Submission guidelines

Instructions for Authors

Types of Papers and Length of Texts

Original Paper: theoretical, empirical and methodological original contribution, max. 60.000 characters (including footnotes, references, tables and spaces).

Research Note: brief presentations of unpublished, completed projects of broad interest, max. 25.000 characters (including footnotes, references, tables and spaces).

Book Review: The book review editorial office welcomes proposals of book reviews (max. 12,000 characters) with an Austrian focus by authors with an Austrian affiliation.

Conference Report

The authors have the opportunity to provide information on the separate title page about their research interests and their three most important publications in about five lines.

Editorial procedure

Double-blind peer review

This journal follows a double-blind reviewing procedure. This means that the author will remain anonymous to the reviewers throughout peer review. It is the responsibility of the author to anonymize the manuscript and any associated materials.

  • Author names, affiliations and any other potentially identifying information should be removed from the manuscript text and any accompanying files (such as figures of supplementary material);
  • A separate Title Page should be submitted, containing title, author names, affiliations, and the contact information of the corresponding author. Any acknowledgements, disclosures, or funding information should also be included on this page;
  • Authors should avoid citing their own work in a way that could reveal their identity.

Each manuscript is assigned to an editorial board member responsible for the review process. This handling editor appoints two external peer reviewers, who receive the manuscript in anonymous form, and provides feedback on the reviews to the author. If the reviewers make suggestions for a revision of the manuscript, the revised text is subjected to a second review by the same reviewers. If there are conflicting opinions among the reviewers, a third review will be obtained. The final decision on publication is made on the basis of these reviews during the editorial board meetings. Supplements and special issues by guest editors are subject to the same peer review guidelines.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscript Submission

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

Permissions

Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

How to Submit

Manuscripts should preferably be submitted in the original file format. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” on the right to open an e-mail to the editor and attach the files.

Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files might cause unnecessary delays in the review and production process.

Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted in an anonymised Word format by e-mail to the member of the editorial team Franz Höllinger: franz.hoellinger@uni-graz.at.

Book review editor Martina Beham-Rabanser welcomes proposals of book reviews with an Austrian focus by authors with an Austrian affiliation: martina.beham-rabanser@jku.at.

Title Page

Title Page

Please make sure your title page contains the following information.

Title

The title should be concise and informative.

Author information

  • The name(s) of the author(s)
  • The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
  • A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author
  • If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)

If address information is provided with the affiliation(s) it will also be published.

For authors that are (temporarily) unaffiliated we will only capture their city and country of residence, not their e-mail address unless specifically requested.

Abstract

Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

For life science journals only (when applicable)

  • Trial registration number and date of registration for prospectively registered trials
  • Trial registration number and date of registration, followed by “retrospectively registered”, for retrospectively registered trials

Keywords

Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Statements and Declarations

The following statements should be included under the heading "Statements and Declarations" for inclusion in the published paper. Please note that submissions that do not include relevant declarations will be returned as incomplete.

  • Competing Interests: Authors are required to disclose financial or non-financial interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Please refer to “Competing Interests and Funding” below for more information on how to complete this section.

Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.

Text

Text Formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.

  • Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
  • Use italics for emphasis.
  • Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
  • Do not use field functions.
  • Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
  • Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
  • Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
  • Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format (older Word versions).

Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX.

We recommend using Springer Nature’s LaTeX template.

Headings

Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

Footnotes

Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.

Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.

Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

References

Citation

Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:

  • Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
  • This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
  • This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999).

Reference list

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work.

Journal names and book titles should be italicized.

If available, please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list (e.g. “https://doi.org/abc”).

  • Journal article

    Alber, John, Daniel C. O’Connell, and Sabine Kowal. 2002. Personal perspective in TV interviews. Pragmatics 12: 257–271.

  • Article by DOI

    Suleiman, Camelia, Daniel C. O’Connell, and Sabine Kowal. 2002. ‘If you and I, if we, in this later day, lose that sacred fire...’: Perspective in political interviews. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015592129296

  • Book

    Cameron, Deborah. 1985. Feminism and linguistic theory. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

  • Book chapter

    Cameron, Deborah. 1997. Theoretical debates in feminist linguistics: Questions of sex and gender. In Gender and discourse, ed. Ruth Wodak, 99-119. London: Sage Publications.

  • Online document

    Frisch, Mathias. 2007. Does a low-entropy constraint prevent us from influencing the past? PhilSci archive. http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00003390. Accessed 26 June 2007.

Please use a „p.“ for in-text-citations with pages in English-language articles or „S.“ for in-text-citations with pages in German-language articles.

Tables

  • All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
  • Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
  • Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.

Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines

Electronic Figure Submission

  • Supply all figures electronically.
  • Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
  • For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MSOffice files are also acceptable.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
  • Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.

Line Art

  • Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
  • Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
  • All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
  • Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.

Halftone Art

  • Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
  • If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
  • Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

Combination Art

  • Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
  • Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.

Color Art

  • Color art is free of charge for online publication.
  • If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
  • If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
  • Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).

Figure Lettering

  • To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
  • Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
  • Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
  • Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
  • Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.

Figure Numbering

  • All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
  • If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures,"A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices [Supplementary Information (SI)] should, however, be numbered separately.

Figure Captions

  • Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
  • Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
  • No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
  • Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
  • Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.

