Submission guidelines

Instructions for Authors

Types of papers

Original papers can be submitted in German or English, reports (rubric "Berichte") can only be submitted in German. Manuscripts from the fields of original papers are evaluated by different experts. Manuscripts belonging to the category “reports” will not be evaluated.

Galleys of original papers are sent to the main author. Regarding the galleys, only typographical errors may be corrected. As regards content or style there must not be any alterations. Costs for later alterations which exceed 10 percent of the costs of typesetting will have to be paid by the author.

In order to facilitate quick publication the correction of makeup will be done by the editor.

The editor reserves the right to make formal and stylistic

alterations as well as to shorten the text.

Organization of content

The subject should be treated in an application-oriented way, to be comprehended not only by few experts, but by a broad public.

Emphasis should be put on a concise and exact presentation. The title of the manuscript should be as short and expressive as possible.

Set-up of the paper: Original papers are to be divided into introduction and approach of the problem, methods and discussion as well as summary and conclusion. Reports (rubric "Berichte") may be structured in a different way.

- Introduction and approach of the problem: State of the art and aim of the paper should be described in a comprehensible way in a few lines.

- Methods and discussion: The specialized component of the paper should be developed and new ideas that justify the publication as original paper should be pointed out.

- Conclusion: This component should give the results from the work on technology, production etc. , and effects for economy and practice and further conclusions.

- Original Papers should comprise five printed pages at most including figures and tables (i.e. approximately 21,000 strokes). Longer manuscripts may be published charging a contribution to the cost of printing.

- Reports should be limited to a maximum of two printed pages (i.e. approximately 8,000 strokes).

Information about the author(s): At the end of the article each author is presented in a short biography as well as a photograph.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscript Submission

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.


Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

Online Submission

Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.

Source Files

Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files at every submission and revision. Failing to submit a complete set of editable source files will result in your article not being considered for review. For your manuscript text please always submit in common word processing formats such as .docx or LaTeX.

To authors interested in publishing with us:

Our editors typically invite authors to submit their manuscripts. Nevertheless, should you be interested in publishing with us, please contact Ms. Marlene Fischer ( prior to submitting your manuscript to discuss any potential collaboration.

Title Page

Please make sure your title page contains the following information.


The title should be concise and informative.

Author information

  • The name(s) of the author(s)
  • The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
  • A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author
  • If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)

If address information is provided with the affiliation(s) it will also be published.

For authors that are (temporarily) unaffiliated we will only capture their city and country of residence, not their e-mail address unless specifically requested.

Large Language Models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT, do not currently satisfy our authorship criteria. Notably an attribution of authorship carries with it accountability for the work, which cannot be effectively applied to LLMs. Use of an LLM should be properly documented in the Methods section (and if a Methods section is not available, in a suitable alternative part) of the manuscript.


Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

For life science journals only (when applicable)

  • Trial registration number and date of registration for prospectively registered trials
  • Trial registration number and date of registration, followed by “retrospectively registered”, for retrospectively registered trials


Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Statements and Declarations

The following statements should be included under the heading "Statements and Declarations" for inclusion in the published paper. Please note that submissions that do not include relevant declarations will be returned as incomplete.

  • Competing Interests: Authors are required to disclose financial or non-financial interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Please refer to “Competing Interests and Funding” below for more information on how to complete this section.

Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.

Please give abstract, keywords and title in German language, too.

If you are member of technical-scientific associations please mention this on the title page, too.


Text Formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.

  • Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
  • Use italics for emphasis.
  • Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
  • Do not use field functions.
  • Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
  • Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
  • Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
  • Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format (older Word versions).

Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX. We recommend using Springer Nature’s LaTeX template.


Please use the decimal system of headings with no more than three levels.


Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.


Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.

Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.

Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.


Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

Scientific style (including important instructions for nucleotide submission and phylogenetic trees)

Availability of viruses, mutants/variants, cells

Submission of a manuscript implies that all viruses, novel mutants and variants, genes, plasmids, vector constructs, and cell lines described in the manuscript will be made freely available for distribution upon request to all qualified members of the scientific community for research purposes.

Nucleotide sequence data

Only in exceptional circumstances will long sequences be published. New nucleotide data must be submitted and deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases and an accession number obtained before the paper can be accepted for publication. Submission to any one of the three collaborating databanks is sufficient to ensure data entry in all. The accession number should be included in the manuscript e.g., as a footnote on the title page: ‘Note: Nucleotide sequence data reported are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under the accession number(s)----’. If requested, the database will withhold release of data until publication. The most convenient method for submitting sequence data is by World Wide Web:



GenBankTM via BankIt

or stand-alone submission tool Sequin:


For special types of submissions (e.g., genomes, bulk submissions, etc.) additional submission protocols are available from the above sites.

Papers dealing mainly with sequences will be considered for publication as " Original Article " or " Brief Report " only if the genomic organisation derived from the reported nucleotide sequence differs fundamentally from those of typical members of the virus genus/family and, preferably , also if the biological significance and functions of certain sequence differences have been experimentally addressed. In the absence of biological data , manuscripts describing only sequences can be submitted as an Annotated Sequence Record.

