- Instructions for Authors
- Editorial policy
- Submission of papers
- Manuscript Submission
- Preparation of manuscripts
- Text Formatting
- Electronic Supplementary Material
- Guidelines for Electronically Produced Illustrations for Print
- Guidelines for Electronically Produced Illustrations for ONLINE
- Copyright Transfer
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
Instructions for Authors
Cognitive Computation is a high-quality quarterly journal which will publish cutting-edge articles describing original basic and applied work involving biologically-inspired computational accounts of all aspects of natural and artificial cognitive systems. Its main purpose is to establish a forum for bringing different scientific communities together to discuss key issues and challenges in the emerging area of cognitive computation and to promote an interdisciplinary understanding of the diverse topics, including those related to perception, action, attention, learning and memory, decision making, language processing, communication, reasoning, problem solving, and consciousness aspects of cognition.
Areas of particular interest include theoretical, computational, experimental and integrative studies in cognitive systems, including (but not limited to):
artificial intelligence, neural networks, cognitive neuromorphic engineering and other hardware implementations, cognitive robotics, autonomous cognitive systems, neuroscience nanotechnology, self-organizing, swarm and immune systems, complex systems and control theory, and computational cognitive neuroscience, as well as submissions focusing on the development of latest research into practical applications.
Cognitive Computation Audience:
Computational Neuroscientists, Computer Scientists, Cognitive Scientists, Software engineers, Electronic Engineers, Neuromorphic engineers, Systems designers, Information managers, Knowledge Engineers, Psychologists, Linguists, Artificial Intelligence Specialists, Researchers, and professionals in such fields as finance, manufacturing, defense, medicine, and the sciences - both 'pure' and 'applied'.
Types of Papers:
The journal is committed to high standards of presentation. Please contact the Editor to discuss the suitability of topics.
Cognitive Computation will consider:
Regular full-length Papers and Short Papers or Letters describing original research; In-depth Review articles focusing on important new developments; Book reviews, Comments/Discussions on Papers; Opinion and controversies; Letters to the editor; Special Issue proposals; Announcements for upcoming related Events/Conferences and Books.
Full-length or Regular papers can be up to 10,000 words in length and should be aimed at presenting novel results important for the cognitive computation research community. Regular Articles are expected to constitute the core of Cognitive Computation publications.
Review (full-length) articles should focus on a topic of interest to the cognitive computation community. Authors will be asked to take particular care in writing the review in an intelligible way, so that readers outside this field can understand the main ideas and their importance. These review papers should normally be invited by the Editor, but they can also be solicited by Authors. In this case, the Author(s) should contact the Editor, and send an outline of the review stressing why it is important and timely to review this topic, and why it is relevant to this journal. Review papers will be processed and reviewed like regular articles, except that the referees will be explicitly told that it is an invited review paper.
Short Papers or Letters are aimed at important findings that need to be published promptly. The length and the number of figures are limited to 3000 words (text, including references), plus 3 figures (which can be multi-panel figures) and a maximum of one table. For these papers, the time to publication will be minimized (this fast track will be treated in priority). The format remains the same as for regular articles, except that we ask the authors to be very concise in writing their introduction and discussion, and reviewers will be asked to be prompt in their review.
All other correspondence items should be no more than 1000 words in length, with 1 figure or table.
Submission of papers
Online Manuscript Submission
Springer now offers authors, editors and reviewers of Cognitive Computation the use of our fully web-enabled online manuscript submission and review system. To keep the review time as short as possible, we request authors to submit manuscripts online to the journal‘s editorial office. Our online manuscript submission and review system offers authors the option to track the progress of the review process of manuscripts in real time. Manuscripts should be submitted to:
The online manuscript submission and review system for Cognitive Computation offers easy and straightforward log-in and submission procedures. This system supports a wide range of submission file formats: for manuscripts - Word, WordPerfect, RTF, TXT and LaTex; for figures - TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, and Postscript. PDF is not an acceptable file format.
NOTE: In case you encounter any difficulties while submitting your manuscript online, please get in touch with the responsible Editorial Assistant by clicking on “CONTACT US” from the tool bar.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papapers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Preparation of manuscripts
Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced preferably in Word, or another PC-compatible format. Any special points should be emphasized in the covering letter. The number of heading levels used should be kept to a maximum of three. Papers describing original research should be arranged as follows:
1. Title page (including correspondence address)
2. Structured Abstract (150-250 words)
3. Keywords (minimum 3, maximum 6)
8. Conclusion or summary
10. References (see below)
11. Tables (with captions)
12. Figures (with captions)
The Title page should include:
• The name(s) of the author(s)
• A concise and informative title
• The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
• The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author
Please provide a structured abstract of max. 250 words with the headings:
Background / introduction
The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
Please provide 4 to 6 Keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.
The Introduction should assume that the reader is knowledgeable in the field and should, therefore, be as brief as possible.