Figure Placement and Size

  • Figures should be submitted within the body of the text. Only if the file size of the manuscript causes problems in uploading it, the large figures should be submitted separately from the text.
  • When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
  • For large-sized journals the figures should be 84 mm (for double-column text areas), or 174 mm (for single-column text areas) wide and not higher than 234 mm.
  • For small-sized journals, the figures should be 119 mm wide and not higher than 195 mm.

Permissions

If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.

Accessibility

In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that

  • All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
  • Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (colorblind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
  • Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1

Supplementary Information (SI)

Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article or a book chapter. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.

Before submitting research datasets as Supplementary Information, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.

Submission

  • Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
  • Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
  • To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
  • High resolution (streamable quality) videos can be submitted up to a maximum of 25GB; low resolution videos should not be larger than 5GB.

Audio, Video, and Animations

  • Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
  • Maximum file size: 25 GB for high resolution files; 5 GB for low resolution files
  • Minimum video duration: 1 sec
  • Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp

Text and Presentations

  • Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
  • A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.

Spreadsheets

  • Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).

Specialized Formats

  • Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.

Collecting Multiple Files

  • It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.

Numbering

  • If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
  • Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
  • Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.

Captions

  • For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.

Processing of supplementary files

  • Supplementary Information (SI) will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.

Accessibility

In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that

  • The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
  • Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)

After acceptance

Upon acceptance, your article will be exported to Production to undergo typesetting. Once typesetting is complete, you will receive a link asking you to confirm your affiliation, choose the publishing model for your article as well as arrange rights and payment of any associated publication cost.

Once you have completed this, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.

Article publishing agreement

Depending on the ownership of the journal and its policies, you will either grant the Publisher an exclusive licence to publish the article or will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher.

Offprints

Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.

Color illustrations

Online publication of color illustrations is free of charge. For color in the print version, authors will be expected to make a contribution towards the extra costs.

Proof reading

The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.

After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.

Online First

The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

Open Choice

Open Choice allows you to publish open access in more than 1850 Springer Nature journals, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.

Article processing charges (APCs) vary by journal – view the full list

Benefits:

  • Increased researcher engagement: Open Choice enables access by anyone with an internet connection, immediately on publication.
  • Higher visibility and impact: In Springer hybrid journals, OA articles are accessed 4 times more often on average, and cited 1.7 more times on average*.

  • Easy compliance with funder and institutional mandates: Many funders require open access publishing, and some take compliance into account when assessing future grant applications.

It is easy to find funding to support open access – please see our funding and support pages for more information.

*) Within the first three years of publication. Springer Nature hybrid journal OA impact analysis, 2018.

Open Choice

Funding and Support pages

Copyright and license term – CC BY

Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Find more about the license agreement

Research Data Policy

This journal operates a type 1 research data policy. The journal encourages authors, where possible and applicable, to deposit data that support the findings of their research in a public repository. Authors and editors who do not have a preferred repository should consult Springer Nature’s list of repositories and research data policy.

List of Repositories

Research Data Policy

General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may also be used.

Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.

DataCite

If the journal that you’re submitting to uses double-blind peer review and you are providing reviewers with access to your data (for example via a repository link, supplementary information or data on request), it is strongly suggested that the authorship in the data is also blinded. There are data repositories that can assist with this and/or will create a link to mask the authorship of your data.

Authors who need help understanding our data sharing policies, help finding a suitable data repository, or help organising and sharing research data can access our Author Support portal for additional guidance.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.

Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:

  • The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
  • A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
  • Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
  • Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.

Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.

  • Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
  • Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
  • Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
  • Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.

*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.

Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.

If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:

  • If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:

    - an erratum/correction may be placed with the article

    - an expression of concern may be placed with the article

    - or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.

The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.

  • The author’s institution may be informed
  • A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.

Fundamental errors

Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.

Suggesting / excluding reviewers

Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.

Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:

  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent

Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.

The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.

The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Competing Interests

Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.

Editorial Board Members and Editors are required to declare any competing interests and may be excluded from the peer review process if a competing interest exists. In addition, they should exclude themselves from handling manuscripts in cases where there is a competing interest. This may include – but is not limited to – having previously published with one or more of the authors, and sharing the same institution as one or more of the authors. Where an Editor or Editorial Board Member is on the author list they must declare this in the competing interests section on the submitted manuscript. If they are an author or have any other competing interest regarding a specific manuscript, another Editor or member of the Editorial Board will be assigned to assume responsibility for overseeing peer review. These submissions are subject to the exact same review process as any other manuscript. Editorial Board Members are welcome to submit papers to the journal. These submissions are not given any priority over other manuscripts, and Editorial Board Member status has no bearing on editorial consideration.

Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:

Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.

Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).

Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.

It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."

Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.

Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement. Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.

Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential competing interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘Declarations’ section.

Summary of requirements

The above should be summarized in a statement and included on a title page that is separate from the manuscript with a section entitled “Declarations” when submitting a paper. Having all statements in one place allows for a consistent and unified review of the information by the Editor-in-Chief and/or peer reviewers and may speed up the handling of the paper. Declarations include Funding, Competing interests, Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Materials and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements. Please use the title page for providing the statements.

Once and if the paper is accepted for publication, the production department will put the respective statements in a distinctly identified section clearly visible for readers.

Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.

When all authors have the same (or no) competing interests and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.

Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:

  • Partial financial support was received from [...]
  • The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
  • This study was funded by […]
  • This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]

Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:

  • The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
  • No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.
  • No funding was received for conducting this study.
  • No funds, grants, or other support was received.

Examples of statements to be used when there are interests to declare:

  • Financial interests: Author A has received research support from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company Wand owns stock in Company X. Author C is consultant to company Y.

    Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.

  • Financial interests: The authors declare they have no financial interests.

    Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.

  • Financial interests: Author A received a speaking fee from Y for Z. Author B receives a salary from association X. X where s/he is the Executive Director.

    Non-financial interests: none.

  • Financial interests: Author A and B declare they have no financial interests. Author C has received speaker and consultant honoraria from Company M and Company N. Dr. C has received speaker honorarium and research funding from Company M and Company O. Author D has received travel support from Company O.

    Non-financial interests: Author D has served on advisory boards for Company M, Company N and Company O.

Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:

  • The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.
  • The authors have no competing interests to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
  • All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
  • The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.

Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.

Authorship principles

These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.

Authorship clarified

The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.

The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:

All authors whose names appear on the submission

1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;

2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;

3) approved the version to be published; and

4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

* Based on/adapted from:

ICMJE, Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors,

Transparency in authors’ contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication, McNutt at all, PNAS February 27, 2018

Disclosures and declarations

All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).

The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.

Data transparency

All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.

Role of the Corresponding Author

One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.

The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:

  • ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
  • managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
  • providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
  • making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).

* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Author contributions

In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.

Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:

• Free text:

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Example: CRediT taxonomy:

• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….

For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.

For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:

A Graduate Student’s Guide to Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order, APA Science Student Council 2006

Affiliation

The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.

Changes to authorship

Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.

  • Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!

Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.

Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.

Author identification

Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.

Deceased or incapacitated authors

For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.

Authorship issues or disputes

In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.

Confidentiality

Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.

Editing Services

English

How can you help improve your manuscript for publication?

Presenting your work in a well-structured manuscript and in well-written English gives it its best chance for editors and reviewers to understand it and evaluate it fairly. Many researchers find that getting some independent support helps them present their results in the best possible light. The experts at Springer Nature Author Services can help you with manuscript preparation—including English language editing, developmental comments, manuscript formatting, figure preparation, translation, and more.

Get started and save 15%

You can also use our free Grammar Check tool for an evaluation of your work.

Please note that using these tools, or any other service, is not a requirement for publication, nor does it imply or guarantee that editors will accept the article, or even select it for peer review.

Chinese (中文)

您怎么做才有助于改进您的稿件以便顺利发表?

如果在结构精巧的稿件中用精心组织的英语展示您的作品,就能最大限度地让编辑和审稿人理解并公正评估您的作品。许多研究人员发现,获得一些独立支持有助于他们以尽可能美好的方式展示他们的成果。Springer Nature Author Services 的专家可帮助您准备稿件,具体包括润色英语表述、添加有见地的注释、为稿件排版、设计图表、翻译等。

开始使用即可节省 15% 的费用

您还可以使用我们的免费语法检查工具来评估您的作品。

请注意,使用这些工具或任何其他服务不是发表前必须满足的要求,也不暗示或保证相关文章定会被编辑接受(甚至未必会被选送同行评审)。

Japanese (日本語)

発表に備えて、論文を改善するにはどうすればよいでしょうか?

内容が適切に組み立てられ、質の高い英語で書かれた論文を投稿すれば、編集者や査読者が論文を理解し、公正に評価するための最善の機会となります。多くの研究者は、個別のサポートを受けることで、研究結果を可能な限り最高の形で発表できると思っています。Springer Nature Author Servicesのエキスパートが、英文の編集、建設的な提言、論文の書式、図の調整、翻訳など、論文の作成をサポートいたします。

今なら15%割引でご利用いただけます

原稿の評価に、無料の文法チェックツールもご利用いただけます。

これらのツールや他のサービスをご利用いただくことは、論文を掲載するための要件ではありません。また、編集者が論文を受理したり、査読に選定したりすることを示唆または保証するものではないことにご注意ください。

Korean (한국어)

게재를 위해 원고를 개선하려면 어떻게 해야 할까요?

여러분의 작품을 체계적인 원고로 발표하는 것은 편집자와 심사자가 여러분의 연구를 이해하고 공정하게 평가할 수 있는 최선의 기회를 제공합니다. 많은 연구자들은 어느 정도 독립적인 지원을 받는 것이 가능한 한 최선의 방법으로 자신의 결과를 발표하는 데 도움이 된다고 합니다. Springer Nature Author Services 전문가들은 영어 편집, 발전적인 논평, 원고 서식 지정, 그림 준비, 번역 등과 같은 원고 준비를 도와드릴 수 있습니다.

지금 시작하면 15% 할인됩니다.

또한 당사의 무료 문법 검사도구를 사용하여 여러분의 연구를 평가할 수 있습니다.

이러한 도구 또는 기타 서비스를 사용하는 것은 게재를 위한 필수 요구사항이 아니며, 편집자가 해당 논문을 수락하거나 피어 리뷰에 해당 논문을 선택한다는 것을 암시하거나 보장하지는 않습니다.

