- Instructions for Authors
- General Guidelines
- Editorial Procedure
- Types of Papers
- Manuscript Structure
- Supplementary Information (SI)
- Suggestions for Referees
- After Acceptance
- Open Choice
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Editing Services
- Reporting Guidelines
- Links and downloads
- Open access publishing
Instructions for Authors
The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners, that the rights of third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. For more details, please visit the journal’s website and refer to the section on “Copyright Information” under “For Authors and Editors.”
Psychopharmacology adheres to the following principles, as set out by The Society for Neuroscience in its guidelines on "Responsible Conduct Regarding Scientific Communication" (http://www.sfn.org/index.cfm?pagename=responsibleConduct): "Authorship should be based on a substantial intellectual contribution.
Authorship must be reserved for individuals who have met each of the following conditions: (a) made a significant contribution to the conception and design or the analysis and interpretation of data, (b) participated in drafting the article or reviewing and/or revising it for intellectual content, and (c) approved the final version of the manuscript. (Deceased persons deemed appropriate as authors should be so included with a footnote reporting their death.)".
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Once your paper has been accepted for publication, you will receive per e-mail a link to the "Copyright Transfer Statement," which must be signed and submitted before your paper can be published.
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The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
Open Choice Publication
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular ‘subscription-based’ article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles. For more details, please visit the journal’s website and refer to the section on “Open Choice” under “For Authors and Editors” (http://springer.com/openchoice).
Manuscripts should be prepared carefully in accordance with the following points.
- 1. Manuscripts should be submitted online using the link on the journal’s homepage.
- 2. Please identify the appropriate Principal Editor for your submission according to the information on the Editorial Board tab. Manuscripts which fall under more than one category or about which the author has some doubt should identify the Coordinating Editors for America (Janak) or the rest of the world (Robbins), who will take appropriate action.
Types of Papers
The following types of articles may be submitted for publication in the journal:
- Review Articles
should not exceed 25 pages of text (excluding title page, abstract, references, tables, and figures).
- Original Investigations
should not exceed 15 pages of text (excluding title page, abstract, references, tables, and figures). It should be noted that Psychopharmacology does not impose a minimum length on original investigations.
- Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives:
This type of manuscript is primarily intended for critical evaluations of methods and theories, preferably by a consortium of authors from different laboratories. These contributions may also introduce novel theories and methods. Such contributions should be planned in consultation with a Principal Editor. Typically, these contributions are limited to 15 pages of text (excluding title page, abstract, references, tables, and figures) and may contain supplementary video material.
- Letters to the Editor and Commentaries
are generally in the form of technical comments or points of controversy and should not exceed 3 pages of text.
The title page should include:
- The name(s) of the author(s)
- A concise and informative title (avoid assertive sentences)
- The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
- The e-mail address, telephone, and fax numbers of the communicating author
- Acknowledgments of funding and grants and of any conflict of interest or of any circumstances that could be perceived as a potential conflict of interest
Each paper should be preceded by a structured Abstract in English of not more than 250 words. Abstracts should contain the following subheadings (in italic type), in the following order: Rationale, Objectives, Methods (if applicable), Results, Conclusions.
The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
Up to 10 keywords should be supplied after the Abstract for indexing purposes.
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention in the abstract and again in the main body of the text and used consistently thereafter. Abbreviations and metric units should conform to the International System of Units (SI).
Acknowledgments of funding and grants and of any conflict of interest or of any circumstances that could be perceived as a potential conflict of interest should also be placed on the Title page.
Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.
- Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
- Use italics for emphasis.
- Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
- Do not use field functions.
- Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
- Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
- Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
- Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format (older Word versions).
Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX. We recommend using Springer Nature’s LaTeX template.
Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.
Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.
Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.
Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
- One page equals approximately 4500 characters or 800 words without spaces.
- If you use Word 2007, do not create the equations with the default equation editor but use the Microsoft equation editor or MathType instead.
- Save your file as RTF (Rich Text Format) or Microsoft Word compatible formats. Do not submit docx files.
Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
- Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
- This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
- This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995a, b; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999, 2000).
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Please alphabetize according to the following rules: 1) For one author, by name of author, then chronologically; 2) For two authors, by name of author, then name of coauthor, then chronologically; 3) For more than two authors, by name of first author, then chronologically.
If available, please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list (e.g. “https://doi.org/abc”).
- Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
- Article by DOI
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001090000086
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
- Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
- Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.
- All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
- Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
- Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
For the best quality final product, it is highly recommended that you submit all of your artwork – photographs, line drawings, etc. – in an electronic format. Your art will then be produced to the highest standards with the greatest accuracy to detail. The published work will directly reflect the quality of the artwork provided.
Electronic Figure Submission
- Supply all figures electronically.
- Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
- For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
- Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
- Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
- All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
- Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
- If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
- Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
- Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
- Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
- Color art is free of charge for print and online publication.
- Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB.
- To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
- Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
- Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
- Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
- Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.
- All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
- If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices [Supplementary Information (SI)] should, however, be numbered separately.
- Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
- Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
- No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
- Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
- Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
Figure Placement and Size
- When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
- For large-sized journals the figures should be 84 mm (for double-column text areas), or 174 mm (for single-column text areas) wide and not higher than 234 mm.
- For small-sized journals, the figures should be 119 mm wide and not higher than 195 mm.
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
- All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
- Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (color-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
- Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1
Supplementary Information (SI)
Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article or a book chapter. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.
Before submitting research datasets as Supplementary Information, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.
- Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
- Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
- To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
- High resolution (streamable quality) videos can be submitted up to a maximum of 25GB; low resolution videos should not be larger than 5GB.
Audio, Video, and Animations
- Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
- Maximum file size: 25 GB for high resolution files; 5 GB for low resolution files
- Minimum video duration: 1 sec
- Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp
Text and Presentations
- Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
- A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
- Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).
- Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
Collecting Multiple Files
- It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
- If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
- Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
- Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.
- For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
Processing of supplementary files
- Supplementary Information (SI) will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
- The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
- Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)
Suggestions for Referees
Suggestions for referees may be added upon submission:
- The referees should be internationally acknowledged experts in the field.
- Avoid nominating scientists who might have a conflict of interest (e.g. collaborators, past co-authors, mentors, trainees, etc.).
- Provide the first and last names, institutions, and email addresses (institutional or company e-mail address).
- The list of up to 4 potential referees should be diverse.
Please note: Suggesting referees does not guarantee that these will be chosen as referees by the journal editors. The journal editors may or may not choose the referees whom you have suggested based on their expertise, perceived conflicts, etc.
Upon acceptance, your article will be exported to Production to undergo typesetting. Once typesetting is complete, you will receive a link asking you to confirm your affiliation, choose the publishing model for your article as well as arrange rights and payment of any associated publication cost.
Once you have completed this, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
Article publishing agreement
Depending on the ownership of the journal and its policies, you will either grant the Publisher an exclusive licence to publish the article or will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher.
Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
Publication of color illustrations is free of charge.
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.
After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
Open Choice allows you to publish open access in more than 1850 Springer Nature journals, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.
Article processing charges (APCs) vary by journal – view the full list
- Increased researcher engagement: Open Choice enables access by anyone with an internet connection, immediately on publication.
- Higher visibility and impact: In Springer hybrid journals, OA articles are accessed 4 times more often on average, and cited 1.7 more times on average*.
- Easy compliance with funder and institutional mandates: Many funders require open access publishing, and some take compliance into account when assessing future grant applications.
It is easy to find funding to support open access – please see our funding and support pages for more information.
*) Within the first three years of publication. Springer Nature hybrid journal OA impact analysis, 2018.
Copyright and license term – CC BY
Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
- Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
- Honoraria for speaking at symposia
- Financial support for attending symposia
- Financial support for educational programs
- Employment or consultation
- Support from a project sponsor
- Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
- Multiple affiliations
- Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
- Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
- Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
Please make sure to submit all Conflict of Interest disclosure forms together with the manuscript.
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Experimental design and statistics
1. The exact sample size (n) for each experimental group/condition (as a number, not a range).
2. An explanation of how the sample size was chosen for each experiment, including power analysis where appropriate.
3. A description of sample collection that enables the reader to understand whether the samples represent technical or biological replicates, and an explanation of inclusion/exclusion criteria if data samples or subjects were excluded from the analysis (outlier criteria).
4. A description of how samples/animals were allocated to experimental groups and processed, and full details of the randomisation procedure used (if relevant).
5. A statement on whether the investigator was blinded to group assignment and outcome assessment, and how this blinding was achieved and evaluated (if relevant).
