- Instructions for Authors
- Submission of Manuscripts
- Reviewing Process
- LATEX Manuscripts
- Manuscript Preparation
- Electronic supplementary material (optional)
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research Data Policy
- Open Choice
- Final Check
- English Language Editing
Instructions for Authors
Submission of Manuscripts
- Manuscripts should be submitted online (please follow the link “submit online” on the right hand side of this page). Each manuscript should be prepared according to the Instructions for Authors and must be accompanied by the name and full address of the corresponding author, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address.
- Important new results may be considered a “Rapid Communication” in order to increase their impact as well as the speed of publication. We welcome authors to indicate whether they consider their results suitable for this choice. Rapid Communications typically put forward a focused scientific result with a compact message, but there is no specific page limit. Before reviewing the editorial board decides whether the “Rapid Communication” or the “Regular” status is appropriate.
For “Rapid Communications” the editorial office will seek rapid completion of the reviewing procedure. Like regular contributions, each manuscript with status “Rapid Communications” is published online within one month after acceptance and appears in print within two months.
Members of the editorial board are responsible for the reviewing procedure. Within a week we typically invite two competent and independent reviewers to provide reports which are the basis for our editorial decision. Reports are circulated to the authors when a decision has been made.
We encourage authors to provide up to 3 names for reviewers with expertise on their subject. In addition to the reviewer’s name please provide his/her institution for verification as well as an email address.
Please note that manuscripts not complying with these Instructions may be returned to the author(s) for completion.
Authors who submit their manuscript in LATEX are encouraged to make use of the SVJour document class that has been developed for the LATEX2ε standard. Manuscripts coded in pure LATEX are also welcome.
The macro package is directly available at the link below
or via anonymous ftp from the server ftp.springer.de (IP number: 18.104.22.168) in the directory /pub/tex/latex/svjour/global.
Please adhere to the definitions in the macro packages and do not alter any of the definitions in them.
Manuscripts should in general contain in the following order:
- author’s name
- address of author’s institution
- fax number and e-mail address
- main text including tables, figures, and captions
- list of references
- The title of the paper should short but concise and informative. A shortened version of the title consisting of maximum of 120 characters (incl. spaces) for running headers must also be provided. Avoid acronyms!
Authors and addresses
- The names and addresses of all authors should appear on the manuscript. There should be a number for each address and the author names should be marked with the appropriate numerical superscript(s). Footnotes relating to the authors should employ lower-case letters.
To speed up communication between authors, readers, and publisher, authors are requested to provide fax number, e-mail address, and telephone number. Unless the authors request otherwise the fax number and e-mail address will be published along with the affiliation to facilitate efficient information exchange between readers and authors.
- The abstract must not exceed 200 words and should be suitable for publication without change in abstracting journals. The abstract should be informative for the non-expert reader:
• briefly describe the main topic of the paper
• briefly describe the methods used
• summarize the main results and conclusions
• avoid the use of acronyms, formulas
- A well organized text is essential for a readable manuscript:
• use numbered sections and subsections, starting with an numbered introductory text
• all sections and appendices must have a short descriptive title
• subsections should be numbered 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 etc.
• appendices should be numbered A, B, etc.
• figures, tables, and captions should be placed in the text at the appropriate location
- Figures illustrate and enrich the text and should conform to the following quality criteria:
• line illustrations (only black and white elements) should have a resolution of 800 dpi
• for greyscale figures 300 dpi is sufficient (with reference to final size)
• include all fonts used when saving the figures to ensure exact reproduction of special characters
• figure parts (e.g., Fig. 1a,b) should have the part designation included at an appropriate place in the figure
• captions should be included in the text and not in the figure file
• preferred figure format are .pdf, .eps, .tif, .jpg, and .doc
- Color illustrations will be published free of charge in the printed issue if the use of color is scientifically required and approved by the Editor-in-Chief. Otherwise color will be shown in the online version only, while b/w or gray scale will be used in the printed edition.
- Footnotes in the main text should be avoided if possible. Where absolutely necessary, they should be marked with an asterisk or numerical superscript and placed at the foot of the relevant page (not at the end of the article, and not in the form of references).
References should be cited by numbers in square brackets, for example, , [5, 7, 10], [5--8]. They should be numbered and listed in the order in which they are cited. Please do not group two or more publications under one number. Each item in the reference list must have a separate number to enable electronic reference linking. In preparing the reference list please adhere to the following format:
for journal articles:
- 1. S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, M. Stuke: Appl. Phys. A 61, 33 (1995)
- 2. H. Ibach, H. Lüth: Solid-State Physics (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1996)
A paper published online but not (yet) in print can be cited using the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). The DOI should be added at the end of the reference in question.
- R. Paschotta: Appl. Phys. B, DOI 10.1007/s00340-004- 1548-9 (2004)
Authors may als o be cited by name in the text, but without initials; here, “et al.” should be used whenever there are more than two authors, e.g., Preuss et al. . In the reference list itself the names of all authors must be given. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications should only be mentioned in the text.
Units and abbreviations
- Please adhere to internationally agreed standards such as those adopted by the commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) or defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). The journal will in general comply with the notation and abbreviations set out in the Style Manual of the American Institute of Physics. Metric SI units should be used throughout.
Equations, fonts, and special symbols
- Equations should be typewritten sequentially numbered. The number should appear in parentheses at the right-hand side of the page and this form, e.g. (7), is sufficient to refer to the equation in the text. Special care should be taken to distinguish subscripts, superscripts and certain symbols. Symbols and letters representing physical and mathematical variables should be in italic. Units, abbreviations and special functions (Å, rf, dc, exp, tan, etc.) should be upright. Please add a note to explain any other special symbols.
Electronic supplementary material (optional)
Electronic supplementary material (ESM) for an article in the journal will be published in SpringerLink provided the material is:
- submitted to the Editor(s) in electronic form together with the paper and is subject to peer review
- accepted by the journals Editor(s)
ESM may consist of
- information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings
- information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.
- large original data that relate to the paper, e.g. additional tables, illustrations (color and black & white), etc.
After acceptance by the journal´s Editor(s ) ESM will be published as received from the author in the online version only. Reference will be given in the printed version.
The copyright to the article is transferred to Springer (for U.S. government employees: to the extent transferable) effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations. Please check the Instructions for Authors of the Journal that you are submitting to for specific instructions.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
- Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
- Honoraria for speaking at symposia
- Financial support for attending symposia
- Financial support for educational programs
- Employment or consultation
- Support from a project sponsor
- Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
- Multiple affiliations
- Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
- Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
- Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research Data Policy
A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.
The journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Persistent identifiers (such as DOIs and accession numbers) for relevant datasets must be provided in the paper.
For more information:
The journal encourages authors to provide a statement of Data availability in their article. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found, including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. Data availability statements can also indicate whether data are available on request from the authors and where no data are available, if appropriate.
Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):
1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
3. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
4.Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study
5. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:
Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.
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- Names and full addresses of all authors (including Fax, e-mail) given on title page?
- All characters in formulae unambiguous?
- All figures enclosed?
- References complete and cross-checked?
English Language Editing
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
- Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
- Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
- Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.
● 使用专业语言编辑服务，编辑人员会对英语进行润色，以确保您的意思表达清晰，并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
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