Autorenhinweise

Beitragsarten und Textumfang

Hauptbeitrag: theoretischer, empirischer und methodologischer Originalbeitrag, max. 60.000 Zeichen inkl. Fußnoten, Literaturverzeichnis, Tabellen und Leerzeichen.

Forschungsnotiz: kurze Darstellungen nichtpublizierter, abgeschlossener Projekte von breitem Interesse; max. 25.000 Zeichen inkl. Fußnoten, Literaturverzeichnis, Tabellen und Leerzeichen.

Rezension: Vorschläge für Buchrezensionen (max. 12.000 Zeichen) mit österreichischem Bezug von Autor*innen mit österreichischer Affiliation können an die dafür zuständige Redaktion gesendet werden.

Tagungsbericht

Die Autor*innen haben die Möglichkeit, in etwa fünf Zeilen auf dem separaten Titelblatt Angaben über ihren Tätigkeitsbereich und die drei wichtigsten Publikationen zu machen.

Peer Review

Jedes Manuskript wird zwecks Durchführung des Begutachtungsverfahrens einem fachlich zuständigen Redaktionsmitglied zugeteilt; diese Person bestellt zwei Gutachtende, die das Manuskript in anonymer Form erhalten, und gibt dem Autor bzw. der Autorin Rückmeldung über die Gutachten. Werden von den Gutachtenden Vorschläge zur Überarbeitung des Textes gemacht, so wird der überarbeitete Text einer zweiten Begutachtung durch dieselben Gutachtenden unterzogen. Kommt es bei den Gutachtenden zu widersprüchlichen Urteilen, so wird ein drittes Gutachten eingeholt. Die Letztentscheidung über die Veröffentlichung erfolgt in der Herausgebersitzung auf der Grundlage der erstellten Gutachten. Sonderhefte von Gastherausgeber*innen unterliegen denselben Begutachtungsrichtlinien.

Geschlechtergerechte Sprache

Geschlechtergerechte Formulierungen sind erwünscht und sollen durchgängig und formal einheitlich verwendet werden.

Manuskripteinreichung

Voraussetzungen

Voraussetzung für das Einreichen eines Manuskriptes ist, dass die Arbeit noch nicht publiziert oder an anderer Stelle zur Publikation eingereicht wurde sowie dass alle Koautoren sowie die Institution, an der die Arbeit entstanden ist, der Publikation – implizit oder explizit – zustimmen.

Genehmigungen

Bei Verwendung von Textteilen, Abbildungen und Tabellen aus anderen Publikationen ist vom Autor die Genehmigung des Copyright-Inhabers (in der Regel des Originalverlags) einzuholen, und zwar sowohl für die Verwendung in der gedruckten als auch in der elektronischen/online Version der Zeitschrift. Bitte legen Sie dem Manuskript eine Kopie der Genehmigung bei.

Einreichung

Manuskripte sind im Originalformat und im PDF-Format einzureichen. Klicken Sie dazu auf “Online einreichen” im rechten Navigationsbereich und hängen Sie die Dateien an die E-Mail an.

Bitte beachten Sie, dass wir bereits zum Zeitpunkt der Einreichung alle notwendigen Dateien in einem bearbeitbaren ("offenen") Format benötigen. Sollten diese nicht von Anfang an zur Verfügung stehen, kann dies zu unnötigen Verzögerungen des Begutachtungs- und des Produktions-Prozesses führen.

Titelseite

Titelseite

Das Titelblatt muss folgende Informationen enthalten:

  • Name(n) des/der Autors/en
  • Prägnanter, informativer Titel der Arbeit
  • Affiliation/en des/der Autors/en, d.h. Institut, (Abteilung), Stadt, (Bundesstaat), Land
  • Eine klar gekennzeichnete und aktive E-Mail-Adresse des korrespondierenden Autors
  • Falls vorhanden: die 16-stellige ORCID des/der Autors/en

Wenn zusammen mit einer Affiliation Adressinformationen angegeben werden, werden diese ebenfalls veröffentlicht.

Bei Autoren, die (vorübergehend) keiner Affiliation zugeordnet sind, wird nur deren Wohnort (Stadt und Land) veröffentlicht, nicht aber die E-Mail-Adresse, so dies nicht ausdrücklich gewünscht wird.

Zusammenfassung

Dem Beitrag ist eine kurze Zusammenfassung von 150 bis 250 Wörtern voranzustellen. Die Zusammenfassung sollte keine Abkürzungen oder Literaturverweise enthalten.

Schlüsselwörter

Liefern Sie außerdem 4 bis 6 Schlüsselwörter.

Titel, Abstract und Keywords in Englisch

Bei deutschsprachigen Beiträgen ist eine Übersetzung des Aufsatztitels, der Zusammenfassung und der Schlüsselwörter ins Englische beizufügen.

Bei englischsprachigen Beiträgen sind umgekehrt Titel, Abstract und Keywords ins Deutsche zu übersetzen.

Bitte nennen Sie auf dem separaten Titelblatt die Anzahl der Zeichen des Beitrages sowie jegliche Danksagungen und ob und wenn ja, welche Interessenskonflikte stehen (z. B. Informationen über Finanzierungen).

Text

Textformatierung

Schreiben Sie Ihr Manuskript in Word und:

• Verwenden Sie für den gesamten Text eine Grundschrift (z.B. Times Roman 10 pt).

