- Instructions for Authors
- Manuscript Submission
- DEADLINE FOR MANUSCRIPT REVISIONS
- MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
- TITLE PAGE
- FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS
- FIGURE LEGENDS
- GRAPHICAL ABSTRACTS
- Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines
- Electronic Supplementary Material
- English Language Editing
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- After Acceptance
- Open Choice
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving human participants and/or animals
- Informed consent
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
Instructions for Authors
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files might cause unnecessary delays in the review and production process.
DEADLINE FOR MANUSCRIPT REVISIONS
Resubmit manuscripts for which revisions were requested within one month of receipt of the reviews. Manuscripts received after this period may be regarded as new submissions and may be subject to re-reviewing to ensure currency.
Related Unpublished Work
Submit with the manuscript copies of any articles describing work that is related and that is submitted to or in press in any journal. These documents should be submitted as "supplementary material" via the Editorial Manager website.
Copyright Transfer, Proofs, Reprints
Return signed copyright transfer forms, which are sent separately as e-mail attachments from the publisher, acknowledging receipt of the accepted manuscript. Copyright is owned by the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, but the Publisher arranges copyright transfer. Authors receive proofs and instructions from the Publisher by e-mail and/or fax and are directed to a
URL from which a PDF proof of the paper can be obtained. Instructions for making corrections accompany the proof. Return corrected proofs to the Publisher within 48 hours of notification that proofs are available.
Order reprints by using the reprint order form that accompanies the letter from the Publisher acknowledging receipt of the accepted manuscript.
Use as the style guide Effective Communication of Scientific Information, 3rd Ed., Coghill, A.M. and Garson, L.R., Eds., American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2006. Helpful information about nomenclature and descriptions specific to mass spectrometry can be found in Mass Spec Desk Reference, 2nd Ed., by O. David Sparkman, Global View Publications, Pittsburgh, PA, 2006.
Arrange manuscript as follows: Title Page, Abstract, Text, Acknowledgments, References, Tables, Appendices, Legends for figures and schemes, Illustrations. Number pages starting with the title page as page 1 and ending with the figure-legend page. References, tables, and figure legends should be provided on separate sheets at the end of the document. Arabic numerals should be used in numbering tables and figures. All tables should have short, descriptive titles, but schemes do not usually require a title. The journal prefers that the initial submission has figures, tables, and schemes embedded in the text for ease in review and included at the end of the submission.
Prepare the manuscript in double-spaced format throughout (including the title page, abstract, text, references, tables, and legends) with page format 8.5" x 11" or A4 paper with 1" (2.54 cm) margins all around.
Wherever possible, generate all mathematical and chemical symbols, equations, and formulae as part of the manuscript text. Use fractional exponents to avoid root signs.
Short Communications and Application Notes
Submit Short Communications and Application Notes to convey, respectively, preliminary reports seeking to establish precedence or specific instrument or method innovations likely to be of interest to a cross-section of readers. Communications will be published in separate sections at the beginning of each issue. Application Notes will be published at the end of an issue. Both will, insofar as possible, receive expedited handling. They may contain up to three single-column figures or tables (up to one page, total) and up to 2300 words, including references and abstract. Space allocated to figures and tables may be replaced by text (~250 words per figure or table).
Submissions exceeding these guidelines will be treated as Regular Articles.
These articles are invited submissions, and those who wish to suggest a topic should contact Dr. David Russell (email@example.com). These feature articles are designed to be opinion-based descriptions of a current, ideally controversial or thought-provoking, area. They are restricted to 4000 words or fewer (excluding tables and figure captions but including references), with no more than six single-column figures or tables (1.5 pages, total). Space allocated to figures and tables may be replaced by text (~250 words per figure or table).
Book and Conference Reviews
Limit book and conference reviews to 1500 words or fewer. Exceptions are the reviews of multi-volume works (which can be proportionately longer) and reviews of large conferences (e.g., the Pittsburgh Conference).