Database Contact Information

DDBJ: Center for Information Biology and DNA Databank of Japan. National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan; telephone: +81 559 81 6853; fax: +81 559 81 6849; e-mail:; web URL:

EMBL: EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Submissions, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB 10 1SD U.K.; telephone: +44 1223494499; fax: +44 1223 494472; e-mail: E-mail: ; web URL:

GenBank: National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, Bldg. 38A, Rm 8N-803, Bethesda, MD 20894, U.S.A.; telephone: +1 301 496 2475; fax: +1 301 4809241; e-mail: ; web URL:

Nucleic acid sequences of limited length which are the primary subject of a study may be presented freestyle in the most effective format. In exceptional cases, longer nucleic acid sequences may be presented in the following format to conserve space. Submit the sequence as camera-ready copy in lines of 100 bases, using a nonproportional (monospace) font which is easily legible when published at 100 bases per 16 cm line.

Encoded amino acid sequences m

ay be presented, if necessary, immediately above or below the first nucleotide of each codon, by using the standard single-letter amino acid code.

X-ray crystallographic protein structure data

Manuscripts containing new structure determinations (including X-ray amplitudes and phases and derived atomic coordinates) must be accompanied by (an) accession number(s) from an internationally available depository (such as Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, U.S.A.). If structure determinations have been submitted to a depository, but an accession number has not yet been assigned, the manuscript can be submitted for review, but it will not be published until (an) accession number(s) is available for insertion into the manuscript.

Virus nomenclature

Each virus should be identified at least once, preferably in the Introduction or Materials and methods section, using formal family, genus, and species terms, and where possible by using a precise strain designation term as developed by an internationally recognized specialty group or culture collection. Please note that the word type is not used before species designations that include a number. Formal terms used for virus families, genera, and species should be those approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV): King AMQ, Lefkowitz E , Adams MJ, Carstens EB (eds) (2011) Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Elsevier, 1338 pages or via Once formal taxonomic names have been given in a paper, vernacular terms may be used.

Formal taxonomic nomenclature:

In formal taxonomic usage, the first letters of virus order, family, subfamily, genus and species names are capitalized and the terms are printed in italics. Other words in the species name are not capitalized unless they are proper nouns or parts of nouns, for example West Nile virus. In formal usage, the name of the taxon should precede the term for the taxonomic unit; for example: “the family Paramyxoviridae”, “the genus Morbillivirus”. The following represent examples of full formal taxonomic terminology:

1. Order Mononegavirales, family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus, species Rabies virus.

2. Family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, genus Orthopoxvirus, species Vaccinia virus.

3. Family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus, species Enterovirus C.

4. Family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, species Tomato spotted wilt virus.

Vernacular taxonomic nomenclature:

In formal vernacular usage, virus order, family, subfamily, genus and species names are written in lower case Roman script; they are not capitalized, nor are they printed in italics or underlined. In informal usage, the name of the taxon should not include the formal suffix, and the name of the taxon should follow the term for the taxonomic unit; for example “the picornavirus family”, “the enterovirus genus”.

One particular source of ambiguity in vernacular nomenclature lies in the common use of the same root terms in formal family, genus or species names. Imprecision stems from not being able to easily identify in vernacular usage which hierarchical level is being cited. For example, the vernacular name “paramyxovirus” might refer to the family Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, or one species in the genus Respirovirus, such as Human parainfluenza virus 1. The solution in vernacular usage is to avoid “jumping” hierarchical levels and to add taxon identification wherever needed. For example, when citing the taxonomic placement of Human parainfluenza virus 1, taxon identification should always be added: “Human parainfluenza virus 1 is a species in the genus Respirovirus, family Paramyxoviridae.” In this example, as is usually the case, adding the information that this virus is also a member of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae and the order Mononegavirales is unnecessary.

It should be stressed that italics and capital letters must be used only when referring to taxonomic categories like species, genera and families. When referring to the virus being studied rather than to the taxonomic group the virus belongs to, the virus name is written in lower case Roman script without capitals, for instance measles virus or tomato chlorosis virus. It is incorrect to write that the species Tobacco mosaic virus has been sequenced or has been isolated from a host plant, since it is only the virus itself, tobacco mosaic virus, that can be handled in this way and has a sequence. Virus species, like genera or families, are man-made taxonomic constructions and do not have hosts, vectors or sequences. On the other hand, it is correct to write that a member (i.e. a virus), a strain or an isolate of the species Tobacco mosaic virus has been isolated or was sequenced. The use of italics when referring to the name of a species signals that it has the status of an official-species recognized by the ICTV.

The 9th ICTV Report (King AMQ, Lefkowitz E , Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Elsevier) or the ICTV web page should be consulted to ascertain which names have been approved as official species names.

Nomenclature of bacteria

Binary names, consisting of a genus and species term (e.g., Escherichia coli), should be used for all bacteria. After the first usage, the genus term should be abbreviated (e.g., E. coli). All taxonomic terms, including genus, species, and subspecies are printed in italics; strain designations are not.

Genetic nomenclature

Where appropriate for viral genetic systems (e.g., phenotypes, genotypes, wild-type alleles), the nomenclature recommendations of Demerec et al. should be used: Demerec M, Adelberg EA, Clark AJ et al (1966) A proposal for a uniform nomenclature in bacterial genetics. Genetics 54: 61–76.