• Im laufenden Text hervorgehobene Wörter und Satzteile schreiben Sie bitte kursiv.

• Nummerieren Sie die Seiten mit Hilfe der Funktion „Seitenzahlen einfügen“.

• Verwenden Sie keine Feldfunktionen.

• Erstellen Sie Tabellen mit der Word-Tabellenfunktion, nicht mit Excel. Verwenden Sie auf keinen Fall die Leertaste, um Text tabellarisch auszurichten.

• Erstellen Sie Formeln mit dem Equation Editor oder mit MathType.

• Sichern Sie Ihre Arbeit im *.docx Format (Word 2007 und höher) oder im *doc Format (ältere Word-Versionen).

Manuskripte mit mathematischem Inhalt können auch in LaTeX eingereicht werden.

LaTeX macro package (Download zip, 190 kB)

Überschriften

Bitte verwenden Sie eine Dezimalgliederung mit nicht mehr als 3 Überschriften- bzw. Gliederungsebenen.

Abkürzungen

Fachsprachliche Abkürzungen sollten beim ersten Vorkommen im Text erklärt werden.

Fußnoten

Fußnoten können zusätzliche Informationen enthalten, die sonst den normalen Textfluss stören würden. Dazu können auch Literaturzitate gehören, die Fußnoten sollten jedoch nicht ausschließlich aus einer Literaturangabe bestehen. Bibliographische Angaben sind immer in die Literaturliste aufzunehmen. Fußnoten dürfen außerdem keine Abbildungen und Tabellen enthalten.

Fußnoten zum Text sind durchgehend zu nummerieren; Fußnoten zu Tabellen werden mit hochgestellten Kleinbuchstaben (oder Sternchen für Signifikanzwerte) gekennzeichnet. Fußnoten zum Titel oder den Autoren erhalten keine Referenzsymbole.

Benutzen Sie immer Fußnoten, keine Endnoten.

Danksagung

Danksagungen stehen in einem separaten Abschnitt vor dem Literaturverzeichnis. Namen von Förderorganisationen sollten dabei immer ausgeschrieben werden.

Als Schriftart und Schriftgröße ist Times New Roman, 12 pt zu wählen. Der Zeilenabstand soll 1,5 Zeilen betragen. Fortlaufend nummerierte Fußnoten sollen am Ende der jeweiligen Seite stehen.

Literatur

Zitierung im Text

Zitieren Sie Literatur im Text mit dem Autorennamen und dem Publikationsjahr nach folgenden Mustern:

• Wenn der Autorenname schon im Text vorkommt:

... Bourdieu (1990) ...

• Sonst:

...(Bourdieu 1990)

...(Weber 1956; Durkheim 1988a)

(Giddens 1984b, 1990; Parsons 1969)

• Bei zwei Autoren:

...(Münch und Smelser 1992)

• Bei mehr als zwei Autoren:

...(Zapf et al. 1990)

Literaturverzeichnis

Nehmen Sie nur Quellen in das Literaturverzeichnis auf, die im Text zitiert und bereits publiziert oder zur Publikation angenommen wurden. Quellen, die der Öffentlichkeit nicht zugänglich sind und persönliche Mitteilungen sollten nur im Text erwähnt werden.

Ordnen Sie das Literaturverzeichnis alphabetisch.

Zeitschriftennamen und Buchtitel werden kursiv formatiert.

DOIs (sofern verfügbar) sollten immer als vollständige DOI-Links im Literaturverzeichnis mitenthalten sein (z.Bsp. „https://doi.org/abc“).

• Zeitschriftenartikel

Alber, John, Daniel C. O’Connell, und Sabine Kowal. 2002. Personal perspective in TV interviews. Pragmatics 12:257–271.

Kaufmann, Franz-Xaver. 1997. Schwindet die integrative Funktion des Sozialstaates? Berliner Journal für Soziologie 7:5-19.

• Online-first-Artikel

Suleiman, Camelia, Daniel C. O’Connell, und Sabine Kowal. 2002. ‘If you and I, if we, in this later day, lose that sacred fire...’: Perspective in political interviews. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015592129296.

• Buch

Cameron, Deborah. 1985. Feminism and linguistic theory. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

• Buchkapitel

Cameron, Deborah. 1997. Theoretical debates in feminist linguistics: Questions of sex and gender. In Gender and discourse, Hrsg. Ruth Wodak, 99-119. London: Sage Publications.

Parsons, Talcott. 1969. Evolutionäre Universalien der Gesellschaft. In Theorien des sozialen Wandels, Hrsg. W. Zapf, 55-74. Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch.

• Online Dokument

Frisch, Mathias. 2007. Does a low-entropy constraint prevent us from influencing the past? PhilSci archive. http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00003390. Zugegriffen: 26. Juni 2007.

Tabellen

  • Nummerieren Sie die Tabellen fortlaufend.
  • Zitieren Sie die Tabellen der Reihe nach im Text.
  • Versehen Sie jede Tabelle mit einer Überschrift.
  • Falls Sie bereits publiziertes Material verwenden, geben Sie die Quelle am Ende der Tabellenüberschrift an.
  • Tabellenfußnoten werden mit hochgestellten Kleinbuchstaben gekennzeichnet und direkt unterhalb der Tabelle angefügt. Signifikanzen können mit hochgestellten Sternchen angegeben werden.

