- Instructions for Authors
- Manuscript Submission
- Electronic Figures
- Electronic Supplementary Material
- Modes of Submission
- Manuscript Arrangement
- Additional Instructions
- Additional Information
- English Language Editing
- Springer Open Choice
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
- Open access publishing
Instructions for Authors
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files might cause unnecessary delays in the review and production process.
Electronic versions of your figures must be supplied. For vector graphics, EPS is the preferred format. For bitmapped graphics, TIFF is the preferred format. The following resolutions are optimal: line figures - 600 - 1200 dpi; photographs - 300 dpi; screen dumps - leave as is. Colour figures can be submitted in the RGB colour system. Font-related problems can be avoided by using standard fonts such as Times Roman, Courier and Helvetica.
We appreciate any efforts that you make to ensure that the language is corrected before submission. This will greatly improve the legibility of your paper if English is not your first language.
Electronic Supplementary Material
Electronic supplementary material (ESM) for an article in the journal will be published in SpringerLink provided the material:
- is submitted to the Editor(s) in electronic form together with the paper and is subject to peer review.
- is accepted by the journals Editor(s).
ESM may consist of:
- information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings.
- information that is more convenient in electronic form; sequences, spectral data, etc.
- large original data that relate to the paper, e.g. additional tables, illustrations (colour and black & white), etc.
After acceptance by the journals Editor(s) ESM will be published as received from the author in the online version only. Reference will be given in the printed version.
Modes of Submission
Manuscripts should be submitted in the file format LaTeX, or in word-processing packages such as MS WORD, running under operating systems Windows, MS DOS and Apple. For manuscripts in LaTeX format submission of a single compiled PDF file of the manuscript including all the figures and tables is sufficient. The Authors will be asked to submit the elelctronic files of individual figures before the acceptance of their manuscript.
Your paper will be fully type set and placed in the proper journal format. In principle, you may therefore deliver your article in any style you prefer as long as you adhere to the general rules listed below under Manuscript Arrangement.
For submission in LaTeX, the publisher offers LaTeX style files which can be obtained at the web-site on the link below.
The English in which the paper is written must be of acceptable quality. As it is the responsibility of the authors to prepare their papers in good English, authors unfamiliar with English should obtain help from colleagues proficient in that language. Be aware that need of language corrections always delays the paper publication. Manuscripts with many errors in English will be returned to the author(s) for improvement which will make the delay even longer. Papers in which important parts of the text cannot be understood will be returned to the authors as rejected.
Both British spelling (e.g., behaviour) and US spelling (e.g., behavior) are acceptable, but each article must be consistently written in either one of these spellings.
Letters are no longer accepted. However, short papers on important and timely topics have priority in publication. They should not exceed four printed pages including the abstract, figures, tables, and references.
Refereeing: All manuscripts will be sent to a minimum of one referee. The referee remains anonymous unless he or she expresses the wish to have his/her name revealed to the author(s). Referees are asked to evaluate a paper within three weeks (with six weeks as a maximum) and authors are given three months as the maximum for a paper revision.
Generally, the manuscripts should follow the rules of the IAU Style Book published in Transactions of the IAU XXB, 1988, pp. Si−S3. (Reprints of this Style Book are available from Springer, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands.) We recommend that authors look at other papers in this journal to verify the correct style.
- The length of all papers must be proportional to their scientific contents. Long papers which do not fulfill this requirement will be returned to authors for a substantial reduction in length. Authors should be aware that the shorter a paper, the more people are likely to read it, so that such a reduction is both in the editors' and authors' interest.
- An Abstract must precede all papers. It should concisely summarize the content and conclusions of the paper. The abstract should be a single paragraph and its length should be proportional to the length of the paper, with 150 words as an average and 300 words as the maximum.
The article should be divided in sections and subsections, following the following numbering and letter types:
- 1. First−Order Heading
1.1. SECOND−ORDER HEADING
1.1.1. Third−Order Heading
- Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc., should be placed in a separate, unnumbered section before the References.
- Supplementary material can be collected in an Appendix (or Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) and placed between the Acknowledgements and the References.
- References to journal articles, articles in proceedings, books, and technical reports should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order, following the IAU style (see examples below and the IAU Style Book mentioned above). In the text references are given as Brown (1998), Brown and Jones (1998), Brown, Jones, and Smith (1998), or Brown et al. (1998) if there are more than 3 authors. In a group of references, arrange them according to the year, and use semicolons: (Brown, 1990; Jones and Smith, 1993; Smith, 1999). All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and all references listed in the reference list must be cited in the text.
The following forms of references should be used:
- For articles in journals:
Kahler, S.W.: 1982, Astrophys. J. 261, 710. Oliver, R., and Ballester, J.L.: 1995, Solar Phys. 156, 145. Demoulin, P., Bagala, L.G., Mandrini, C.H., Henoux, J.C., Rovira, M.G.: 1997, Astron. Astrophys. 325, 305.