The Use of High Resolution Mass Spectral Data for Formula Confirmation
For publication of exact-mass data that are used to confirm identities of synthetic and natural products, report the uncertainty in the accurate-mass measurement used for formula verification along with the result. The acceptable uncertainty in a measurement by any analytical method must be adequate for the intended use of the data.
Evaluate the uncertainty of accurate mass measurement by any statistically valid method. Determine, for example, the precision and accuracy of replicate measurements or evaluate the performance characteristics of the mass spectrometer (see, for example, Sack, T. M., Lapp, R.
L., Gross, M. L., and Kimble, B. J. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 1984, 61, 191-213).
Consider all candidates fitting the experimentally determined value and its reported uncertainty when the result of accurate mass measurement is used for formula confirmation. Do not set fixed acceptable error limits for exact mass measurement. Consider the following when using accurate mass data.
When valence rules and candidate compositions encompassing C0-100, H3-74, O0-4, and N0-4 are considered at nominal parent m/z of 118, there are no candidate formulae within 34 ppm of each other. When the ion is of m/z 750.4 and the formulae are in the range C0-100, H25-110,
O0-15, and N0-15, there are 626 candidate formulae that are possible within 5 ppm. Thus, for a measurement at m/z 118, an error of only 34 ppm uniquely defines a particular formula, whereas at m/z 750, an error (and precision) of 0.018 ppm would be required to eliminate all extraneous possibilities.
Give the paper as short a title as possible. Submit also a running title of no more than 45 characters (including spaces).
List, at the bottom of the page, "Address reprint requests to . . . " followed by the name, exact postal address with zip code, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the author to whom communications, proofs, and requests for reprints should be sent.
Provide an abstract no longer than 250 words for an Original Article, Communication, Application Note, and Account and Perspective. An abstract is not required for book reviews and letters to the editor.
Organize the text as Introduction, Experimental or Methods, Theory (if applicable), Results and Discussion, and Conclusions. Conclusion should not be a repetition of the abstract or a summary of the paper.
In the experimental section of the manuscript, all special safety considerations should be described in sufficient detail so that appropriate safety measures can be taken by those repeating the experiments.
Cite references in square brackets. Refer to illustrations and tables in numerical order in the text. Spell out, or define in parentheses, all abbreviations, even if they are commonly employed, the first time they are used in the text.
Use the nomenclature recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry for chemical compounds. For nomenclature of mass spectrometry, see the IUPAC rules (Todd, Journal of Pure Applied Chemistry, 1991, 63, 1541-1566). Additional suggestions for definition and style can be found in Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Mass Spectrometry, by
Price, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 1991, 2, 336-346 and in
Sparkman, O.D., Mass Spec Desk Reference, 2nd Ed., Global View Publishing, Pittsburgh, PA,
Give all measurements and weights in SI units, using standard abbreviations (see IUPAC Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry). Non-standard abbreviations should be used sparingly and must be defined at their first appearance. Daltons (Da) or mass units (u) may be used, but amu should not be used.
Headings and Subheadings
Consult articles in recent issues
of the Journal for the recommended style for headings and subheadings.
Equations, Formulae, and Schemes
Number equations (both chemical and mathematical) consecutively with a single system of Arabic numerals in parentheses placed at the right-hand side of each equation. Number chemical structures consecutively with boldface, Arabic numerals. Designate schemes showing fragmentation pathways, chemical reactions, etc. by consecutive capital Roman numerals (schemes usually do not have titles or captions); the individual pathways within schemes can be distinguished (if necessary) with lower-case letters placed on the arrows.
Add spaces before and after mathematical symbols (e.g., +, -, =) to distinguish some of them from chemical bonds.
Type acknowledgments, including complete grant or subsidy information, at the end of the text before the references.
Identify references in the text by using Arabic numerals in brackets on the line.