Abbildungen

Abbildungsformate

  • Bitte speichern Sie Vektorgraphiken im EPS-Format ab, Halbtonabbildungen (z.B. Photos) im TIFF-Format. MS Office Dateien sind ebenfalls möglich.
  • Geben Sie an, mit welchem Graphikprogramm die Abbildungen erstellt wurden.
  • Als Dateinamen verwenden Sie bitte “Abb” und die Abbildungsnummer, z.B. Abb1.eps.

Strichzeichnungen

  • Definition: Schwarz-weiß Zeichnungen ohne Schattierungen.
  • Überprüfen Sie, ob alle Details inklusive Beschriftung gut erkennbar sind. Die Linienstärke in der Endgröße muss mindestens 0,1 mm (0,3 pt) betragen.
  • Bei eingescannten Strichzeichnungen oder Zeichnungen im Bitmap-Format muss die Auflösung mindestens 1200 dpi betragen.
  • Bei Vektorgraphiken im EPS-Format müssen die Schriften unbedingt mit eingebunden werden.

Halbtonabbildungen

  • Definition: Photos oder Zeichnungen mit Schattierungen (Graustufen).
  • Die Mindestauflösung beträgt 300 dpi.

Kombinationsgraphiken

  • Definition: Aus Halbton- und Strichabbildungen zusammengesetzte Bilder, z.B. Photos mit eingezeichneten Linien oder sehr vielen Beschriftungen, Farbdiagramme u.Ä.
  • Die Mindestauflösung beträgt 600 dpi.

Farbabbildungen

  • Farbig eingereichte Abbildungen erscheinen in der Online-Version grundsätzlich in Farbe, auch wenn sie oft schwarzweiß gedruckt werden.
  • Verweisen Sie in der Legende von Bildern, die schwarzweiß gedruckt werden, nicht auf Farben und überprüfen Sie, dass die Information auch in schwarzweiß gut erkennbar ist. Am einfachsten können Sie das anhand eines Schwarzweiß-Ausdrucks oder einer Kopie erkennen.
  • Daten von Farbabbildungen sollten im RGB Modus erstellt werden (8 bits per channel).

Beschriftung

  • Für Beschriftungen verwenden Sie am besten Helvetica oder Arial. Vermeiden Sie Effekte wie Schattierungen, Umrisse etc.
  • Achten Sie darauf, dass die Beschriftung bei allen Abbildungen in der Endgröße ungefähr gleich groß ist, am besten ca. 2-3 mm (8–12 pt).
  • Bitte fügen Sie keine Abbildungslegenden oder Bildüberschriften in Ihre Bilddateien ein.

Nummerierung

  • Nummerieren Sie die Abbildungen fortlaufend (Abb. 1, Abb. 2...), inklusive eventueller Abbildungen in einem Anhang. Teilabbildungen werden mit Kleinbuchstaben bezeichnet (a, b, c, etc.).
  • Achten Sie darauf, dass alle Bilder der Reihe nach im Text erwähnt sind.

Legenden

  • Erstellen Sie für jede Abbildung eine Legende und fügen diese ans Ende der Textdatei an, nicht in die Bilddatei.
  • Abbildungslegenden beginnen mit “Abb.” und der Abbildungsnummer, die beide fett formatiert sind.
  • Nach der Abbildungsnummer und am Ende der Legende steht kein Punkt.
  • Alle in einer Abbildung enthaltenen Abkürzungen und Symbole sind in der Legende zu erklären.
  • Werden Abbildungen ganz oder teilweise von anderen Autoren übernommen, ist die Quelle anzugeben. Der Quellenvermerk steht am Ende der Legende in Klammern und hat die Form eines Literaturverweises.

Abbildungsgröße

  • Erstellen Sie die Bilder bereits in der Größe, in der sie auch gedruckt werden sollen.
  • Für kleinformatige Zeitschriften und die meisten Bücher gelten folgende Maße: 80 mm oder 122 mm breit und nicht höher als 198 mm.
  • Für großformatige Zeitschriften gelten die Maße: 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, oder 174 mm breit und nicht höher als 234 mm.

Genehmigungen

Bei Verwendung von Textteilen, Abbildungen und Tabellen aus anderen Werken ist vom Autor die Genehmigung des Copyright-Inhabers (in der Regel des Originalverlags) einzuholen, und zwar sowohl für die Verwendung in der gedruckten als auch in der elektronischen/online Version der Zeitschrift. Bitte beachten Sie, dass einige Verlage für die elektronischen Rechte eine Gebühr verlangen. Da diese Kosten nicht von uns erstattet werden, bitten wir Sie, in solchen Fällen anderes Material zu benutzen.

Zusätzliches Online Material

Zusätzliches Onlinematerial wird ausschließlich in der elektronischen Version des Artikels veröffentlicht, z.B.

  • Information, die nicht gedruckt werden kann, wie Animationen, Videos, Hörbeispiele.
  • Information, die sich in elektronischer Form leichter nutzen lässt, wie Sequenzen, Spektraldaten etc.
  • Umfangreiche Originaldaten wie zusätzliche Tabellen oder Abbildungen.

