Editors

EDITORS-IN-CHIEF

Research Section

Editor
Tristan E. Johnson
Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA
tristan.johnson@bc.edu
 

Development Section
Editor
Lin Lin
Department of Learning Technologies, College of Information
University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA
Lin.Lin@unt.edu

DEPARTMENT EDITORS

Cultural and Regional Perspectives Section

Patricia A. Young, University of Maryland at Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA
pyoung@umbc.edu

Featured Papers
J. Michael Spector
Editor Emeritus
University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA
Mike.Spector@unt.edu


ASSISTANT EDITORS

Research Section
Hale Ilgaz
Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
hilgaz@ankara.edu.tr

Development Section
Gwendolyn M. Morel
Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA
gwendolynmorel@txstate.edu


EDITORIAL BOARD
RESEARCH SECTION


Kaushal Kumar Bhagat (2021-2023)
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India

Xiaoqing Gu (2021-2023)
East China Normal University

Royce Kimmons (2020–2022)
Brigham Young University

Kun Huang (2020–2022)
University of Kentucky

Yuping Wang (2019–2021)
Griffith University

Kay Wijekumar (2019–2021)
Texas A&M University

DEVELOPMENT SECTION

Susan McKenney (2021-2023)
Twente University, The Netherlands

Marco Kalz (2021-2023)
Heidelberg University of Education, Germany

Michael Kerres (2020–2022)
University Duisburg-Essen, Germany

Andri Ioannou (2020–2022)
yprus University of Technology, Cyprus

Camille Dickson-Deane (2019–2021)
University of Technology Sydney

Ellen Meier (2019–2021)
Columbia University


EX-OFFICIO EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS

Phillip L. Harris
AECT Executive Director

Xun Ge
AECT President

Ali Carr-Chellman
AECT President-Elect

Michael Grant
AECT Past-President

 

