
J.K. O'Dowd, London, UK
F.C. Öner, Utrecht, Netherlands
A. Ohlin, Malmö, Sweden
L. Papavero, Hamburg, Germany
E. Parent, Edmonton, Canada
S. B. Park, Seoul, Korea, Rep.
H. Pascal-Moussellard, Paris, France
P.W. Pavlov, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
F. Pellisé-Urquiza, Barcelona, Spain (Reviews)
M. Pfeiffer, Loerrach, Germany
J.L. Pinheiro-Franco, Sao Paolo, Brazil
T. Pigott, Liverpool, UK
L. H. Pimenta, Sao Paulo, Brazil
A. Ploumis, Ioannina, Greece
F. Postacchini, Rome, Italy
M. Putzier, Berlin, Germany
B. Qian, Nanjing, China
Y. Qiu, Nanjing, China
S. Rajasekaran, Ramnagar, Coimbatore, India
P. Roussouly, Lyon, France
B.J. van Royen, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
D-K. Ruan, Beijing, China
G. Sapkas, Athens, Greece
H. Saraste, Stockholm, Sweden
C.G. Schizas, Lausanne, Switzerland
R. Schmidt, Göppingen, Germany
W. Schmoelz, Innsbruck, Austria
K.J. Schnake, Nürnberg/Fürth, Germany
CH. J. Siepe, Munich, Germany
M. Shafafy, Nottingham, UK
F. H. Shen, Charlottesville, United States
F.W. Smith, Aberdeen, UK
J.-P. Steib, Strasbourg, France
T.M. Stoll, Basle, Switzerland    
P. Tanchev, Sofia, Bulgaria
M. Teli, Liverpool, United Kingdom
C. Tello, Buenos Aires, Argentina
E. Tessitore, Geneva, Switzerland
P. Tropiano, Marseille, France
M. van Tulder, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
C. Ulbricht, London, United Kingdom
Ch. Ulrich, Goeppingen, Germany
E. Van de Kelft, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium
R. Vengust, Ljubljana, Slovenia
L.R. Vialle, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
C. Villanueva, Barcelona, Spain
J.-M. Vital, Bordeaux, France
J. Webb, Nottingham, UK
D. Welsh, Cape Town, South Africa
F.M.K. Williams, London, UK
D.A. Wong, USA
R.D. Zeller, Paris, France
M. Zileli, Izmir
M.R. Zindrick, USA