Chemical and biochemical nomenclature

The names used for chemical/biochemical compounds should be those recommended in Chemical Abstracts and its indices (Chemical Abstracts Service, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.), Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents (The Biochemical Society, London, U.K.), and the Instructions to Authors of leading biochemistry journals. For enzymes, use terms recommended by The International Union of Biochemistry (1984) Enzyme nomenclature. Academic Press, New York.

Restriction endonucleases

Nomenclature for restriction endonucleases should follow standard convention: Roberts RJ (1977) Restriction endonucleases. In: Bukhari AQI, Shapiro JA, Adhya SL (eds) DNA insertion elements, plasmids, and episomes. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, pp 757–768.

Nucleotide sequence data

The sequencing strategy employed should be described, and the sequence itself submitted in the form of “camera ready” copy, following standard conventions of the International Union of Biochemistry.

Numerical data

Units of measurement

Standard metric units are used for length, weight, and volume. For these units and for molarity, use standard terms: m, μ, n, and p, for 10–3, 10–6, 10–9, and 10–12, respectively. Use the term k for 103. Avoid compound terms such as mμ or μμ. Avoid the ambiguous term ppm (instead use μg/ml or μg/g). Units of temperature are written as 37°C or 324 K. See standard references for reporting units of illumination, energy, frequency, pressure, etc.

Molecular mass

When indicating the mass of viruses, ribosomes, and other biologically complex entities containing different kinds of molecules, the term molecular mass (Mr), not molecular weight, should be used. (Mr is a dimensionless number representing the ratio of the mass of an entity to onetwelfth the mass of an atom of 12C.) When indicating the mass of proteins, carbohydrates, and other complex molecules, the term Mr is also preferred, but molecular weight may be used. It is acceptable, but not necessary, to use the mass unit dalton with the term Mr, but not with the term molecular weight. For example, it is preferred to state that the Mr of the poliovirus virion is 8.58 × 106 and that the Mr of poliovirus protein VP-1 is 33,521.

Isotopically labeled compounds

For simple molecules, isotopic labeling is indicated in the chemical formula or name (e.g., 14CO2, H235SO4, 14C-amino acids, 131I-labeled protein). For complex molecules, the symbol for the isotope introduced is placed in square brackets directly preceding the part of the name that describes the labeled entity (e.g., [14C]urea, SV-40 [32P]DNA, [a-14C]lysine). See Instructions to Authors of leading biochemistry journals for further details.

Patient identification

When virus isolates are derived from patients in clinical studies, do not identify them by using patients’ names or initials, even as part of a strain designation. Do not use hospital identifiers. Instead, use confidentially coded terms. Note: established designations of some viruses and cells that represent patient initials are acceptable — JC virus, BK virus, HeLa cells, etc. Do not use patient group identifiers pertaining to race, address, occupation, etc., unless relevant to the study.



Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Some examples:

1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3].

2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman [5].

3. This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].

Reference list

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.

The entries in the list should be numbered consecutively.

If available, please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list (e.g. “”).

  • Journal article

    Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738.

    Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:

    Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329

  • Article by DOI

    Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med.

  • Book

    South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London

  • Book chapter

    Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257

  • Online document

    Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Accessed 26 June 2007

  • Dissertation

    Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see LTWA

If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.

Authors preparing their manuscript in LaTeX can use the bibliography style file sn-basic.bst which is included in the Springer Nature Article Template.

Books: additional information

At the citation of books, please give:

  • volume
  • edition
  • page
  • place of publication and
  • publisher


  • All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
  • Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
  • Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.


For the best quality final product, it is highly recommended that you submit all of your artwork – photographs, line drawings, etc. – in an electronic format. Your art will then be produced to the highest standards with the greatest accuracy to detail. The published work will directly reflect the quality of the artwork provided.

Electronic Figure Submission

  • Supply all figures electronically.
  • Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
  • For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
  • Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.

Line Art

  • Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
  • Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
  • All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
  • Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.

Halftone Art

  • Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
  • If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
  • Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

Combination Art

  • Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
  • Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.

Color Art

  • Color art is free of charge for print and online publication.
  • Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB.

Figure Lettering

  • To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
  • Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
  • Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
  • Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
  • Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.

Figure Numbering

  • All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
  • If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices [Supplementary Information (SI)] should, however, be numbered separately.

Figure Captions

  • Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
  • Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
  • No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
  • Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
  • Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.

Figure Placement and Size

  • When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
  • For large-sized journals the figures should be 84 mm (for double-column text areas), or 174 mm (for single-column text areas) wide and not higher than 234 mm.
  • For small-sized journals, the figures should be 119 mm wide and not higher than 195 mm.


If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.


In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that

  • All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
  • Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (color-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
  • Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1

Supplementary Information (SI)

Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article or a book chapter. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.

Before submitting research datasets as Supplementary Information, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.


  • Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
  • Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
  • To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
  • High resolution (streamable quality) videos can be submitted up to a maximum of 25GB; low resolution videos should not be larger than 5GB.

Audio, Video, and Animations

  • Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
  • Maximum file size: 25 GB for high resolution files; 5 GB for low resolution files
  • Minimum video duration: 1 sec
  • Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp

Text and Presentations

  • Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
  • A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.


  • Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).

Specialized Formats

  • Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.

Collecting Multiple Files

  • It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.


  • If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
  • Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
  • Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.


  • For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.

Processing of supplementary files

  • Supplementary Information (SI) will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.


In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that

  • The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
  • Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.

Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:

  • The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
  • A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
  • Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
  • Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.

Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.

  • Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
  • Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
  • Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
  • Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.

*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.

Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.

If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:

  • If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:

    - an erratum/correction may be placed with the article

    - an expression of concern may be placed with the article

    - or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.

The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.

  • The author’s institution may be informed
  • A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.

Fundamental errors

Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.

Suggesting / excluding reviewers

Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.

Authorship principles

These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.

Authorship clarified

The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.

The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:

All authors whose names appear on the submission

1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;

2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;

3) approved the version to be published; and

4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

* Based on/adapted from:

ICMJE, Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors,

Transparency in authors’ contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication, McNutt at all, PNAS February 27, 2018

Disclosures and declarations

All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).

The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.

Data transparency

All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.

Role of the Corresponding Author

One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.

The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:

  • ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
  • managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
  • providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
  • making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).

* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Author contributions

In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.

Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:

• Free text:

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Example: CRediT taxonomy:

• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….

For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.

For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:

A Graduate Student’s Guide to Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order, APA Science Student Council 2006


The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.

Changes to authorship

Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.

  • Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!

Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.

Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.

Author identification

Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.

Deceased or incapacitated authors

For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.

Authorship issues or disputes

In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.


Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.

After Acceptance

Upon acceptance, your article will be exported to Production to undergo typesetting. Once typesetting is complete, you will receive a link asking you to confirm your affiliation, choose the publishing model for your article as well as arrange rights and payment of any associated publication cost.

Once you have completed this, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.

Article publishing agreement

Depending on the ownership of the journal and its policies, you will either grant the Publisher an exclusive licence to publish the article or will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher.


Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.

Color illustrations

Publication of color illustrations is free of charge.

Proof reading

The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.

After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.

Online First

The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

Open Choice

Open Choice allows you to publish open access in more than 1850 Springer Nature journals, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.

Article processing charges (APCs) vary by journal – view the full list


  • Increased researcher engagement: Open Choice enables access by anyone with an internet connection, immediately on publication.
  • Higher visibility and impact: In Springer hybrid journals, OA articles are accessed 4 times more often on average, and cited 1.7 more times on average*.

  • Easy compliance with funder and institutional mandates: Many funders require open access publishing, and some take compliance into account when assessing future grant applications.

It is easy to find funding to support open access – please see our funding and support pages for more information.

*) Within the first three years of publication. Springer Nature hybrid journal OA impact analysis, 2018.

Open Choice

Funding and Support pages

Copyright and license term – CC BY

Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Find more about the license agreement

Scientific style

  • Please always use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (SI units).
  • Please use the standard mathematical notation for formulae, symbols etc.: Italic for single letters that denote mathematical constants, variables, and unknown quantities; Roman/upright for numerals, operators, and punctuation, and commonly defined functions or abbreviations, e.g., cos, det, e or exp, lim, log, max, min, sin, tan, d (for derivative); Bold for vectors, tensors, and matrices.

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Please note that using these tools, or any other service, is not a requirement for publication, nor does it imply or guarantee that editors will accept the article, or even select it for peer review.

Chinese (中文)


如果在结构精巧的稿件中用精心组织的英语展示您的作品,就能最大限度地让编辑和审稿人理解并公正评估您的作品。许多研究人员发现,获得一些独立支持有助于他们以尽可能美好的方式展示他们的成果。Springer Nature Author Services 的专家可帮助您准备稿件,具体包括润色英语表述、添加有见地的注释、为稿件排版、设计图表、翻译等。

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Japanese (日本語)


内容が適切に組み立てられ、質の高い英語で書かれた論文を投稿すれば、編集者や査読者が論文を理解し、公正に評価するための最善の機会となります。多くの研究者は、個別のサポートを受けることで、研究結果を可能な限り最高の形で発表できると思っています。Springer Nature Author Servicesのエキスパートが、英文の編集、建設的な提言、論文の書式、図の調整、翻訳など、論文の作成をサポートいたします。




Korean (한국어)

게재를 위해 원고를 개선하려면 어떻게 해야 할까요?

여러분의 작품을 체계적인 원고로 발표하는 것은 편집자와 심사자가 여러분의 연구를 이해하고 공정하게 평가할 수 있는 최선의 기회를 제공합니다. 많은 연구자들은 어느 정도 독립적인 지원을 받는 것이 가능한 한 최선의 방법으로 자신의 결과를 발표하는 데 도움이 된다고 합니다. Springer Nature Author Services 전문가들은 영어 편집, 발전적인 논평, 원고 서식 지정, 그림 준비, 번역 등과 같은 원고 준비를 도와드릴 수 있습니다.

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또한 당사의 무료 문법 검사도구를 사용하여 여러분의 연구를 평가할 수 있습니다.

이러한 도구 또는 기타 서비스를 사용하는 것은 게재를 위한 필수 요구사항이 아니며, 편집자가 해당 논문을 수락하거나 피어 리뷰에 해당 논문을 선택한다는 것을 암시하거나 보장하지는 않습니다.