Dateiformate

Zusätzliches Onlinematerial wird vom Verlag oder Satzbetrieb nicht konvertiert oder editiert. Um eine optimale Nutzbarkeit zu erreichen, beachten sie deshalb bitte die folgenden Hinweise:

  • Benutzen Sie nur Standardformate und achten Sie darauf, dass die Dateien nicht zu groß sind, damit die Downloadzeiten nicht zu lang werden.
  • Audiodateien, Videos und Animationen sollten immer im MPEG-1 (.mpg) Format eingereicht werden.
  • Texte und Präsentationen sollten vorzugsweise im PDF Format eingereicht werden. Auch mehrere Abbildungen fassen Sie am besten in einer PDF-Datei zusammen.
  • Tabellenkalkulationen sollten ebenfalls nach PDF konvertiert werden, falls es nur darum geht, Ergebnisse darzustellen. Benutzen Sie jedoch das .xls Format (Excel), wenn die Leser selbst Berechnungen anstellen sollen.
  • Spezialformate wie .pdb (Chemie), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook) und .tex können ebenfalls eingereicht werden.
  • Mehrere Dateien können auch in einem .zip oder .tar Archiv zusammengefasst werden.

Nummerierung und Legenden

  • Zusätzliches Onlinematerial muss ähnlich wie Abbildungen und Tabellen im Text erwähnt werden, z.B.: “... wie das Hörbeispiel (Onlinematerial 1) zeigt”.
  • Benennen Sie Ihre Dateien entsprechend, z.B. Onlinematerial1.mpg.
  • Erstellen Sie für jede zusätzliche Onlinedatei eine Legende.

Nach der Annahme des Manuskripts

Sobald Ihr Artikel angenommen wurde und in Produktion geht, erhalten Sie eine E-Mail von @springeronline.com. Diese E-Mail enthält einen Link, der Sie zu den MyPublication Webseiten führt, auf denen Sie die organisatorischen Fragen rund um die Publikation Ihres Artikels schnell und einfach klären können: elektronische Unterzeichnung des Copyright Transfer Statements, Bestellung der OpenChoice Publikation, Sonderdrucke, Farbabbildungen im Druck. Sobald Ihre Angaben vollständig vorliegen, wird der Artikel produziert, und sie erhalten innerhalb von ca. 2 Wochen Ihren Korrekturabzug.

Open Choice

Artikel im OpenChoice Programm stehen der Öffentlichkeit frei zur Verfügung (Open Access) und können ohne Zugangsbeschränkung im vollständigen Wortlaut über SpringerLink gelesen und kostenlos heruntergeladen werden. Ein Open-Choice-Artikel durchläuft dabei den regulären Publikationsprozess, mit Begutachtung, Online-Aufbereitung und Satz und erscheint sowohl online als auch im Druck.

Springer Open Choice

Copyright Transfer

Mit der Annahme des Artikels wird der Autor um Übertragung des Copyrights (bzw. das ausschließliche, räumlich und zeitlich uneingeschränkte Recht zur Publikation und zum Vertrieb) an den Verlag gebeten. Die Zeitschrift sowie alle in ihr enthaltenen einzelnen Beiträge und Abbildungen sind urheberrechtlich geschützt.

Für Open Choice Artikel bleibt das Copyright beim Autor, wobei die Bedingungen der Creative Commons Attribution License gelten.

Sonderdrucke

Der korrespondierende Autor kann zusätzliche Sonderdrucke des Beitrags gegen Berechnung bestellen.

Farbabbildungen

Farbabbildungen werden online stets in Farbe publiziert, jedoch schwarz-weiß gedruckt.

Korrekturlesen

Wenn Sie den Korrekturabzug erhalten, überprüfen Sie bitte, dass der Text vollständig und korrekt konvertiert wurde und dass alle Abbildungen, Tabellen und die entsprechenden Legenden vorhanden sind. Bitte machen Sie keine ausschließlich stilistischen oder formalen Korrekturen. Wesentliche inhaltliche Änderungen wie neue Ergebnisse, korrigierte Werte, Änderungen im Titel oder der Autoren, sind nur mit Genehmigung des verantwortlichen Herausgebers gestattet.

Nach der Online-Publikation des Artikels sind Änderungen nur noch in Form eines Erratums möglich.

Online First

Ihr Artikel wird Online First veröffentlicht – ca. eine Woche, nachdem Ihre Korrekturen bei uns eingegangen sind. Dies ist die offizielle Erstpublikation, zitierbar mit dem DOI. Sobald das gedruckte Heft erschienen ist, kann der Artikel auch mit Band-/Heftnummer und Seitenzahlen zitiert werden.

Fachterminologie

Achten Sie auf eine einheitliche Schreibweise von Namen, Begriffen und Abkürzungen, auch in Tabellen und Abbildungslegenden. Richten Sie Ihre Schreibweise nach dem Duden mit neuer Rechtschreibung in gemäßigter Form.

Ethische Verbindlichkeiten der Autoren

Diese Zeitschrift sieht sich in der Pflicht, die Integrität wissenschaftlicher Publikationen sicherzustellen. Als Mitglied des Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) orientiert sie sich an den COPE-Leitlinien für den Umgang mit möglichen Verstößen gegen die Regeln der guten wissenschaftlichen Praxis.

