- Instructions to Authors
- General Information
- Editorial procedure
- How to Submit
- Organization of the Manuscript
- Form and Style of Manuscript
- Preparation of Tables
- Preparation of Illustrations
- Abbreviations and Symbols
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Competing Interests
- Open access publishing
- Mistakes to avoid during manuscript preparation
Instructions to Authors
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology (JCSB) is a peer-reviewed international journal devoted to research, production, and management of field crops and resource plants. Papers on a wide range of sciences will be accepted as long as they are related to agricultural crops. JCSB is owned and published by the Korean Society of Crop Science. Five issues of a yearly volume will be published in January, March, June, September, and December in a printed and an electronic version. JCSB publishes original research papers that are judged after peer editorial review. The JOURNAL also publishes a couple of reviews that are invited by editorial boards to show broad and in-depth interest in crop science. We recommend that paper is less than 12 printed pages even though there is no page limitation. Basically, there is no charge for publication. However, we may ask some additional charge for English polishing based on communication between authors and editorial board. As a condition of publication, all authors must transfer copyright to the Korean Society of Crop Science. Manuscripts prepared by multiple authors should be submitted based on approvals by all.
Double-blind peer review
This journal follows a double-blind reviewing procedure. This means that the author will remain anonymous to the reviewers throughout peer review. It is the responsibility of the author to anonymize the manuscript and any associated materials.
- Author names, affiliations and any other potentially identifying information should be removed from the manuscript text and any accompanying files (such as figures of supplementary material);
- A separate Title Page should be submitted, containing title, author names, affiliations, and the contact information of the corresponding author. Any acknowledgements, disclosures, or funding information should also be included on this page;
- Authors should avoid citing their own work in a way that could reveal their identity.
Submitted manuscripts will be assigned to one of the Editors and reviewed by invited reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief will return the manuscript to the author if it requires revision, or will make a final publication decision based on the Editor's recommendation and reviewers' comments. Manuscripts that are out of scope, and/or inappropriately formatted, may be rejected without further review.
How to Submit
Authors are strongly encouraged to submit manuscripts electronically using the online electronic manuscript tracking system (MTS) at https://www.editorialmanager.com/jcsb.
1. Initial Submission as PDF
Step 1. Prepare the text in Microsoft Word 6.0 or a later version.
Step 2. Prepare graphics at publication quality resolution, using applications capable of generating high resolution TIFF or EPS files. Number each figure. You will be required to submit your manuscript graphics in one of these formats if it is accepted.
Step 3. Using Adobe Acrobat, save your manuscript text and graphics in a single file in PDF format. The PDF file should be printed and carefully reviewed before final submission. It is this version that is circulated on the Web for review.
Step 4. Submit the necessary information using the submission template at the web site, https://www.editorialmanager.com/jcsb. You will need:
- Contact information for the submitting author
- Information about the authors and the manuscript
- A covering letter
- The text and graphics PDF file of your manuscript
2. Initial Electronic Submission not in PDF Format
If you cannot submit your manuscript as a PDF file, you may submit separate text and graphics files online. We will only accept the text of your manuscript as a Microsoft Word file created with MS Word 6.0 or a later version. Other word processing programs will not permit review. Do not embed figures in the text, and ensure that the number of each figure is visible in the figure. We will accept only graphics saved as TIFF or JPG files. For graphics, we cannot accept certain application programs such as Microsoft Office (PowerPoint, Word, Excel, Access), Corel Perfect Office (WordPerfect, Quattro Pro, Presentations), Lotus SmartSuite (Freelance Graphics, 1-2-3, Approach, WordPro) and SigmaPlot.
Step 1. Revise text in Microsoft Word 6.0 or a later version.
Step 2. Revise graphics at publication quality resolution, using applications capable of generating high resolution TIFF or EPS files. The number of each figure should be visible in the figure. It is necessary to have your manuscript graphics in one of these formats if it is accepted. You are encouraged to submit source files for revised manuscripts.
Step 3.Check sizes of individual text and graphic files. Each file should be about 10 MB or less.
Step 4. Go to https://www.editorialmanager.com/jcsb and commence submission of your revised manuscript. You will need:
- Manuscript number
- A covering letter with information for the Editor and responses to concerns raised
- Individual text and graphics files for your manuscript
If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the individual text and graphics files will be automatically transmitted to the publisher. The PDF file with the text and graphics is not suitable for publication.
Organization of the Manuscript
1. General organization:
The most desirable plan for the organization of a paper is as follows: (a) Abstract, in less than 250 words, (b) Introduction, in less than two typed pages, (c) Materials and Methods, (d) Results, (e) Discussion, (f) Acknowledgments, (g) References, (h) Tables, (I) Figure legends. In some cases the presentation might be more effective if you combined some sections, e.g. Results and Discussion. This is particularly true in short papers. The Journal imposes no lower limit on the size of regular papers.
