Springer now offers authors, editors and reviewers of Solar Physics the option of using our fully webenabled online manuscript submission and review system. To keep the review time as short as possible (no postal delays!), we encourage authors to submit manuscripts online to the journal‘s editorial office. Our online manuscript submission and review system offers authors the option to track the progress of the review process of manuscripts in real time.
The online manuscript submission and review system for Solar Physics offers easy and straightforward log-in and submission procedures. This system supports a wide range of submission file formats: for manuscripts - Word, RTF, TXT and LaTex; for figures - TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, and Postscript.
In case you encounter any difficulties while submitting your manuscript on line, please get in touch with the responsible Editorial Assistant by clicking on “CONTACT US” from the tool bar.
Electronic versions of your figures must be supplied. For vector graphics, EPS is the preferred format. For bitmapped graphics, TIFF is the preferred format. The following resolutions are optimal: line figures - 600 - 1200 dpi; photographs - 300 dpi; screen dumps - leave as is. Colour figures can be submitted in the RGB colour system. Font-related problems can be avoided by using standard fonts such as Times Roman, Courier and Helvetica.
Manuscripts should be submitted in the file format LaTeX, or in word-processing packages such as MS WORD, running under operating systems Windows, MS DOS and Apple. For manuscripts in LaTeX format submission of a single compiled PDF file of the manuscript including all the figures and tables is sufficient. The Authors will be asked to submit the elelctronic files of individual figures before the acceptance of their manuscript.
Your paper will be fully type set and placed in the proper journal format. In principle, you may therefore deliver your article in any style you prefer as long as you adhere to the general rules listed below under Manuscript Arrangement.
For submission in LaTeX, the publisher offers LaTeX style files which can be obtained at the web-site on the link below.
The English in which the paper is written must be of acceptable quality. As it is the responsibility of the authors to prepare their papers in good English, authors unfamiliar with English should obtain help from colleagues proficient in that language. Be aware that need of language corrections always delays the paper publication. Manuscripts with many errors in English will be returned to the author(s) for improvement which will make the delay even longer. Papers in which important parts of the text cannot be understood will be returned to the authors as rejected.
Both British spelling (e.g., behaviour) and US spelling (e.g., behavior) are acceptable, but each article must be consistently written in either one of these spellings.
Letters are no longer accepted. However, short papers on important and timely topics have priority in publication. They should not exceed four printed pages including the abstract, figures, tables, and references.
Refereeing: All manuscripts will be sent to a minimum of one referee. The referee remains anonymous unless he or she expresses the wish to have his/her name revealed to the author(s). Referees are asked to evaluate a paper within three weeks (with six weeks as a maximum) and authors are given three months as the maximum for a paper revision.
Generally, the manuscripts should follow the rules of the IAU Style Book published in Transactions of the IAU XXB, 1988, pp. Si−S3. (Reprints of this Style Book are available from Springer, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands.) We recommend that authors look at other papers in this journal to verify the correct style.
The length of all papers must be proportional to their scientific contents. Long papers which do not fulfill this requirement will be returned to authors for a substantial reduction in length. Authors should be aware that the shorter a paper, the more people are likely to read it, so that such a reduction is both in the editors' and authors' interest.
An Abstract must precede all papers. It should concisely summarize the content and conclusions of the paper. The abstract should be a single paragraph and its length should be proportional to the length of the paper, with 150 words as an average and 300 words as the maximum.
The article should be divided in sections and subsections, following the following numbering and letter types:
1. First−Order Heading
1.1. SECOND−ORDER HEADING
1.1.1. Third−Order Heading
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc., should be placed in a separate, unnumbered section before the References.
Supplementary material can be collected in an Appendix (or Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) and placed between the Acknowledgements and the References.
References to journal articles, articles in proceedings, books, and technical reports should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order, following the IAU style (see examples below and the IAU Style Book mentioned above). In the text references are given as Brown (1998), Brown and Jones (1998), Brown, Jones, and Smith (1998), or Brown et al. (1998) if there are more than 3 authors. In a group of references, arrange them according to the year, and use semicolons: (Brown, 1990; Jones and Smith, 1993; Smith, 1999). All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and all references listed in the reference list must be cited in the text.
The following forms of references should be used:
For articles in journals:
Kahler, S.W.: 1982, Astrophys. J. 261, 710. Oliver, R., and Ballester, J.L.: 1995, Solar Phys. 156, 145. Demoulin, P., Bagala, L.G., Mandrini, C.H., Henoux, J.C., Rovira, M.G.: 1997, Astron. Astrophys. 325, 305.