6. How many times each experiment shown was replicated (if applicable).
7. Primary and secondary endpoints/measures should be specified.
8. Information on the statistical methods and measures used. Authors should indicate whether tests were one-sided or two-sided and whether adjustments were made for multiple comparisons. The figure legends should indicate whether medians or means are shown, whether error bars are standard deviations (SD), standard error of mean (SEM) or confidence intervals, and should include the number of data points per group used to generate the figure.
9. A justification for the appropriateness of the statistical test used should be provided, e.g., whether data meet the assumptions of the tests (e.g., normal distribution), whether the variation within each group of data has been estimated, and whether the variance observed is similar between the groups that are being statistically compared.
10. Systematic reviews should follow recognised guidelines on conduct and reporting (s. Link below)
If the study involves human participants, authors should refer to the relevant reporting guidelines from the EQUATOR Network
Availability of Data
The editors support the principle of raw data sharing where possible and feasible, not only for reasons of full traceability and transparency, but also to advance open science and to allow better exploitation of the data and more complete extraction of the wealth of information potentially existing in those data sets. At present, different publishers and institutional bodies have different requirements, and many are working on the best solution to data availability, including what exactly to deposit and in what format such deposits should be made
While we realize the practical difficulties that may be associated with this effort, authors are encouraged to deposit key raw and all processed datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely in publicly available repositories.
Alternatively, the data may be presented in the main paper or supporting files (e.g., as Supplementary Material), in an annotated, machine-readable format whenever possible. Links to deposited datasets or datasets in additional files should be explicitly referenced in a section entitled “Availability of data and materials”. At a minimum, authors should be prepared to provide raw data from published studies, if ethically appropriate, to other investigators upon request, or to the editors during the review process, if needed.
The editor may specifically request that data be made publicly available. If data cannot be deposited in response to such a request, reasons should be provided to the editor and in the “Availability of data and materials” section. Under such circumstances, the editor will determine whether the manuscript can still be considered for publication.
If computer code was used to generate results that are central to the paper’s conclusions, a statement should be included in the “Availability of data and materials” section to indicate whether and how the code can be accessed, including version information as necessary and information on possible restrictions on availability.
Appropriate credit should be given to the originators of the raw data. Third parties using the data for further analysis and publication should cite the source, which could be the publication in Psychopharmacology or elsewhere.
A description of all resources used with enough information to be uniquely identified should be included as a Methods subsection entitled ‘Resources’.
- Antibodies: source, characteristics, dilutions and how they were validated for the system under study should be reported.
- Cell lines: source, whether identity has been authenticated and whether cell lines were tested for mycoplasma contamination should be reported.
- Animals: source, species, strain, sex, age, husbandry, inbred and strain characteristics of transgenic and mutant animals should be reported.
- Tools (software, databases and services): standard tool names, provider and version number, if available, should be reported.
- Test compounds: source, purity, chemical structure (if not published previously), salt form, formulation, vehicle, relevant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties in the relevant species, e.g., plasma and brain concentration, brain penetration, half-life, stability, affinity, selectivity, target engagement (if not published previously) should be reported. For information already reported elsewhere, the relevant references should be provided. If that information is not available, it remains at the discretion of the editor to decide whether this is acceptable. Test compounds should be tested in appropriate concentration or dose-response.
Work on the actions of biological extracts of unknown chemical composition, i.e., of a mixture of ingredients that is insufficiently defined and/or of unknown concentrations that might affect the results, is normally not considered for publication. Clinical studies using plant materials with unknown or uncontrolled constituents are discouraged. Exceptions will be made if the plant materials are highly standardized and well characterized (e.g., tobacco; cannabis with specified cannabinoid content). If the pharmacological actions of all the relevant components are taken into account, studies with certain biological materials of uncertain composition may be considered for publication in Psychopharmacology.
Authors are also encouraged to provide Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs) for antibodies, organisms and tools
While we realize that our new guidelines will cause additional work for authors, we consider these factors to be crucial elements in the reporting of scientific findings in our field and are convinced that the gain of the extra information provided will greatly outweigh this effort and will further increase the impact of the articles published in Psychopharmacology.
The three previous sections (Experimental design and statistics, Availability of Data, and Resources) are taken from an Editorial soon to be published in Psychopharmacology entitled “Editorial: Reporting Guidelines for Psychopharmacology” and are modified from guidelines recently published by the BioMed Central Reproducibility Working Group
see also Kenall et al., 2015, Genome Biology 16: 141).