2. Title page
The title should be short and clear, and usually cover less than two printed lines. It should not include chemical formulas or arbitrary abbreviations, but chemical symbols may be used to indicate the structures of isotopically labeled compounds. Bear in mind the increasing use of titles in the construction of certain types of indexes, e.g. Chemical Titles, Biological Abstracts. Each manuscript should present the results of an independent, coherent study. Thus, numbered series are not allowed except when a group of papers, starting with I, are to be published together.
On the title page, include the title, running title (not to exceed 60 characters and spaces), full name of each author, address(es) of the institution(s) at which the work was performed, and each author’s affiliation, with a footnote indicating the present address of any author no longer at the institution where the work was performed. Where there is more than one affiliation, match authors and their appropriate affiliations with superscript symbols (avoid asterisks). Use a superscript asterisk to mark the author to whom correspondence should be directed, and include a footnote with the words “To whom correspondence should be addressed”. To clarify identities, spell out all names in full. For example, use Kil Dong Hong instead of K. D. Hong in the listing of authors on each submitted manuscript.
A list of keywords may also be included on the title page.
Any acknowledgements, disclosures, or funding information should also be included on this page. Acknowledge personal assistance and financial assistance in the same paragraphs. The usual format for grant support is as follows: “This work was supported by Basic Research grant 000-0000-000-00 from Korea Science and Engineering Foundation.”
Conflict of Interest (Competing Interest) must be included in all manuscripts. For further details, refer to ‘Competing Interest’ section below.
Every paper must begin with a brief Abstract (no longer than 250 words) presenting succinctly and clearly the plan, procedures, and significant results of the investigation. Avoid specialized terms, abbreviations, diagrams, and references. When it is essential to include a reference, put the literature citation within square brackets, e.g. [Lee and Kang (1990)].
The Introduction states the purpose of the investigation and its relation to other works in the same field, but should not present an extensive review of the literature.
5. Materials and Methods
The descriptions in Materials and Methods should be brief, but sufficiently detailed to permit repetition of the work by a qualified operator. When centrifugation conditions are critical, give details to enable another investigator to repeat the procedure: make of centrifuge, model of rotor, temperature, time at maximum speed, and centrifugal force (´ g rather than revolutions per minutes.)
Refer to published procedures by citing both the original description and pertinent published modifications. Do not include extensive details unless they constitute a significant new modification. A simple reference is sufficient for commonly used materials and methods (e.g. media and protein determination). If several alternative methodologies are commonly employed, it is useful to identify the method briefly, as well as to cite the reference. For example, “cells were broken by ultrasonic treatment as previously described (Kim 1983)”, rather than “cells were broken as previously described (Kim 1983)”.
Describe new methods completely and give sources of unusual chemicals, equipment, or microbial strains. When large numbers of microbial strains or mutants are used in a study, include strain tables identifying the sources and properties of the strains, mutants, bacteriophages, plasmids, etc. A method, strain, etc. used in only one of several experiments reported in the paper may be described in the Results section, or very briefly (in one or two sentences) in a table footnote or figure legend.
The Results section should describe the results of the experiments. Reserve extensive interpretation for the Discussion section. Present the results as concisely as possible in one of the following: text, table(s), or figure(s). Avoid presenting essentially similar data in both table and figure form. Also avoid extensive use of graphs to present data that might be more concisely presented in the text or tables. For example, except in unusual cases, doublereciprocal plots used to determine apparent Km values should not be presented as graphs; instead, the values should be stated in the text. Limit photographs (particularly photomicrographs, electron micrographs, and photographs of gel patterns) to those that are absolutely necessary for presenting the experimental findings. Number figures and tables according to the order of citation in the text.
The Discussion should be concise and provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published work and to the experimental system at hand. It should not contain extensive repetition of the Results section or reiteration of the Introduction. The Discussion can be combined with Results as Results and Discussion.
Citations of relevant published work in the text, from Introduction to Discussion, including tables and figures, should read Kim and Kang (1987) or (Kim and Kang 1987). When a paper cited has three or more authors, use the style Chung et al. (1989) or (Chung et al. 1989). Use (Park 1983a) and (Park 1983b) when citing more than one paper by the same author(s) published in the same year. For example, “This is observed both in vivo and in vitro (Choi et al. 1980; Lee 1989a, 1989b; Smith and Jones 1984).”