CONSULTING EDITORS
Olusola Adesope,
Washington State University, WA, USA; Esma Aı̈meur, University of Montreal, Canada; Yavuz Akbulut, Anadolu University, Turkey; Norlidah Alias, University of Malaya, Malaysia;  Luis Almeida, Jackson State University, MS, USA;  Ray Amirault, Illinois State University, USA; Yun-Jo An, University of North Texas, TX, USA; Dee Andrews, Instructional Technology Research for Air Force Distributed Mission Training, USA; Pavlo “Pasha” Antonenko, University of Florida, FL, USA; Zanda de Araujo, University of Missouri, MO, USA; Ismahan Arslan-Ari, University of South Carolina, SC, USA; Sinem Aslan, Intel Corporation, Turkey; Robert K. Atkinson, Arizona State University, AZ, USA; Roger Azevedo, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; Robert Bangert-Drowns, University at Albany, NY, USA; Amy Baylor, National Science Foundation, USA; Yoav Bergner, New York University, NY, USA; Brian Belland, Pennsylvania State University, PN, USA; Bob Bernard, Concordia University, Canada; Anthony (Tony) Betrus Kaushal, SUNY Potsdam, NY, USA; Kumar Bhagat, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India; Barbara Bichelmeyer, The University of Kansas, KS, USA; M. J. Bishop, University System of Maryland, MD, USA; Michael Blocher, Northern Arizona University, AZ, USA; Elizabeth Boling; Indiana University, IN, USA; Elaine Bontempi, Excelsior College, GA, USA; Aras Bozkurt, Anadolu University, Turkey; Robert Branch, University of Georgia, GA, USA; Laurei Brantley-Dias, Kennesaw State University, GA, USA; Jennifer Brill, Monmouth University, NJ, USA; Abbie Brown, East Carolina University, NC, USA; Thomas Brush, Indiana University Bloomington, IN, USA, Lingguo Bu, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL, USA; Brendan Calandra, Georgia State University, GA, USA; Juan Castro-Alonso, University of Chile, Chile; Alison Carr-Chellman, The Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA; Lily Chang, National Pingtung University, Taiwan; Shujen Chang, Asia University, Taiwan; Seng Chee Tan, National Institute of Education, Singapore; Li-Ling Chen, California State University, CA, USA; Ikseon Choi, The University of Georgia, GA, USA; Lauren Cifuentes, Texas A&M University, TX, USA; Geraldine Clarebout, Maastricht University, Netherlands; Roy Clariana, Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA; Jody Clarke-Midura, Harvard University, MA, USA; Zeni Colorado, Emporia State University, KS, USA; Ana-Paula Correia, Ohio State University, OH, USA, Johannes Cronje, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa; Steven Crooks; Western Michigan University School of Medicine, MI, USA; John Curry, Morehead State University , KY, USA; Nada Dabbagh, George Mason University, VA, USA; Boaventura (Ben) DaCosta, Solers Research Group, USA; Jared Danielson, Iowa State University, IA, USA; Joshua Danish, Indiana University, IN, USA; Gayle Davidson-Shivers, University of South Alabama, AL, USA; Randall Davies, Brigham Young University, UT, USA; Chris Dede, Harvard University, MA, USA; Ton de Jong, University of Twente, the Netherlands; Erica de Vries, Grenoble Alpes University, France; Rodrigo del Valle, Catholic University of Temuco, Chile; Karen DeMeester, University of Georgia, GA, USA; Vanessa Dennen, Florida State University, FL, USA; Dorothy DeWitt, University of Malaya, Malaysia; Camille Dickson-Deane, University of Technology Sydney, Australia; Aaron Doering, University of Minnesota, USA; Joni Dunlap, University of Colorado Denver, CO, USA; Jan Elen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium; Benjamin E. Erlandson, Essential Complexity, USA; Deniz Eseryel, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; David Feldon, Utah State University, UT, USA; Richard E. Ferdig, Kent State University, OH, USA; Rob Foshay, Foshay Group, USA; Brian F. French, Washington State University, WA, USA; Theodore W. Frick, Indiana University, IN, USA; Radha Ganesan, USA; Fei Gao, Bowling Green State University, OH, USA; Xun Ge, University of Oklahoma, OK, USA; Carlo Giovannella, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy; Evan Glazer, Avenues: The World School, USA; Aytac Gogus, Okan University, Turkey; Joanna S. Gorin, Arizona State University, AZ, USA; Sabine Graf, Athabasca University, Canada; Charles R. Graham, Brigham Young University, UT, USA; Michael Grant, University of South Carolina, SC, USA; Chris Greenhow, Michigan State University, MI, USA; Xiaoqing Gu, East China Normal University, China; Glenda A. Gunter, University of Central Florida, FL, USA; Barbara Miller