Von Autoren wird erwartet, dass sie Forschungsergebnisse unverfälscht darstellen und alles vermeiden, was das Vertrauen in die Zeitschrift, die Professionalität der Autoren und nicht zuletzt das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten an sich in Frage stellen könnte. Zur Wahrung der Integrität der wissenschaftlichen Forschung und ihrer Darstellung sind die folgenden Regeln zu beachten:

  • Ein Manuskript darf nicht gleichzeitig bei mehr als einer Zeitschrift zur Begutachtung eingereicht werden.
  • Das Manuskript wurde nicht bereits an anderer Stelle (ganz oder teilweise) publiziert, es sei denn, die neu eingereichte Arbeit stellt eine Erweiterung früherer Arbeiten dar (bitte kennzeichnen Sie deutlich die Verwendung bereits publizierter Inhalte, um den Anschein von Textrecycling (Selbstplagiat) zu vermeiden).
  • Ergebnisse einer einzelnen Studie sollen nicht in mehrere Teile aufgeteilt und bei verschiedenen Zeitschriften oder in Form mehrerer Publikationen über einen längeren Zeitraum hinweg bei derselben Zeitschrift eingereicht werden, um die Anzahl der Einreichungen zu erhöhen (z.B. Salami-Publikation).
  • Daten (einschließlich Abbildungen) dürfen nicht gefälscht oder manipuliert werden, um die eigenen Schlussfolgerungen zu stützen.
  • Text, Daten oder Theorien Dritter dürfen nicht so dargestellt werden, dass der Eindruck entsteht, es seien Eigenleistungen des Autors (Plagiat). Die Quellen müssen in geeigneter Form genannt werden (das gilt auch für nahezu wörtliche Übernahmen, Zusammenfassungen und/oder Umschreibungen). Wörtliche Zitate müssen durch Anführungszeichen gekennzeichnet werden. Für urheberrechtlich geschütztes Material müssen Abdruckgenehmigungen eingeholt werden.

    Hinweis: Die Zeitschrift kann Software zum Auffinden von Plagiaten einsetzen.

  • Von allen Koautoren ist vor der Einreichung die ausdrückliche Zustimmung zur Veröffentlichung einzuholen. Außerdem muss die Institution, an der die Arbeit entstanden ist, der Publikation – implizit oder explizit – zustimmen.
  • Die genannten Autoren waren in ausreichendem Maße an der wissenschaftlichen Arbeit beteiligt und sind gemeinschaftlich für die Ergebnisse verantwortlich.
  • Es wird dringend geraten, sicherzustellen, dass die Namen aller Autoren und die Reihenfolge der Autoren bei Einreichung korrekt genannt werden. Der Korrespondenzautor muss eindeutig gekennzeichnet sein. Änderungen der Autoren oder der Reihenfolge ihrer Nennung sind nach Annahme des Manuskriptes nicht mehr möglich.
  • Im Zuge einer Revision können Hinzufügungen oder Streichungen von Autoren begründet sein. Änderungen müssen in einem Begleitschreiben dargelegt und begründet werden. Weitere Belege hierfür können durch die Herausgeber oder den Verlag angefordert werden.
  • Sollte nach Annahme eines Beitrages im Rahmen einer Auseinandersetzung um die Autorenschaft das Hinzufügen oder Streichen von Autoren gefordert werden, so werden diese Änderungen umgesetzt, sofern eine formelle Bestätigung durch die jeweilige Institution oder eine neutrale Einrichtung und/oder das Einverständnis aller Autoren vorliegt.
  • Autoren können aufgefordert werden, zur Überprüfung der dargestellten Ergebnisse geeignete Dokumentation oder Daten vorzulegen. Dies können Rohdaten, Proben oder Protokolle, etc. sein. Dies gilt nicht für sensible oder vertrauliche Daten (die z.B. (eigentums-rechtlich) relevant sind).

Im Falle des Verdachts auf Fehlverhalten wird die Zeitschrift eine Untersuchung in Übereinstimmung mit den COPE-Leitlinien durchführen. Wenn sich Anhaltspunkte ergeben, die den Verdacht erhärten, wird der betroffene Autor kontaktiert und erhält Gelegenheit, zu den Vorwürfen Stellung zu nehmen. Wenn wissenschaftliches Fehlverhalten zweifelsfrei festgestellt wird, kann der Herausgeber geeignete Maßnahmen ergreifen. Diese können sein:

  • ­Wenn das Manuskript noch in der Begutachtung ist, kann es abgelehnt und an den Autor zurückgeschickt werden.
  • ­Ein bereits online publizierter Artikel kann – abhängig von der Art und Schwere des Verstoßes – entweder mit einem erläuternden Erratum ergänzt oder in schwerwiegenden Fällen zurückgezogen werden. Es ist zu beachten, dass dies bedeutet, dass der Artikel auf der Online-Plattform weiterhin sichtbar und mit dem Wasserzeichen „Retracted“ gekennzeichnet ist. Die Begründung für das Zurückziehen des Artikels wird in einer begleitenden Erklärung (Retraction Note) gegeben, die mit dem zurückgezogenen Artikel verlinkt ist.
  • ­Die Institution des Autors kann informiert werden.

Open access publishing

To find out more about publishing your work Open Access in Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie, including information on fees, funding and licenses, visit our Open access publishing page.