For more than six authors one can use et al. for those of them whose names are arranged in alphabetical order. The page should be replaced by `in press' for articles accepted for publication, and by `submitted' for those not yet accepted. References to unpublished results and internal reports should be mentioned only in the text as `private communication', and by 'submitted' for those not yet accepted, giving the names of all authors and the journal to which it has bee submitted. Without this information, the reference will be changed to `private communication'.
For articles in proceedings:
Hoeksema, J.T.: 1995, in R.G. Marsden (ed.), The High−Latitude Heliosphere, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Holland, 137.
Tandberg−Hanssen, E. and Emslie, A.G.: 1988, The Physics of Solar Flares, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 145.
The sequence of references in their list should be arranged as follows:
One author first, papers arranged according to the years:
Brown, G.H.: 1994, ...
Brown, G.H.: 1996, ...
Then two authors, papers arranged according to second author's name:
Brown, G.H., Jones, B.V.: 1995, ...
Brown, G.H., Smith, K.H.: 1991, ...
Then 3 authors, papers arranged according to second (and then third) author's name:
Brown, G.H., Jones, B.V., Smith, K.H.: 1990, ...
Brown, G.H., Jones, B.V., Walter, B.H.: 1987, ...
Finally four and more authors, arranged according to the years.
Two references to the same author(s) and same year should be identified by, e.g., 1998a and 1998b, both in the list of references and in the text. Use everywhere `and', not & .
All photographs, graphs and diagrams should be referred to as a 'Figure' and they should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). Multi-page width figures ought to be labelled with lower case letters (a, b, etc.). Please insert keys and scale bars directly in the figures. Relatively small text and great variation in text sizes within figures should be avoided as figures are often reduced in size. Figures may be sized to fit approximately within the journal. Provide a detailed legend (without abbreviations) to each figure, refer to the figure in the text. Please place the legends in the manuscript after the references. When preparing your graphs, use different line styles and symbols besides using different colors to make sure that the figure remains understandable even when it is printed in black-and-white.
If colour adds significant scientific information to a graph, figure or photo, the publisher will no longer charge a fee for colour reproduction. In case of doubt, please indicate why you believe colour is essential upon submission of your paper. The journal editors and referees may decide that a black and white reproduction conveys the information in the figures equally well and that no colour is needed.
Each table should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). In tables, footnotes are preferable to long explanatory material in either the heading or body of the table. Such explanatory footnotes, identified by superscript letters, should be placed immediately below the table. Please provide a caption (without abbreviations) to each table, refer to the table in the text and note its approximate location in the margin. Finally, please place the tables after the figure legends in the manuscript.
The abbreviation for `number' is No., do not use #. But only serial numbers should be abbreviated in this way, not a number (quantity) of measurements.
Dates should be written as 1999 January 10 or 10 January 1999 in the text and 1999 Jan. 10 in a table. Never use 99-01-10, because this means two different dates in the European and American versions. Time designations are 22:33:45 UT for hours, minutes and seconds of Universal Time.
Equations must be typed clearly. All symbols used in equations must be properly explained to the reader. Number the equations sequentially on the right−hand side as (1), (2), etc. in the main body of the article and (A1), (A2), etc. in the Appendices, and refer to them in the text as Equation (1), Equation (2), etc.
Kindly observe the following rules:
Numerators and denominators of in−line fractions should be delimited clearly to avoid any possible ambiguity. E.g., write (log P)q / r or
(F − x) / a, not log Pq/r or F − x / a.
All longer formulas in the text should be put on a separate line as (unnumbered) equations, to avoid their breaking at an improper place.
Subscripts and superscripts should be set off clearly. Never use Ne2.
Use a full stop for decimals (312.67) and reserve crosses for multiplication (3.0 x 10 −12). Do not use 3.0E−12.
For `thousands' use 25 000, not 25,000.
Vectors are printed in bold face.
Symbols for chemical elements should be in Roman type (not italics). Roman numeral designation for degrees of ionization should be presented in smallcap. Elements mentioned in text should not be capitalized (e.g., helium).
Never write .3 or 3., but always 0.3 and 3.0.
Distinguish clearly between the letter O and the zero symbol, the letter l and the number one, kappa and k, mu and u, nu and v, eta and n, etc.