Hall, Northcentral University, AZ, USA; Thomas Hammond, Lehigh University, PA, USA; Insook Han, Temple University, FL, USA; Seungyeon Han, Hanyang Cyber University, Korea; Robert Hannafin, Fairfield University, CT, USA; Jason M. Harley, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Canada; Stephen Harmon, Georgia State University, GA, USA; Judi Harris, College of William & Mary, VA, USA; Yusup Bin Hashim, Asia University, Malaysia; Dawn M. Hathaway, George Mason University, VA, USA; Khe Foon Hew, The Unviersity of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Janette Hill, University of Georgia, GA, USA; Atsusi Hirumi, University of Central Florida, FL, USA; Charles Hodges, Georgia Southern University, GA, USA; Bob Hoffman, University of Central Florida, FL, USA; Sabine Hoidn, Harvard University, MA, USA; Peter Carlton Honebein, Indiana University, IN, USA; Simon Hooper, Penn State University, PA, USA; Kun Huang, University of Kentucky, KT, USA; Wenhao David Huang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA; Yueh-Min Huang, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan; Xiaoxia Silvie Huang, Western Kentucky University, KT, USA; Gail Hughes, University of Arkansas, AR, USA; Dirk Ifenthaler, University of Mannheim, Germany; Fethi Inan, Texas Tech University, USA; Kathleen Ingram, Kaplan University, AI, USA; Andri Ioannou, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus; Andreja Istenič Starčič, University of Primorska, Slovenia; Allan Jeong, Florida State University, FL, USA; Il-Hyun Jo, Ewha Womans University, Korea; Abbas Johari; Cameron University, OK, USA; Jae-Eun Joo, University of Connecticut, USA; Howard K. Kalman, Ithaca College, NY, USA; Selcuk Karaman, Ataturk University, Turkey; Robin Kay, University of Ontario, Canada; Fengfeng Ke, Florida State University, FL, USA; Robert Kenny, Florida Gulf Coast University, FL, USA; Michael Kerres, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany; ChanMin Kim, Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA, Dongsik Kim, Hanyang University, Korea; Hyeonjin Kim, Seoul National University, Korea; Min Kyu Kim, Georgia State University, GA, USA; Minchi Kim, Purdue University, IN, USA; Minjeong Kim, Dankook University, Korea; Yanghee Kim, Northern Illinois University, USA; Royce Kimmons; Brigham Young University, UT, USA; Kinshuk, Athabasca University, Canada; James D. Klein, Florida State University, FL, USA; Gerald Knezek, University of North Texas, TX, USA; Theodore J. Kopcha, University of Georgia, GA, USA; Tiffany Koszalka, USA; Eugene G. Kowch, University of Calgary, Canada; Heng-Yu Ku, University of Northern Colorado, CO, USA; Swapna Kumar, USA; Yuju Karey Lan, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan; Susan Land, The Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA; Wilfred W. F. Lau, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Heather Leary; Brigham Young Universit, UT, USA; Chien-Sing Lee; Sunway University, Malaysia; Doris Lee, USA; Insook Lee               , South Korea; Ji-Yeon Lee, Inha University, South Korea; Mark J. W. Lee, Charles Sturt University, Australia; Myung Geun Lee, Yonsei University, South Korea; Victor R. Lee, Stanford University, CA, USA; Jing Lei, Syracuse University, NY, USA; Kathryn Ley, USA; Qing Li, Towson University, USA; Cher Ping Lim, Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Lijia Lin, East China Normal University, China; Xiaodong Lin, Columbia University, NY, USA; Min Li, University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA; Craig Locatis, National Library of Medicine, USA; Barbara Lockee, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, VA, USA; Yiping Lou, University of South Florida, FL, USA; Patrick Lowenthal, Boise State University, ID, USA; Ian Lubin, University of the West Indies, Barbados; Heng Luo, Central China Normal University, China; Sarah Manlove, Indiana University, IN, USA; David Marcovitz; Loyola University Maryland, MD, USA; Rose Marra, University of Missouri, MO, USA; Trey Martindale, University of Memphis, TN, USA; Richard Mayer, University of California Santa Barbara, CA, USA; Joan M. Mazur, University of Kentucky, KT, USA; Barbara McCombs, University of Denver, CO, USA; Jason McDonald, Brigham Young University, UT, USA; Susan McKenney, University of Twente, The Netherlands; Ellen Meier, Columbia University, NY, USA; Anne Mendenhall, USA; M. David Merril, Utah State University, UT, USA; Carrie Lewis Miller,      Minnesota State University, MN, USA; Chris Miller, Morehead State University, KY, USA, Punya Mishra, USA; David