- Instructions for authors
- Editorial policy
- Manuscript submission
- Editorial Office
- Manuscript preparation
- Electronic Supplementary Material
- After Acceptance
- Open Choice
- Research Data Policy
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
- Open access publishing
Instructions for authors
"Landscape and Ecological Engineering" is published by the International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering (ICLEE) in the interests of protecting and improving the environment in the face of biodiversity loss, desertification, global warming, and other environmental conditions.
The journal invites original papers, short communications, reports and reviews on all aspects of conservation, restoration, and management of ecosystems. It is not limited to purely scientific approaches, but welcomes technological and design approaches that provide useful and practical solutions to today's environmental problems. The journal's coverage is relevant to universities and research institutes, while its emphasis on the practical application of research will be important to all decision makers dealing with landscape planning and management problems.
The following types of papers are published:
- Original papers (up to eight printed pages): Articles that typically are based on new data collection and analysis, or on modeling.
- Short communications (up to four printed pages): Shorter articles than those categorized as Original papers. These may be brief methodological notes that do not include a full application of a technique, or a short note for rapid publication of a novel result.
- Reports (up to six printed pages): Brief articles that include technical notes or case studies for ecological management and engineering. Information on conservation and restoration policies, laws and controls of countries or international organizations are also included.
- Reviews (up to eight printed pages): Timely assessments of a portion of the field encompassed by the ICLEE. Review papers on a particular topic are sometimes solicited by the Editor-in-Chief, and may also be submitted unsolicited.
- Book reviews
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
- Online submission
Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
If you have any queries, please contact the following address of the Editorial Office of LEE.
Dr. Kei Nukazawa (Editorial Secretary): firstname.lastname@example.org
All manuscripts are subject to peer review and accepted papers will be copy edited. Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose first language is not English are urged to have their manuscript read by a colleague who is a native English speaker and is familiar with their field of work before submitting the paper.
Scientific names: Give Latin names in full, together with the naming authority at first mention in the main text. Alternatively, where there are many species, cite a Flora or check-list. Do not give authorities for species cited from published references.
Manufacturers' names: Special pieces of equipment should be described such that a reader can trace specifications by writing to the manufacturer; thus: "Data were collected using a solid-state data logger (CR21X, Campbell Scientific, Utah, USA)." Where commercially available software has been used, details of the supplier should be given in parentheses or the reference given in full in the reference list.
Units and symbols: Authors should use the International System of Units (S.I., Systeme International d'Unites; see Quantities, Units and Symbols, 2nd edn (1975) The Royal Society, London). Use the negative index for units, e.g. number of insects g-1 dry wt (also note there is no period for wt). Mathematical expressions should contain symbols, not abbreviations. If the paper contains many symbols, they should be defined as early in the text as possible, or within the Materials and methods section.
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention in the abstract and again in the main body of the text and used consistently thereafter.
Essential footnotes to the text should be numbered consecutively and placed at the bottom of the page to which they refer.
Original paper, Short communications, and Reports should contain the following sections in the following order: Title page, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and References. Do not combine sections (e.g., Results and Discussion).
- Title page: Include name(s) of author(s), a concise and informative title (do not include the authorities for any taxonomic names), affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s), e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author. No text should be included in the title page.
- Abstract (no more than 250 words): a statement of the purpose of the paper and the main results, conclusions, and recommendations, using clear, factual, statements. In all types of papers, the abstract should include the context and need for the work; the approach and methods used; and should outline the main results and the wider implications and relevance to management or policy.
- Keywords (no more than six): do not include words used in the article title.
- Introduction: state the reason for the work, the context, and the hypotheses being tested.
- Materials and methods: include sufficient details for the work to be repeated.
- Results: state the results, drawing attention to important details in tables and figures.
- Discussion: point out the importance of the results in the context of previous studies. Where appropriate, set out recommendations for management or policy.
- Acknowledgments: Be brief.
Please include, at the end of the acknowledgments, a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed.
- Figure captions: provide a list of the captions at the end of the text.
