Instructions for Authors
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files might cause unnecessary delays in the review and production process.
Please make sure your title page contains the following information.
The title should be concise and informative.
- The name(s) of the author(s)
- The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
- A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author
- If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)
If address information is provided with the affiliation(s) it will also be published.
For authors that are (temporarily) unaffiliated we will only capture their city and country of residence, not their e-mail address unless specifically requested.
Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
For life science journals only (when applicable)
Trial registration number and date of registration
Trial registration number, date of registration followed by “retrospectively registered”
Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.
All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading 'Declarations'.
If any of the sections are not relevant to your manuscript, please include the heading and write 'Not applicable' for that section.
To be used for all articles, including articles with biological applications
Funding (information that explains whether and by whom the research was supported)
Conflicts of interest/Competing interests (include appropriate disclosures)
Availability of data and material (data transparency)
Code availability (software application or custom code)
Authors' contributions (optional: please review the submission guidelines from the journal whether statements are mandatory)
Additional declarations for articles in life science journals that report the results of studies involving humans and/or animals
Ethics approval (include appropriate approvals or waivers)
Consent to participate (include appropriate statements)
Consent for publication (include appropriate statements)
Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
Manuscripts should be written in English and submitted in LaTeX. Please use Springer’s LaTeX macro package and choose the formatting option “smallextended”. The submission should include the original source (including all style files and figures) and a PDF version of the compiled output.
Please use the decimal system of headings with no more than three levels.
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.
Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables. Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols. Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
LaTeX and Online Submission
All source files you upload in the online submission system will be automatically compiled into a single PDF file to be approved by you at the end of the submission process. While the compiled PDF will be used for peer-review purposes, your uploaded source files will be transferred to the publisher for publication upon acceptance.
Please do not use subfolders for your LaTeX submission, e.g. for figures or bibliographic files. Further technical information on uploading and compiling your LaTeX submission can be found under
Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Some examples:
1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines .
2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman .
3. This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.
The entries in the list should be numbered consecutively.
If available, please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list (e.g. “https://doi.org/abc”).
- Journal article
Hamburger, C.: Quasimonotonicity, regularity and duality for nonlinear systems of partial differential equations. Ann. Mat. Pura Appl. 169, 321–354 (1995)
- Article by DOI
Sajti, C.L., Georgio, S., Khodorkovsky, V., Marine, W.: New nanohybrid materials for biophotonics. Appl. Phys. A (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-007-4137-z
Geddes, K.O., Czapor, S.R., Labahn, G.: Algorithms for Computer Algebra. Kluwer, Boston (1992)
- Book chapter
Broy, M.: Software engineering — from auxiliary to key technologies. In: Broy, M., Denert, E. (eds.) Software Pioneers, pp. 10–13. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)
- Online document
Cartwright, J.: Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1 (2007). Accessed 26 June 2007
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.
- All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
- Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
- Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
An appropriate number of MSC codes should be provided. The Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) is used to categorize items covered by the two reviewing databases, Mathematical Reviews and Zentralblatt MATH, see
Please use the standard mathematical notation for formulae, symbols etc.:
- Italic for single letters that denote mathematical constants, variables, and unknown quantities
- Roman/upright for numerals, operators, and punctuation, and commonly defined functions or abbreviations, e.g., cos, det, e or exp, lim, log, max, min, sin, tan, d (for derivative)
- Bold for vectors, tensors, and matrices.