Topical Collection: Chemistry - Carbon Nanostructures: Properties and Applications

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The discovery of carbon nanostructures has boosted developments in physics, electronics, optics, mechanics, biology and medicine since the 1990s. Due to extraordinary properties and differentiated carbon hybridization status (e.g., sp2, sp3 hybridization), many carbon nanostructures have now attracted unprecedented attention in different fields of biology and medicine. After years of study and development, carbon nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds have seized a new place in the field of orthopedics, revealing many attractive properties and promise as novel orthopedic materials. This chapter summarizes and reviews a variety of carbon nanostructures that are of particular interests for orthopedic purposes. The chapter opens with introduction to the important fabrication techniques of carbon nanostructures and then moves on to examine promise and potential of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers, fullerene, nanodiamonds, nanostructured diamond-like carbon, and graphene for orthopedic proposes. Lastly, future research directions on the safety and durability concerns of carbon nanostructures for medical uses are mentioned.

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