In the Methods section, methods that have been published in detail elsewhere should not be described in detail.
Abbreviations and symbols used should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter. Abbreviations must be standard and SI units used throughout. Acronyms should be used sparingly and must be fully explained when first used. Any statistical analyses must explain the methods used.
For submission in Word:
• Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
• Use italics for emphasis.
• Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
• Do not use field functions.
• Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
• Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
• Use the equation editor or MathType for equations. Note: If you use Word 2007, do not create the equations with the default equation editor but use MathType instead.
• Save your file in two formats: doc and rtf. Do not submit docx files.
The list of References should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
References should follow the Vancouver format. At the end of the paper they should be listed (doublespaced) in numerical order corresponding to the order of citation in the text. All authors should be quoted for papers with up to six authors; for papers with more than six authors, list the first six followed by ‘et al’. Articles that have been accepted for publication but not yet published should be listed as ‘in press’. Examples:
Smith JJ. The world of science. Am J Sci 1999;36:234–5.
Article by DOI
Slifka MK, Whitton JL. Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med 2000; doi:10.1007/s001090000086
Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P. Symptoms in the pharmacy: a guide to the management of common illness. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998.
Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR. Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. In: Bourne GH, Danielli JF, Jeon KW, editors. International review of cytology. London: Academic; 1980. pp. 251–306.
Doe J. Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. 1999. http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document. Accessed 15 Jan 1999.
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see http://www.issn.org/en/node/344
Citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Some examples:
1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines .
2. This finding was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman .
3. This approach has been widely studied [1-3, 7].
Please do not cite any journal, including Cognitive Computation, more than twice.
Footnotes on the title page are not given reference symbols. Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data).
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
• All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
• Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
• For each table, please supply a table heading. The table title should explain clearly and concisely the components of the table.
• Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table heading.
• Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks
• All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
• Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters.
• Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
• For each figure, please supply a figure caption.
• Make sure to identify all elements found in the figure in the caption.
• Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the caption.
• Figures will be produced in black & white in the print version, and in color in the electronic version free of charge. The cost for reproducing color in the print version is $1150 per article, charged to the author/institution. If color is necessary and funding is unavailable, please contact the Editor.
• For formatting requirements, please see “Guidelines for Electronically Produced Illustrations” below.
Electronic Supplementary Material
If Electronic supplementary material (ESM) is submitted, it will be published as received from the author in the online version only. ESM may consist of:
• information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings
• information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.
• large original data, e.g. additional tables, illustrations, etc.
• If supplying any ESM, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables (e.g., “. . . as shown in Animation 3.”).
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor. After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
Guidelines for Electronically Produced Illustrations for Print
Send illustrations separately from the text (i.e. files should not be integrated with the text files). Always send printouts of all illustrations.
Vector (line) Graphics
Vector graphics exported from a drawing program should be stored in EPS format. Suitable drawing program: Adobe Illustrator. For simple line art the following drawing programs are also acceptable: Corel Draw, Freehand, Canvas.
• No rules narrower than .25 pt.
• No gray screens paler than 15% or darker than 60%.
• Screens meant to be differentiated from one another must differ by at least 15%.
• Most presentation programs (Excel, PowerPoint, Freelance) produce data that cannot be stored in an EPS format. Therefore graphics produced by these programs cannot be used for print.
• Black and white and color illustrations should be saved in TIFF format. Illustrations should be created using Adobe Photoshop whenever possible.
• Scanned reproductions of black and white photographs should be provided as 300 ppi TIFF files.
• Scanned color illustrations should be provided as TIFF files scanned at a minimum of 300 ppi with a 24-bit color depth. Line art should be provided as TIFF files at 600 ppi.
• *We do prefer having the original art as our printers have drum scanners which allow for better reproduction of critical medical halftones. Upon acceptance of a manuscript, please be ready to provide original hard copies if electronic files are unavailable.
Graphics from Videos
• Separate files should be prepared for frames from a video that are to be printed in the journal. When preparing these files you should follow the same rules as listed under Halftone Illustrations.
Guidelines for Electronically Produced Illustrations for ONLINE
• MPEG (.mpg) is the preferred format, but .rm, .avi, .mov, etc. are acceptable.
• No video file should be larger than 2MB. To decrease the size of your file, consider changing one or more of the following variables: frame speed, number of colors/greys, viewing size (in pixels), or compression. Video is subject to Editorial review and approval.
Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher (or grant the Publisher exclusive publication and dissemination rights). This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws. Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, they agree to the Springer Open Choice Licence.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations. Please check the Instructions for Authors of the Journal that you are submitting to for specific instructions.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
- Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
- Honoraria for speaking at symposia
- Financial support for attending symposia
- Financial support for educational programs
- Employment or consultation
- Support from a project sponsor
- Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
- Multiple affiliations
- Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
- Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
- Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.