Generelle Information

Originalarbeiten können in englischer oder deutscher Sprache eingereicht werden, Übersichtsarbeiten (Rubrik "Berichte") nur in deutscher Sprache. Originalarbeiten werden von mindestens mindestens einem Gutachter beurteilt. Manuskripte für Übersichtsarbeiten werden keiner wissenschaftlichen Begutachtung unterzogen.

Unsere Redakteure laden Autoren gezielt ein, ihre Manuskripte einzureichen. Sollten Sie an einer Veröffentlichung in der e&i interessiert sein, kontaktieren Sie bitte Frau Marlene Fischer (, bevor Sie Ihr Manuskript einreichen, um eine mögliche Zusammenarbeit zu besprechen.

Korrekturfahnen von Originalarbeiten werden dem federführenden Autor zugesandt. In den Fahnen dürfen nur Druckfehler verbessert, aber keine inhaltlichen und stilistischen Änderungen vorgenommen werden. Kosten für nachträgliche Änderungen, die 10 Prozent der Satzkosten übersteigen, müssen den Autoren in Rechnung gestellt werden.

Um ein rasches Erscheinen zu ermöglichen, wird die Umbruchkorrektur durch die Redaktion vorgenommen. Die Redaktion behält sich das Recht auf formale und stilistische Änderungen sowie Kürzungen vor.

Organisation des Inhalts

Das Thema soll in anwendungsnaher Form behandelt sein, welche einer breiten Leserschicht und nicht nur wenigen Experten verständlich ist. Auf knappe und exakte Darstellung ist Wert zu legen. Der Titel der Arbeit soll möglichst kurz und aussagekräftig gewählt werden.

Gliederung der Arbeit: Originalarbeiten sind in Einleitung und Problemstellung, Methodik und Diskussion sowie Konklusion zu gliedern. Übersichtsarbeiten (Rubrik "Berichte") können anders gegliedert sein.

Einleitung und Problemstellung: Hier sollten der Stand der Technik und das Ziel der Arbeit in wenigen Worten leicht fassbar beschrieben werden.

Methodik und Diskussion: Hier sollte der fachliche Kern der Arbeit entwickelt werden, unter Hervorhebung des neuen Gedankens, der die Originalität der Arbeit ausmacht.

Konklusion: Hier sind Auswirkungen der Arbeit auf Technologie, Produktion etc., Folgerungen für Wirtschaft und Praxis, weitere Schlussfolgerungen zu nennen.

Angaben zum Autor/zu den Autoren:

Der Autor/die Autoren wird/werden am Ende des Beitrags mit Kurzlebenslauf und Portraitbild vorgestellt.

Der Richtwert von Originalarbeiten beträgt fünf Druckseiten, einschließlich der Abbildungen (das sind ungefähr 21.000 Zeichen).

Umfangreichere Originalarbeiten können unter Anrechnung eines Druckkostenbeitrags veröffentlicht werden. Der Richtwert von Übersichtsarbeiten beträgt zwei Druckseiten (etwa 8.000 Zeichen).



Voraussetzung für das Einreichen eines Manuskriptes ist, dass die Arbeit noch nicht publiziert oder an anderer Stelle zur Publikation eingereicht wurde sowie dass alle Koautoren sowie die Institution, an der die Arbeit entstanden ist, der Publikation – implizit oder explizit – zustimmen.


Bei Verwendung von Textteilen, Abbildungen und Tabellen aus anderen Publikationen ist vom Autor die Genehmigung des Copyright-Inhabers (in der Regel des Originalverlags) einzuholen, und zwar sowohl für die Verwendung in der gedruckten als auch in der elektronischen/online Version der Zeitschrift. Bitte legen Sie dem Manuskript eine Kopie der Genehmigung bei.


Manuskripte sind im Originalformat und im PDF-Format einzureichen. Klicken Sie dazu auf “Online einreichen” im rechten Navigationsbereich und hängen Sie die Dateien an die E-Mail an.

Bitte beachten Sie, dass wir bereits zum Zeitpunkt der Einreichung alle notwendigen Dateien in einem bearbeitbaren ("offenen") Format benötigen. Sollten diese nicht von Anfang an zur Verfügung stehen, kann dies zu unnötigen Verzögerungen des Begutachtungs- und des Produktions-Prozesses führen.



Das Titelblatt muss folgende Informationen enthalten:

  • Name(n) des/der Autors/en
  • Prägnanter, informativer Titel der Arbeit
  • Affiliation/en des/der Autors/en, d.h. Institut, (Abteilung), Stadt, (Bundesstaat), Land
  • Eine klar gekennzeichnete und aktive E-Mail-Adresse des korrespondierenden Autors
  • Falls vorhanden: die 16-stellige ORCID des/der Autors/en

Wenn zusammen mit einer Affiliation Adressinformationen angegeben werden, werden diese ebenfalls veröffentlicht.

Bei Autoren, die (vorübergehend) keiner Affiliation zugeordnet sind, wird nur deren Wohnort (Stadt und Land) veröffentlicht, nicht aber die E-Mail-Adresse, so dies nicht ausdrücklich gewünscht wird.