Assistant Editorial Board
S. Ahuja, Cardiff, UK
H. Ali, Egypt
R. Amaral, São Paulo, Brazil
T. Aoyama, Sapporo, Japan
R. Assaker, Lille, France
U. Aydinly, Bursa, Turkey
A. A. Baaj, New York, USA
J. Bagó, Barcelona, Spain
G. Barbanti-Brodano, Bologna, Italy
R. Bassani, Milan, Italy
A. Bekar, Bursa, Turkey
U. Berlemann, Bern, Switzerland
C. Berry, Cincinnati, OH, USA
E. S. Bersusky, Buenos Aires, Argentina
G. Bodon, Esslingen, Germany
J. Booth, Nottingham, UK
A. Bosco, Chennai, India
S. Brambilla, Milan, Italy
S. Brown, Guelph, ON, Canada     
J. Cholewicki, Lansing, MI, USA
M.J. Colomina, Barcelona, Spain
G. B. Cornwall, Poway, CA, USA
G. Costanzo, Latina, Italy
R. Delfini, Rome, Italy
B. Depreitere, Leuven, Belgium
T.J. Dietrich, Zurich, Switzerland
A.S. Dumont, Charlottesville, VA, USA
T. Egloff, Münchenstein, Switzerland
P. Eysel, Cologne, Germany
M. R.  Farrokhi, Shiraz, Iran
M. Farshad, Zurich, Switzerland
A. A. Faundez, Geneva, Switzerland
M.G. Fehlings, Toronto, ON, Canada
F. Ferreri, Rome, Italy
M. Formica, Genova, Italy
D. Fourney, Saskatoon, Canada
J.M. Fritz, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
P. Fritzell, Falun, Sweden
T. Furuya, Chiba, Japan
F. Galbusera, Milan, Italy
B. Gantenbein-Ritter, Bern, Switzerland
D. Garbossa, Torino, Italy
A. C. Gardner, Birmingham, UK
A. Gasbarrini, Bologna, Italy
M. Gehrchen, Copenhagen, Denmark
F. P. Girardi, New York, USA
E. Gobbi, Buenos Aires, Argentina
A. Goel, Mumbai, India
A. Gonzalvo, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
J. A.C. Guimarães Consciência, Portugal
B. Guiot, Littleton, CO, USA
G. Guizzardi, Florence, Italy
E. Hanafy, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
N. Hansen-Algenstaedt, Hamburg, Germany
I. J. Harding, Bristol, UK
F. Hartmann, Koblenz, Germany
D. Haschtmann, Zurich, Switzerland
O.N. Hausmann, Luzern, Switzerland
I. J. Helenius, Turku, Finland
D.W.L. Hukins, Birmingham, UK
J.C. Iatridis, Burlington, VT, USA
H. Iizuka, Isesaki, Japan
B. Ilharreborde, Paris, France
A. Jackowski, Birmingham, UK
B. Jónsson, Harstad, Norway
S. R. Kantelhardt, Mainz, Germany
E. Kast, Winterthur, Switzerland
Z. Klezl, Derby, UK
M. Koda, Tsukuba, Japan
N. Kumar, Singapore, Singapore
P. Krepler, Vienna, Austria
F.P. Kuhn, Zurich, Switzerland
P. Lakshmanan, Sunderland, UK
K.S. Lam, London, UK
A. Lazary, Budapest, Hungary
L. Lenke, New York, NY, USA
K. Lippuner, Berne, Switzerland
S.V. Marawar, Syracuse, NY, USA
L. Marchi, São Paulo, Brazil
H. Mehdian, Nottingham, UK
M. Melloh, Winterthur, Switzerland
J. Melrose, St. Leonards, Australia
H. Mhaidli, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
L. Miladi, Paris, France
J. Mineiro, Lisbon, Portugal
S. Minnella, Milan, Italy
H. Miyamoto, Kobe, Japan
H. Nagashima, Tottori, Japan
S. Negrini, Brescia, Italy               
D.J. Nuckley, Minneapolis, MN, USA
T. Odent, Paris, France
L. Oggiano, Rome, Italy
P. Otten, Fribourg, Switzerland
D. Ovadia, Tel-Aviv, Israel
P. D. Parchi, Milan, Italy
J.-B. Park, Uijeongbu, Korea, Rep.
M. Pecina, Zagreb, Croatia
A. Piazzolla, Bari, Italy
T. Pitzen, Homburg/Saar, Germany
J. Pizones, Madrid, Spain
N.A. Quraishi, Nottingham, UK
R. Reindl, Montreal, Canada
A. A. Reyes-Sanchez, Mexico City, Mexico
D. Riew, New York, NY, USA
M. Ruf, Karlsbad, Germany
A. Russo, Birmingham, UK
S. Schaeren, Basle, Switzerland
M. Scholz, Frankfurt a.M., Germany
C. Schonauer, Naples, Italy
M. Sekiguchi, Fukushima, Japan
A. Shirazi-Adl, Montreal, Canada
H.E. Smith, Philadelphia, USA
R. C. Soh, Singapore, Singapore
J. Štulík, Prague, Czech Republic
D. Thompson, London, UK
P. Trobisch, Simmerath, Germany
P. Tsitsopoulos, Thessaloniki, Greece
M. Turgut, Aydin, Turkey
J. Urrutia, Santiago, Chile
P. Vajkoczy, Berlin, Germany
E. Vialle, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
X. Vidal, Barcelona, Spain
S. Vidyadhara, Bangalore, India
M. Visocchi, Rome, Italy
S. Wang, Boston, MA, USA
D. Wardlaw, Aberdeen, UK
W. Welch, Philadelphia, USA
R. Wohns, Seattle, USA
S.T. Yoon, Atlanta, GA, USA
W. Yuan, Shanghai, P.R. China
F. Zaina, Milan, Italy
B. Zárate-Kalfópulos, Mexico City, Mexico
A. Zibis, Larissa, Greece

Founding Editor
M. Aebi, Bern, Switzerland

Honorary Editor
S. Nazarian, Marseille, France