Manuscripts should be submitted in a Word file (docx or doc format). The text should be 1.5-line spaced in single-column format. Use a consistent font throughout (for example Times New Roman). Use 12-point type (use symbol palette for additional characters). Use the automatic page-numbering function to number the pages. Use the automatic line-numbering function. Do not use field functions. Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar. Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables. Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
The Chief Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirement. The corresponding author will be held responsible for false statements or for failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
- Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
- This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
- This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999).
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work.
- Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738.
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al.” in long author lists will also be accepted: Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al. (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
- Article by DOI
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
- Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
- Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.
If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.
For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of
in-text citations and reference list.
•All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
•Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
•For each table, please supply a table title. The table title should explain clearly and concisely the components of the table.
•Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table title.
•Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
•Each table should be on a separate page.
- Electronic figure submission •Supply all figures electronically. •Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.•For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.•Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files. •Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
- Line art •Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading. •Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size. •All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide. •Line drawings should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
- Halftone art •Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc. •If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves. •Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
- Combination art •Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.•Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
- Color art •Color art is free of charge for online publication. •If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent. •If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions. •Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
- Figure lettering •To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts). •Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt). •Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label. •Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc. •Do not include titles or captions in your illustrations. They should be placed at the end of the text.
- Figure numbering •All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals. •Figures should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order. •Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.). If illustrations are supplied with uppercase labeling, lowercase letters will still be used in the figure captions and citations.•If an appendix appears in your article/chapter and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3, etc."
- Figure captions •Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. •Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type. •No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption. •Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.•Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption. •The list of figure captions must be placed at the end of the text.
- Figure placement and size •When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width. •Figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm. •The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge figures.•All figure parts should be grouped in a plate on one page.•Each figure should be provided on a separate page.
Electronic Supplementary Material
Electronic supplementary material will be published in the online version only. It may consist of
•Information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings
•Information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.
•Large original data, e.g. additional tables, illustrations, etc.
•Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
•To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
- Audio, video, and animations
•Always use MPEG-1 (.mpg) format.
- Text and presentations
•Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
•A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
•Spreadsheets should be converted to PDF if no interaction with the data is intended.
•If the readers should be encouraged to make their own calculations, spreadsheets should be submitted as .xls files (MS Excel).
- Specialized formats
•Specialized formats such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
- Collecting multiple files
•It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
•If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables (e.g., ". . . as shown in Animation 3").
•Name your files accordingly, e.g., Animation3.mpg.
•For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
- Processing of supplementary files
•Electronic supplementary material will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
Upon acceptance, your article will be exported to Production to undergo typesetting. Once typesetting is complete, you will receive a link asking you to confirm your affiliation, choose the publishing model for your article as well as arrange rights and payment of any associated publication cost.
Once you have completed this, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
Article publishing agreement
Depending on the ownership of the journal and its policies, you will either grant the Publisher an exclusive licence to publish the article or will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher.
Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
Publication of color illustrations is free of charge.
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.
After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
Open Choice allows you to publish open access in more than 1850 Springer Nature journals, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.
Article processing charges (APCs) vary by journal – view the full list
- Increased researcher engagement: Open Choice enables access by anyone with an internet connection, immediately on publication.
- Higher visibility and impact: In Springer hybrid journals, OA articles are accessed 4 times more often on average, and cited 1.7 more times on average*.
- Easy compliance with funder and institutional mandates: Many funders require open access publishing, and some take compliance into account when assessing future grant applications.
It is easy to find funding to support open access – please see our funding and support pages for more information.
*) Within the first three years of publication. Springer Nature hybrid journal OA impact analysis, 2018.
Copyright and license term – CC BY
Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Research Data Policy
This journal operates a type 1 research data policy. The journal encourages authors, where possible and applicable, to deposit data that support the findings of their research in a public repository. Authors and editors who do not have a preferred repository should consult Springer Nature’s list of repositories and research data policy.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may also be used.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Authors who need help understanding our data sharing policies, help finding a suitable data repository, or help organising and sharing research data can access our Author Support portal for additional guidance.
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.
Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).
Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.
Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement.Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential conflict of interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘Declarations’ section.
Summary of requirements
The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Funding’ and/or ‘Conflicts of interests’/’Competing interests’. Other declarations include Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Material and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.
Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
When all authors have the same (or no) conflicts and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.
Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:
- Partial financial support was received from [...]
- The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
- This study was funded by […]
- This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]
Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:
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