In the text preceding and following equations, use punctuation only when necessary. Correct examples:
`This is expressed as follows:', but `This is expressed as' (no colon); `in the modified Equation (10), D = a − b, where a is ...', but `with the modified Equation (10) we find D = a − b instead of ...' (no commas).
Units should be in the metric (cgs or mks) system and printed in Roman letters (cm), not in italics. Only the singular form should be used (erg, not ergs). Units representing names are in capital letters when abbreviated (G), but not capitalized when spelled (gauss).
Expressions of rate, such as kilometers per second, should be set as km s−1.
Scope of the journal: Solar Physics is concerned with the fundamental study of the Sun. It treats all aspects of solar physics, ranging from the internal structure of the Sun to outer corona and solar wind in interplanetary space. Papers on solar−terrestrial physics are included if they are clearly related to the physics of the Sun or if they use terrestrial phenomena as indicators of solar activity. The journal also accepts papers on stellar research as long as their results have a direct impact upon the understanding of the Sun, its structure and activity, or when solar observations are used when interpreting stellar data.
Originality: Solar Physics accepts only original research papers which have not been published, and are not under consideration for publication, in the same or a similar form elsewhere. This also includes English versions of papers earlier published in another language, for example Russian or Chinese. Exceptions can be made for greatly modified papers, provided the author sends the Editor also the original version for a comparison.We also do not handle papers rejected by other journals, unless the author informs us about the rejection and substantially revises the paper. Again, the original rejected paper should be enclosed for a comparison.In case an author does not follow these rules, besides the rejection of the manuscript, his or her name will be made known to the Editors of all other important journals in the field.
Review papers are accepted only if invited by the editors.
Proceedings of conferences are not published in Solar Physics. However, some issues of the journal may be Topical Issues which are concerned with a specific topic selected by the editors and, in some cases, may contain papers presented at a monothematic conference. All papers submitted to such a Topical Issue are handled and refereed in the same way as regular research papers. Contrary to Proceedings, the length of such papers is not limited, and other papers related to the same topic, not presented at the conference, can be added to the issue.
Permissions: It is the responsibility of the author to obtain written permission for a quotation from unpublished material, all for any quotation in excess of 250 words in one extract or 500 words in total from any work still in copyright, and for the reprinting of figures or tables from unpublished or copyrighted material.
Copyright: Authors will be asked, upon acceptance of an article, to sign a form which transfers copyright of the article to the Publisher. US Government employees signing this form would transfer copy right to the extent transferable.
Page Charges: No page charges are levied on authors or their institutions.
Proofs: Proofs will be sent to the first, or corresponding author by email. One corrected proof, should be returned to the publisher within three days of receipt in response to the proof email. The second proof is not sent to the authors, but is checked only by the production editor and one of the scientific editors. If any additional late corrections are necessary, contact the production editor firstname.lastname@example.org
Offprints: E-offprints (electronic offprints) of each article will be provided free of charge. Additional offprints can be ordered by means of an offprint order form supplied with the proofs.
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.
영어 원고의 경우, 에디터 및 리뷰어들이 귀하의 원고에 실린 결과물을 정확하게 평가할 수 있도록, 그들이 충분히 이해할 수 있을 만한 수준으로 작성되어야 합니다. 만약 영작문과 관련하여 도움을 받기를 원하신다면 다음의 사항들을 고려하여 주십시오:
• 귀하의 원고의 표현을 명확히 해줄 영어 원어민 동료를 찾아서 리뷰를 의뢰합니다.
• 영어 튜토리얼 페이지에 방문하여 영어로 글을 쓸 때 자주하는 실수들을 확인합니다.
• 리뷰에 대비하여, 원고의 의미를 명확하게 해주고 리뷰에서 요구하는 문제점들을 식별해서 영문 수준을 향상시켜주는 전문 영문 교정 서비스를 이용합니다. Nature Research Editing Service와 American Journal Experts에서 저희와 협약을 통해 서비스를 제공하고 있습니다. Springer 저자들이 본 교정 서비스를 첫 논문 투고를 위해 사용하시는 경우 10%의 할인이 적용되며, 아래의 링크를 통하여 확인이 가능합니다.
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Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
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The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
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Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
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If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
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Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
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All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
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Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
Please check the Instructions for Authors of the Journal that you are submitting to for specific instructions regarding contribution statements.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
Honoraria for speaking at symposia
Financial support for attending symposia
Financial support for educational programs
Employment or consultation
Support from a project sponsor
Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.