The References section must be in alphabetical order by first author. Use the following style:
Author AB, Author CD. 2000. Title of article. J. Crop Sci. and Biotech. 38: 15-22
Author AB, Author CD, Author EF, Author GH, Author IJ, Author KL. 2000. Title of article. J. Crop Sci. and Biotech. 38: 15-22
Author AB, Author CD, Author EF, Author GH, Author IJ et al. 2000. Title of article. J. Crop Sci. and Biotech. 38: 15-22 (In case or more than 11 authors)
Author AB, Author CD, Author EF. 1990. Title of article, In A Smith, B Jones, eds, Title of Book, Ed 2, Vol 3. Publisher, City, pp 14-19
Author AB. 2000. Title of thesis. Ph. D. thesis. University, City
No authors or eds
Title of Booklet, Pamphlet, etc. 2000. Publisher (or Company), City
If authors are 11 or more, list the first 5 names followed by “et al.”. Cite as references papers already accepted for publication; the abbreviated name of the journal should be preceded by the estimated date (year) of publication and followed by the words “in press”. Submit copies of such papers to the Editors if they have any bearing on the manuscript under consideration. Abbreviate journal names as in Chemical Abstracts or Biological Abstracts List of Serials (Biosis). Include first and last page numbers. Note usage and positions of commas, periods, spaces, and italic and bold fonts. Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic references rests entirely with the author(s).
Do not list the following in the References section: unpublished data, personal communications, manuscripts in preparation, manuscripts submitted, pamphlets, abstracts, and materials that have not been subjected to peer review. Refer to such sources parenthetically in the text. Do not cite abstracts of papers presented at scientific meetings as references unless they appear in publications included in the Biological Abstracts List of Serials. If a submitted paper is one of a series, include in the References the paper immediately preceding it in the series, and identify it as such as in the text.
Keep the number of footnotes to a minimum. Use superscript Arabic numerals to identify the footnotes.
11. Figure legends
Figure legends should provide enough information for the figure to be understandable without frequent reference to the text. However, describe detailed experimental methods in the Materials and Methods sections, not in the figure legend. A method that is unique to one of several experiments may be reported in a legend if it can be described very briefly (in one or two sentences). Define all symbols and abbreviations used in the figure that have not been defined elsewhere.
Form and Style of Manuscript
1. Preparation of Manuscript
Type manuscripts with double spacing throughout, including references, tables, footnotes, and figure legends, on one side of A4 size paper with a margin of 2.5 cm all round. Arrange the parts of the manuscript in the order indicated below and number all sheets in succession, the title page being page 1. Indicate by marginal notes the appropriate location of the tables and figures in the text. Start each of the following on a separate sheet: (a) title page as described above, (b) abstract, (c) text from introduction to acknowledgments, (d) references, (e) footnotes, (f) legends for figures (more than one legend may be on the same page), (g) tables, and (h) figures. Be sure to include at least two original matt prints of all halftone figures.
It is important that manuscripts be written in clear, grammatically correct English.
Manuscripts that do not meet minimum standards of English grammar and syntax will be rejected. Authors should avoid excessively long sentences and are also encouraged to have shorter paragraphs, for easy reading.
2. Notes Added in Proof
Where the desirability or necessity of a “Note Added in Proof” can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Editors, the manuscript of the note may be attached to the proof. This addition must then receive the approval of the Editors, and may delay publication. Data obtained after acceptance of the manuscript cannot be inserted in the text, nor should there be any substantial change in the conclusions based on new data of the authors or others.
Corrections will be published as required. They provide a means of correcting errors (e.g. typographical) in published articles. Changes in data and the addition of new material are not permitted. Send errata directly to the Executive Editor.
Preparation of Tables
1. Tabulate only essential data or data needed to illustrate or prove a point. Every table should have an explanatory title and sufficient experimental detail, usually in a paragraph immediately following the title, to be intelligible without reference to the text.
2. Each column should carry an appropriate heading. When headings must be abbreviated, follow the recommendations in the Abbreviations and Symbols section below. The units in which the data are expressed should be given at the top of each column and not repeated on each line. Words or numerals should be repeated on successive lines; do not use ditto marks.
3. Always indicate units of measure clearly. If an experimental condition, such as the number of animals, dosage, concentration of a compound, etc is the same for all of the tabulated experiments, provide this information in a statement accompanying the table, and not in a column of identical figures in the table.
4. Avoid the presentation of large masses of essentially similar data. Whenever space can be saved thereby, replace extended tabulations by reporting mean values with some accepted measure of dispersion (standard deviation, range) and an indication of the numbers of individual observations contributing to these statistics. Statements about the significance of measures, e.g. differences between means or other statistics, should be accompanied by probability values derived from appropriate statistical tests. Define all statistical measures clearly and unambiguously.
5. Do not include more significant figures in the data than are justified by the accuracy of the determinations.
6. Limit the number of horizontal rules and do not use vertical rules. Footnotes in the tables should be identified with superscript lower case italic letters: a, b, etc. and placed at the bottom of the table.
7. In exceptional cases, very complex or large table may be submitted in “camera-ready” form. Type such tables in single spacing with a black ribbon.