Dem Beitrag ist eine kurze Zusammenfassung von 150 bis 250 Wörtern voranzustellen. Die Zusammenfassung sollte keine Abkürzungen oder Literaturverweise enthalten.


Liefern Sie außerdem 4 bis 6 Schlüsselwörter.

Titel, Abstract und Keywords in Englisch

Bei deutschsprachigen Beiträgen ist eine Übersetzung des Aufsatztitels, der Zusammenfassung und der Schlüsselwörter ins Englische beizufügen.

Bei englischsprachigen Beiträgen sind umgekehrt Titel, Abstract und Keywords ins Deutsche zu übersetzen.


Allfällige Mitgliedschaften in technisch-wissenschaftlichen Vereinen sollten ebenfalls auf der Titelseite vermerkt werden.



Schreiben Sie Ihr Manuskript in Word und:

• Verwenden Sie für den gesamten Text eine Grundschrift (z.B. Times Roman 10 pt).

• Im laufenden Text hervorgehobene Wörter und Satzteile schreiben Sie bitte kursiv.

• Nummerieren Sie die Seiten mit Hilfe der Funktion „Seitenzahlen einfügen“.

• Verwenden Sie keine Feldfunktionen.

• Erstellen Sie Tabellen mit der Word-Tabellenfunktion, nicht mit Excel. Verwenden Sie auf keinen Fall die Leertaste, um Text tabellarisch auszurichten.

• Erstellen Sie Formeln mit dem Equation Editor oder mit MathType.

• Sichern Sie Ihre Arbeit im *.docx Format (Word 2007 und höher) oder im *doc Format (ältere Word-Versionen).

Manuskripte mit mathematischem Inhalt können auch in LaTeX eingereicht werden.

LaTeX macro package (Download zip, 190 kB)


Bitte verwenden Sie eine Dezimalgliederung mit nicht mehr als 3 Überschriften- bzw. Gliederungsebenen.


Fachsprachliche Abkürzungen sollten beim ersten Vorkommen im Text erklärt werden.


Fußnoten können zusätzliche Informationen enthalten, die sonst den normalen Textfluss stören würden. Dazu können auch Literaturzitate gehören, die Fußnoten sollten jedoch nicht ausschließlich aus einer Literaturangabe bestehen. Bibliographische Angaben sind immer in die Literaturliste aufzunehmen. Fußnoten dürfen außerdem keine Abbildungen und Tabellen enthalten.

Fußnoten zum Text sind durchgehend zu nummerieren; Fußnoten zu Tabellen werden mit hochgestellten Kleinbuchstaben (oder Sternchen für Signifikanzwerte) gekennzeichnet. Fußnoten zum Titel oder den Autoren erhalten keine Referenzsymbole.

Benutzen Sie immer Fußnoten, keine Endnoten.


Danksagungen stehen in einem separaten Abschnitt vor dem Literaturverzeichnis. Namen von Förderorganisationen sollten dabei immer ausgeschrieben werden.


Zitierung im Text

Zitieren Sie Literatur mit Ziffern in eckigen Klammern nach folgenden Mustern:

  • Wenn der Autorenname im Text vorkommt:

    ... Bourdieu [3] ...

  • Sonst:


    ...[3, 5–7, 12]


Nehmen Sie nur Quellen in das Literaturverzeichnis auf, die im Text zitiert und bereits publiziert oder zur Publikation angenommen wurden. Quellen, die der Öffentlichkeit nicht zugänglich sind und persönliche Mitteilungen sollten nur im Text erwähnt werden.

Nummerieren Sie die Literatureinträge fortlaufend.

DOIs (sofern verfügbar) sollten immer als vollständige DOI-Links im Literaturverzeichnis mitenthalten sein (z.Bsp. „“).

  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Zeeck A, Maier J, Hartmann A, Wetzler-Burmeister E, Wirsching M, Herzog T (2009) Stationäre und tagesklinische Behandlung der Anorexia nervosa: Bewertung von Therapiekomponenten aus Patientensicht. Psychother Psych Med 59:194-203.

    Idealerweise sollten alle Autoren angegeben werden, bei sehr vielen Autoren kann aber mit “et al” abgekürzt werden:

    Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329

  • Online-first-Artikel

    Lamott F, Mörtl K, Buchholz MB (2009) Biografiekonstruktionen im Dienste der Abwehr. Selbstdeutungen von Straftätern. Forum Psychoanal.

  • Buch

    Jürgens U, Malsch T, Dohse K (1989) Moderne Zeiten in der Automobilfabrik. Springer, Heidelberg

  • Buchkapitel

    Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (Hrsg) The rise of modern genomics, 3. Aufl. Wiley, New York, S 230-257

  • Online Dokument

    Abou-Allaban Y, Dell ML, Greenberg W, Lomax J, Peteet J, Torres M, Cowell V (2006) Religious/spiritual commitments and psychiatric practice. Resource document. American Psychiatric Association. Gesehen 25. Juni 2007

  • Dissertation

    Fritzlar B (1989) Missbildungen bei Regenwürmern im Nahbereich deutscher Atomkraftwerke. Dissertation, Universität Freiburg i.Br.