Richard Moore, Ohio University, OH, USA; Joi Moore, University of Missouri, MO, USA; Stephanie L. Moore, University of New Mexico, NM, USA; Chrystalla Mouza, University of Delaware, DE, USA; Sahana Murthy, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India; Som Naidu, Charles Sturt University, Australia; Brian Carl Nelson, Arizona State University, AZ, USA; Dale S. Niederhauser, West Virginia University, WV, USA; Elena Novak, Kent State University, OH, USA; Eunjung Grace Oh, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA; Kevin Oliver, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; Chandra Orrill, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, MA, USA; Mohamed Eltahir Osman, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman; Fred Paas, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The               Netherlands; Gilbert Paquette, Télé-université, Canada; Innwoo Park, Korea University; South Korea; Ok-Choon Park, Institute of Education Sciences, USA; Patrick Parrish, World Meteorological Organization, Switzerland; Susan Pedersen, Texas A&M University, TX, USA; Ross Perkins, Boise State University, ID, USA; Pablo Pirnay-Dummer, University of Passau, Germany; Jan Plass, New York University, NY, USA; Andrew Polly, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC, USA; S. Michael Putman, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA; Jason Ravitz, Google, Inc., USA; Mimi Recker, Utah State University, UT, USA; Thomas Reeves, University of Georgia, GA, USA; Robert Reiser, USA; Peter Rich, Brigham Young University, UT, USA; Jennifer Richardson, Purdue University, IN, USA; Albert Ritzhaupt, University of Florida, FL, USA; Janna Siegel Robertson, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, NC, USA; Steven M. Ross, Johns Hopkins University, MD, USA; Alfred “Fred” Rovai, Regent University, VA, USA; Gordon Rowland, Ithaca College, NY, USA; Nick Rushby, Conation Technology Limited, UK; Dotty Sammons, USA; Wilhelmina Savenye,          Arizona State University, AZ, USA; Katharina Scheiter, Knowledge Media Research Center, Germany; Richard Schmid, Concordia University-Montréal, Canada; Tina Seufert, Ulm University, Germany; Rustam Shadiev, Nanjing Normal University, China; Priya Sharma, The Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA; Craig Shepherd, University of Memphis, TN, USA; Feng-Ru Sheu, Kent State University, OH, USA; Sharon Shrock, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL, USA; Douglas Smith, USA; Elliot Soloway, USA; Donggil Song, San Houston State University, TX, USA; Hae-Deok Song, Chung-Ang University, South Korea; Liyan Song, Towson University, MD, USA; H. Timothy Spannaus, Wayne State University, MI, USA; Marcus Specht, Technische Universiteit Delft, The Netherlands; Susan Stansberry, Oklahoma State University, OK, USA; Joette Stefl-Mabry,       University at Albany, NY, USA; William Sugar, East Carolina University, NC, USA; Dan Surry, University of South Alabama, USA; Katsuaki Suzuki, Kumamoto University, Japan; Karen Swan, University of Illinois Springfield, IL, USA; Michael Thomas, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA; Ercan Top, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey; Jody Underwood, Intelligent Automation, USA; Richard Van Eck, University of North Dakota, ND, USA; Jeroen J. G. van Merrienboer, Maastricht University, The Netherlands; Shahron G. Williams van Rooij, George Mason University, VA, USA; George Veletsianos, Royal Roads University, Canada; Steven Villachica, Boise State University, UT, USA; Andrew Walker, Utah State University, UT, USA; Maggie Minhong Wang, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Yuping Wang, Griffith University School of Humanities Languages and Social Science, Australia; Yun Wen, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Richard West, Brigham Young University, UT, USA; Robert Whelan, Fiji; Kay Wijekumar, Texas A&M University, TX, USA; David Wiley, Brigham Young University, UT, USA; Alyssa Wise, New York University, NY, USA; Andrew B. Wolff, IBM Global Business Services , USA; Bian Wu, East China Normal University, China; Hsin-Kai Wu, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan; Lisa Yamagata-Lynch, University of Tennessee, TN, USA; Zheng Yan, SUNY Albany, NY, USA; Stephen C. Yanchar, Brigham Young University, UT, USA; Michael Young, University of Connecticut School of Business, CT, USA; Erman Yukselturk, Turkey; Yi Zhang, Central China Normal University, China; Janet Mannheimer Zydney, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.