Preparation of Illustrations
1. General Information
A complete set of figures, as prints (or on sheets) approximately the same size as the manuscript pages, should accompany each copy of the manuscript for the convenience of the reviewers. Original drawings or clear prints may be submitted. Only one set, of top quality, is needed for the printer; the others may be prints or photocopies, except in the case of electron micrographs or halftone figures where good quality prints should be supplied with each copy of the manuscript.
The Journal will charge authors for the publication of color plates and other special illustrations, such as electron micrographs, which call for special high quality reproduction using coated (more expensive) paperstock.
Amino acid or nucleotide sequences, or flow diagrams, should always be prepared for direct photographic reproduction.
It is essential that the photographs submitted be of the highest quality to permit the best reproduction.
Provide a title and explanatory legend for each figure, but do not letter the title or legend on the figure itself.
Identify all figures with figure number, and indicate the TOP side.
Do not mount on heavy cardboard. Do not submit fragile or oversized original drawings. These may be sent at the time of acceptance, if they are absolutely essential.
2. Special Instructions
All figures will be reproduced in a single column width (8.4 cm) or smaller, unless there is a compelling reason to have them larger. All letters, numbers, and symbols must be drawn to be at least 1.5 mm and not more than 3.0 mm high after reduction. Simple figures (e.g. with a single curve) can usually be reduced to a smaller size than more complex figures or those that are
intended to convey numerical information. Therefore, the lettering on a simple figure should be proportionately larger. Rather than labeling every index line, space the numbers to avoid crowding. All lines and lettering should be evenly and heavily drawn in black ink. Use only standard symbols, such as circles, crosses, rectangles, and triangles (filled or open). The symbols and curves can be identified in the legend or in the figure itself, whichever is clearer.
Abbreviations and Symbols
All abbreviations used in the text should be defined in a single footnote.
Abbreviations used only in a table or figure may be defined in the table footnote or figure legend.
A limited use of abbreviations and symbols of specified meaning is therefore accepted. However, clarity and unambiguity are more important than brevity. For some of the most important biochemical reagents, coenzymes, etc., short abbreviations are universally employed, e.g. ATP, NADP, RNA. Creation of new abbreviations of this kind is strongly discouraged.
All measurements should be in the metric system and SI units are preferred. Do not use a slash for combination of units, such as m/s, g/m2/s, etc. They should be described as m s-1, g m-2 s-1, etc. and one space should be inserted before unit and between units for multi-unit values. To avoid possible confusion between gravimetric and volumetric concentrations of substances, describe them as g g-1, g L-1 and mL L-1 rather than “%”.
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Editorial Board Members and Editors are required to declare any competing interests and may be excluded from the peer review process if a competing interest exists. In addition, they should exclude themselves from handling manuscripts in cases where there is a competing interest. This may include – but is not limited to – having previously published with one or more of the authors, and sharing the same institution as one or more of the authors. Where an Editor or Editorial Board Member is on the author list they must declare this in the competing interests section on the submitted manuscript. If they are an author or have any other competing interest regarding a specific manuscript, another Editor or member of the Editorial Board will be assigned to assume responsibility for overseeing peer review. These submissions are subject to the exact same review process as any other manuscript. Editorial Board Members are welcome to submit papers to the journal. These submissions are not given any priority over other manuscripts, and Editorial Board Member status has no bearing on editorial consideration.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.
Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).
Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.
Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement. Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential competing interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘Declarations’ section.
Summary of requirements
The above should be summarized in a statement and included on a title page that is separate from the manuscript with a section entitled “Declarations” when submitting a paper. Having all statements in one place allows for a consistent and unified review of the information by the Editor-in-Chief and/or peer reviewers and may speed up the handling of the paper. Declarations include Funding, Competing interests, Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Materials and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements. Please use the title page for providing the statements.
Once and if the paper is accepted for publication, the production department will put the respective statements in a distinctly identified section clearly visible for readers.
Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
When all authors have the same (or no) competing interests and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.
Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:
- Partial financial support was received from [...]
- The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
- This study was funded by […]
- This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]
Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:
- The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
- No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.
- No funding was received for conducting this study.
- No funds, grants, or other support was received.
Examples of statements to be used when there are interests to declare:
- Financial interests: Author A has received research support from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company Wand owns stock in Company X. Author C is consultant to company Y.
Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.
- Financial interests: The authors declare they have no financial interests.
Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.
- Financial interests: Author A received a speaking fee from Y for Z. Author B receives a salary from association X. X where s/he is the Executive Director.
Non-financial interests: none.
- Financial interests: Author A and B declare they have no financial interests. Author C has received speaker and consultant honoraria from Company M and Company N. Dr. C has received speaker honorarium and research funding from Company M and Company O. Author D has received travel support from Company O.
Non-financial interests: Author D has served on advisory boards for Company M, Company N and Company O.
Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:
- The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.
- The authors have no competing interests to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
- All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
- The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.
Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.
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