Bitte zitieren Sie Zeitschriften mit ihrem internationalen Kurztitel (siehe unten):

ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations

Wenn Sie sich unsicher sind, geben Sie bitte den vollständigen Namen der Zeitschrift an.

Zitierung von Büchern

Bitte geben Sie hier auch Band, Auflage, Verlagsort, Verlag und Seitenzahl an.


  • Nummerieren Sie die Tabellen fortlaufend.
  • Zitieren Sie die Tabellen der Reihe nach im Text.
  • Versehen Sie jede Tabelle mit einer Überschrift.
  • Falls Sie bereits publiziertes Material verwenden, geben Sie die Quelle am Ende der Tabellenüberschrift an.
  • Tabellenfußnoten werden mit hochgestellten Kleinbuchstaben gekennzeichnet und direkt unterhalb der Tabelle angefügt. Signifikanzen können mit hochgestellten Sternchen angegeben werden.



  • Bitte speichern Sie Vektorgraphiken im EPS-Format ab, Halbtonabbildungen (z.B. Photos) im TIFF-Format. MS Office Dateien sind ebenfalls möglich.
  • Geben Sie an, mit welchem Graphikprogramm die Abbildungen erstellt wurden.
  • Als Dateinamen verwenden Sie bitte “Abb” und die Abbildungsnummer, z.B. Abb1.eps.


  • Definition: Schwarz-weiß Zeichnungen ohne Schattierungen.
  • Überprüfen Sie, ob alle Details inklusive Beschriftung gut erkennbar sind. Die Linienstärke in der Endgröße muss mindestens 0,1 mm (0,3 pt) betragen.
  • Bei eingescannten Strichzeichnungen oder Zeichnungen im Bitmap-Format muss die Auflösung mindestens 1200 dpi betragen.
  • Bei Vektorgraphiken im EPS-Format müssen die Schriften unbedingt mit eingebunden werden.


  • Definition: Photos oder Zeichnungen mit Schattierungen (Graustufen).
  • Die Mindestauflösung beträgt 300 dpi.


  • Definition: Aus Halbton- und Strichabbildungen zusammengesetzte Bilder, z.B. Photos mit eingezeichneten Linien oder sehr vielen Beschriftungen, Farbdiagramme u.Ä.
  • Die Mindestauflösung beträgt 600 dpi.


  • Farbig eingereichte Abbildungen erscheinen sowohl in der gedruckten, als auch in der Online-Version in Farbe. Dies ist kostenfrei.
  • Daten von Farbabbildungen sollten im RGB Modus erstellt werden (8 bits per channel).


  • Für Beschriftungen verwenden Sie am besten Helvetica oder Arial. Vermeiden Sie Effekte wie Schattierungen, Umrisse etc.
  • Achten Sie darauf, dass die Beschriftung bei allen Abbildungen in der Endgröße ungefähr gleich groß ist, am besten ca. 2-3 mm (8–12 pt).
  • Bitte fügen Sie keine Abbildungslegenden oder Bildüberschriften in Ihre Bilddateien ein.


  • Nummerieren Sie die Abbildungen fortlaufend (Abb. 1, Abb. 2...), inklusive eventueller Abbildungen in einem Anhang. Teilabbildungen werden mit Kleinbuchstaben bezeichnet (a, b, c, etc.).
  • Achten Sie darauf, dass alle Bilder der Reihe nach im Text erwähnt sind.


  • Erstellen Sie für jede Abbildung eine Legende und fügen diese ans Ende der Textdatei an, nicht in die Bilddatei.
  • Abbildungslegenden beginnen mit “Abb.” und der Abbildungsnummer, die beide fett formatiert sind.
  • Nach der Abbildungsnummer und am Ende der Legende steht kein Punkt.
  • Alle in einer Abbildung enthaltenen Abkürzungen und Symbole sind in der Legende zu erklären.
  • Werden Abbildungen ganz oder teilweise von anderen Autoren übernommen, ist die Quelle anzugeben. Der Quellenvermerk steht am Ende der Legende in Klammern und hat die Form eines Literaturverweises.


  • Erstellen Sie die Bilder bereits in der Größe, in der sie auch gedruckt werden sollen.
  • Für kleinformatige Zeitschriften und die meisten Bücher gelten folgende Maße: 80 mm oder 122 mm breit und nicht höher als 198 mm.
  • Für großformatige Zeitschriften gelten die Maße: 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, oder 174 mm breit und nicht höher als 234 mm.


Bei Verwendung von Textteilen, Abbildungen und Tabellen aus anderen Werken ist vom Autor die Genehmigung des Copyright-Inhabers (in der Regel des Originalverlags) einzuholen, und zwar sowohl für die Verwendung in der gedruckten als auch in der elektronischen/online Version der Zeitschrift. Bitte beachten Sie, dass einige Verlage für die elektronischen Rechte eine Gebühr verlangen. Da diese Kosten nicht von uns erstattet werden, bitten wir Sie, in solchen Fällen anderes Material zu benutzen.

Zusätzliches Online Material

Zusätzliches Onlinematerial wird ausschließlich in der elektronischen Version des Artikels veröffentlicht, z.B.