Cite personal communications, manuscripts in preparation, and other unpublished data in the text in parentheses or as footnotes for that page.
Add references double-spaced starting on a separate page. Number consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. Include the titles of articles in the references. The formats are:
1. Doroshenko, V. M., Cotter, R. J.: Ideal Velocity Focusing in a Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 10, 992-999 (1999)
2. Mahler, H. R., Cordes, E. H.: Biological Chemistry (2nd ed.). Harper and Row, New York (1971)
3. Anderegg, R. J.: Using Deuterium Exchange and Mass Spectrometry to Study Protein Structure. In: Burlingame, A. L., Carr, S. A. (eds.) Mass Spectrometry in the Biological Sciences, p. 85. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, (1996)
Abbreviations of journal titles should conform to those listed in The ACS Style Guide.
Double-check references for accuracy, completeness, and duplication.
Avoid, if possible, the use of footnotes. If notes are necessary, place at the bottom of the page to be published as a column footnote, or include in parentheses in text. Do not include footnotes in the reference list.
FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS
Restrict the number of figures for a full article to eight, and to three for a communication or application note (seek permission from the editor if you require a greater number of figures). Submit figures and illustrations in electronic format as specified above ("Preparing Electronic Files"). Consider carefully whether a figure is essential and avoid submitting those that contain principally "white space." Examples are figures that contain ESI mass spectra showing the molecular ion(s) or demonstrating signal-to-noise ratio or spectra that show the appearance and disappearance of peaks. These ideas can often be communicated with a sentence in the text, or the data can be presented in a table. Remove "white space" to accentuate the object if the purpose of the figure is, for example, to show mass resolving power or peak shape rather than submitting a broad-range spectrum.
Ensure that lettering and other figure objects are of adequate size to fit one-column width (3.25"; 8.25 cm) of printed text (final lettering size, after reduction, should be at least 1.5 mm high); one-column format is the preferred publication style for JASMS. Use no more than two sizes of lettering within a figure. Label multi-part figures with lower-case letters. Remove titles and explanatory material (often used in lecture presentations) and place this material in the legend. Aim for consistent presentation of axis labels, lettering style, font sizes, etc. for all the figures in the submission. Larger, complex figures will be published in two-column format.
Multi-panel figures should be assembled into a single graphic. Avoid wasted white space. Multi-panel figures should be sized so that essential details are visible after reduction in size on the printed page.
Do not submit structures and reaction schemes or mechanisms as figures. Instead, use the guidance above for "Equations, Formulae, and Schemes."
Color: Color illustrations will be published both on-line and in the print version at no charge. Please be aware of the uncertainties of color reproduction and potential complications experienced by readers with limited color vision.
Permission to Republish Figures, Schemes, Tables
Obtain written permission from both the Publisher and the author (the latter as a courtesy) to reproduce any previously published tables, figures, or schemes, using either a letter or a permission-to-publish form of your own design. Submit completed forms or letters to the editor handling your manuscript. Specify in figure or scheme legend "reprinted from reference [ ] ] with permission of . . . (specify the publisher, using the style indicated in their permission letter".
Authors are responsible for seeking permission to republish, and they should contact the permissions department of the publisher of the material to be reprinted.
Type legends double-spaced. Use Arabic numerals and verify the order in which the illustrations occur in the text. Include identification of all abbreviations not defined in the text.
Submit with your manuscript a graphical abstract (GA) figure (drawing, structure, or reaction scheme), preferably in color, to use in the Table of Contents and in the Abstract section on the title page of the article. Cover art is often chosen from graphical abstract figures.
The figure should be in one of the following file types: .tiff, .eps, .jpg, .bmp, .doc, or .pdf. It should be 8 cm (3.15 inches) wide x 4 cm (1.57 inches) high when printed at full scale (100%), and should have high quality image and text. Please insure that the illustration maintains this aspect ratio and is still informative upon reduction.