  • Information, die nicht gedruckt werden kann, wie Animationen, Videos, Hörbeispiele.
  • Information, die sich in elektronischer Form leichter nutzen lässt, wie Sequenzen, Spektraldaten etc.
  • Umfangreiche Originaldaten wie zusätzliche Tabellen oder Abbildungen.


Zusätzliches Onlinematerial wird vom Verlag oder Satzbetrieb nicht konvertiert oder editiert. Um eine optimale Nutzbarkeit zu erreichen, beachten sie deshalb bitte die folgenden Hinweise:

  • Benutzen Sie nur Standardformate und achten Sie darauf, dass die Dateien nicht zu groß sind, damit die Downloadzeiten nicht zu lang werden.
  • Audiodateien, Videos und Animationen sollten immer im MPEG-1 (.mpg) Format eingereicht werden.
  • Texte und Präsentationen sollten vorzugsweise im PDF Format eingereicht werden. Auch mehrere Abbildungen fassen Sie am besten in einer PDF-Datei zusammen.
  • Tabellenkalkulationen sollten ebenfalls nach PDF konvertiert werden, falls es nur darum geht, Ergebnisse darzustellen. Benutzen Sie jedoch das .xls Format (Excel), wenn die Leser selbst Berechnungen anstellen sollen.
  • Spezialformate wie .pdb (Chemie), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook) und .tex können ebenfalls eingereicht werden.
  • Mehrere Dateien können auch in einem .zip oder .tar Archiv zusammengefasst werden.

Nummerierung und Legenden

  • Zusätzliches Onlinematerial muss ähnlich wie Abbildungen und Tabellen im Text erwähnt werden, z.B.: “... wie das Hörbeispiel (Onlinematerial 1) zeigt”.
  • Benennen Sie Ihre Dateien entsprechend, z.B. Onlinematerial1.mpg.
  • Erstellen Sie für jede zusätzliche Onlinedatei eine Legende.

Nach der Annahme des Manuskripts

Sobald Ihr Artikel angenommen wurde und in Produktion geht, erhalten Sie eine E-Mail von Diese E-Mail enthält einen Link, der Sie zu den MyPublication Webseiten führt, auf denen Sie die organisatorischen Fragen rund um die Publikation Ihres Artikels schnell und einfach klären können: elektronische Unterzeichnung des Copyright Transfer Statements, Bestellung der OpenChoice Publikation, Sonderdrucke. Sobald Ihre Angaben vollständig vorliegen, wird der Artikel produziert, und sie erhalten innerhalb von ca. 2 Wochen Ihren Korrekturabzug.

Open Choice

Artikel im OpenChoice Programm stehen der Öffentlichkeit frei zur Verfügung (Open Access) und können ohne Zugangsbeschränkung im vollständigen Wortlaut über SpringerLink gelesen und kostenlos heruntergeladen werden. Ein Open-Choice-Artikel durchläuft dabei den regulären Publikationsprozess, mit Begutachtung, Online-Aufbereitung und Satz und erscheint sowohl online als auch im Druck.

Copyright Transfer

Mit der Annahme des Artikels wird der Autor um Übertragung des Copyrights (bzw. das ausschließliche, räumlich und zeitlich uneingeschränkte Recht zur Publikation und zum Vertrieb) an den Verlag gebeten. Die Zeitschrift sowie alle in ihr enthaltenen einzelnen Beiträge und Abbildungen sind urheberrechtlich geschützt.

Für Open Choice Artikel bleibt das Copyright beim Autor, wobei die Bedingungen der Creative Commons Attribution License gelten.


Der korrespondierende Autor kann zusätzliche Sonderdrucke des Beitrags gegen Berechnung bestellen.


Farbabbildungen werden ohne zusätzliche Gebühren in Farbe gedruckt.


Wenn Sie den Korrekturabzug erhalten, überprüfen Sie bitte, dass der Text vollständig und korrekt konvertiert wurde und dass alle Abbildungen, Tabellen und die entsprechenden Legenden vorhanden sind. Bitte machen Sie keine ausschließlich stilistischen oder formalen Korrekturen. Wesentliche inhaltliche Änderungen, wie neue Ergebnisse, korrigierte Werte, Änderungen im Titel oder der Autoren, sind nur mit Genehmigung des verantwortlichen Herausgebers gestattet.

Nach der Online-Publikation des Artikels sind Änderungen nur noch in Form eines Erratums möglich.

Online First

Ihr Artikel wird Online First veröffentlicht – ca. eine Woche, nachdem Ihre Korrekturen bei uns eingegangen sind. Dies ist die offizielle Erstpublikation, zitierbar mit dem DOI. Sobald das gedruckte Heft erschienen ist, kann der Artikel auch mit Band-/Heftnummer und Seitenzahlen zitiert werden.


Achten Sie auf eine einheitliche Schreibweise von Namen, Begriffen und Abkürzungen, auch in Tabellen und Abbildungslegenden. Richten Sie Ihre Schreibweise nach dem Duden mit neuer Rechtschreibung in gemäßigter Form.

Open access publishing

To find out more about publishing your work Open Access in e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, including information on fees, funding and licenses, visit our Open access publishing page.

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