Please supply the GA figure at 100% using the following specifications/sizes:
300 dpi – halftone
600 dpi - with text
600 dpi - combine halftone and text (embedded text)
1200 dpi - bitmap (pure text and lines (b/w))
300/600/1200 dpi - combine embedded images and vector objects
For "rastered" images (.pdf, .doc, .bmp, .jpg), the resolution should be at least 300 dpi.
If you have any questions about the review or editorial process, contact Joyce Neff, Managing
Editor at the Journal Editorial Office:
tel: (314) 935-7464
- All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
- Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
- Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines
Electronic Figure Submission
- Supply all figures electronically.
- Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
- For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MSOffice files are also acceptable.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
- Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
- Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
- All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
- Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
- If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
- Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
- Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
- Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
- Color art is free of charge for online publication.
- If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
- If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
- Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
- To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
- Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
- Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
- Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
- Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.
- All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
- If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures,"A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices (Electronic Supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered separately.
- Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
- Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
- No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
- Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
- Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
Figure Placement and Size
- Figures should be submitted separately from the text, if possible.
- When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
- For large-sized journals the figures should be 84 mm (for double-column text areas), or 174 mm (for single-column text areas) wide and not higher than 234 mm.
- For small-sized journals, the figures should be 119 mm wide and not higher than 195 mm.
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
- All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
- Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (colorblind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
- Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1
Electronic Supplementary Material
Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article or a book chapter. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.
Before submitting research datasets as electronic supplementary material, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.
- Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
- Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
- To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
Audio, Video, and Animations
- Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
- Maximum file size: 25 GB
- Minimum video duration: 1 sec
- Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp
Text and Presentations
- Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
- A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
- Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).
- Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
Collecting Multiple Files
- It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
- If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
- Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
- Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.
- For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
Processing of supplementary files
- Electronic supplementary material will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
- The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
- Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)
English Language Editing
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
- Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
- Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
- Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.
● 使用专业语言编辑服务，编辑人员会对英语进行润色，以确保您的意思表达清晰，并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。
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Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations. Please check the Instructions for Authors of the Journal that you are submitting to for specific instructions.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
Please check the Instructions for Authors of the Journal that you are submitting to for specific instructions regarding contribution statements.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order OpenChoice and offprints.
Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher (or grant the Publisher exclusive publication and dissemination rights). This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws.
Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
Publication of color illustrations is free of charge.
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.
After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
Open Choice allows you to publish open access in more than 1850 Springer Nature journals, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.
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- Increased researcher engagement: Open Choice enables access by anyone with an internet connection, immediately on publication.
- Higher visibility and impact: In Springer hybrid journals, OA articles are accessed 4 times more often on average, and cited 1.7 more times on average*.
- Easy compliance with funder and institutional mandates: Many funders require open access publishing, and some take compliance into account when assessing future grant applications.
It is easy to find funding to support open access – please see our funding and support pages for more information.
*) Within the first three years of publication. Springer Nature hybrid journal OA impact analysis, 2018.
Copyright and license term – CC BY
Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
- Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
- Honoraria for speaking at symposia
- Financial support for attending symposia
- Financial support for educational programs
- Employment or consultation
- Support from a project sponsor
- Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
- Multiple affiliations
- Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
- Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
- Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
1) Statement of human rights
When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
If a study was granted exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee that granted the exemption and the reasons for the exemption).
Authors must - in all situations as described above - include the name of the ethics committee and the reference number where appropriate.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (include name of committee + reference number) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
Ethical approval retrospective studies
Although retrospective studies are conducted on already available data or biological material (for which formal consent may not be needed or is difficult to obtain) ethical approval may be required dependent on the law and the national ethical guidelines of a country. Authors should check with their institution to make sure they are complying with the specific requirements of their country.
2) Statement on the welfare of animals
The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals have been followed, and that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists). Please provide the name of ethics committee and relevant permit number.
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If applicable (where such a committee exists): “All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.(include name of committee + permit number)”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, please select one of the following statements:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”
All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.