For more than six authors one can use et al. for those of them whose names are arranged in alphabetical order. The page should be replaced by `in press' for articles accepted for publication, and by `submitted' for those not yet accepted. References to unpublished results and internal reports should be mentioned only in the text as `private communication', and by 'submitted' for those not yet accepted, giving the names of all authors and the journal to which it has bee submitted. Without this information, the reference will be changed to `private communication'.
- For articles in proceedings:
Hoeksema, J.T.: 1995, in R.G. Marsden (ed.), The High−Latitude Heliosphere, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Holland, 137.
- For books:
Tandberg−Hanssen, E. and Emslie, A.G.: 1988, The Physics of Solar Flares, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 145.
The sequence of references in their list should be arranged as follows:
- One author first, papers arranged according to the years:
Brown, G.H.: 1994, ...
Brown, G.H.: 1996, ...
- Then two authors, papers arranged according to second author's name:
Brown, G.H., Jones, B.V.: 1995, ...
Brown, G.H., Smith, K.H.: 1991, ...
- Then 3 authors, papers arranged according to second (and then third) author's name:
Brown, G.H., Jones, B.V., Smith, K.H.: 1990, ...
Brown, G.H., Jones, B.V., Walter, B.H.: 1987, ...
Finally four and more authors, arranged according to the years.
Two references to the same author(s) and same year should be identified by, e.g., 1998a and 1998b, both in the list of references and in the text. Use everywhere `and', not & .
All photographs, graphs and diagrams should be referred to as a 'Figure' and they should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). Multi-page width figures ought to be labelled with lower case letters (a, b, etc.). Please insert keys and scale bars directly in the figures. Relatively small text and great variation in text sizes within figures should be avoided as figures are often reduced in size. Figures may be sized to fit approximately within the journal. Provide a detailed legend (without abbreviations) to each figure, refer to the figure in the text. Please place the legends in the manuscript after the references. When preparing your graphs, use different line styles and symbols besides using different colors to make sure that the figure remains understandable even when it is printed in black-and-white.
If colour adds significant scientific information to a graph, figure or photo, the publisher will no longer charge a fee for colour reproduction. In case of doubt, please indicate why you believe colour is essential upon submission of your paper. The journal editors and referees may decide that a black and white reproduction conveys the information in the figures equally well and that no colour is needed.
Each table should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). In tables, footnotes are preferable to long explanatory material in either the heading or body of the table. Such explanatory footnotes, identified by superscript letters, should be placed immediately below the table. Please provide a caption (without abbreviations) to each table, refer to the table in the text and note its approximate location in the margin. Finally, please place the tables after the figure legends in the manuscript.
The abbreviation for `number' is No., do not use #. But only serial numbers should be abbreviated in this way, not a number (quantity) of measurements.
Dates should be written as 1999 January 10 or 10 January 1999 in the text and 1999 Jan. 10 in a table. Never use 99-01-10, because this means two different dates in the European and American versions. Time designations are 22:33:45 UT for hours, minutes and seconds of Universal Time.
Equations must be typed clearly. All symbols used in equations must be properly explained to the reader. Number the equations sequentially on the right−hand side as (1), (2), etc. in the main body of the article and (A1), (A2), etc. in the Appendices, and refer to them in the text as Equation (1), Equation (2), etc.
Kindly observe the following rules:
- Numerators and denominators of in−line fractions should be delimited clearly to avoid any possible ambiguity. E.g., write (log P)q / r or
(F − x) / a, not log Pq/r or F − x / a.
- All longer formulas in the text should be put on a separate line as (unnumbered) equations, to avoid their breaking at an improper place.
- Subscripts and superscripts should be set off clearly. Never use Ne2.
- Use a full stop for decimals (312.67) and reserve crosses for multiplication (3.0 x 10 −12). Do not use 3.0E−12.
- For `thousands' use 25 000, not 25,000.
- Vectors are printed in bold face.
- Symbols for chemical elements should be in Roman type (not italics). Roman numeral designation for degrees of ionization should be presented in smallcap. Elements mentioned in text should not be capitalized (e.g., helium).
- Never write .3 or 3., but always 0.3 and 3.0.
- Distinguish clearly between the letter O and the zero symbol, the letter l and the number one, kappa and k, mu and u, nu and v, eta and n, etc.
- In the text preceding and following equations, use punctuation only when necessary. Correct examples:
- `This is expressed as follows:', but `This is expressed as' (no colon); `in the modified Equation (10), D = a − b, where a is ...', but `with the modified Equation (10) we find D = a − b instead of ...' (no commas).
- Units should be in the metric (cgs or mks) system and printed in Roman letters (cm), not in italics. Only the singular form should be used (erg, not ergs). Units representing names are in capital letters when abbreviated (G), but not capitalized when spelled (gauss).
- Expressions of rate, such as kilometers per second, should be set as km s−1.
- Acronyms and Abbreviations should be explained at first occurrence in the text. If used and explained in the Abstract, the explanation must be repeated in the text.
- Footnotes should be avoided as much as possible.
- Hyphens should be used to make reading easier: write not `line of sight", but `line−of−sight direction'; not `region of high density', but `high−density region'.
- Names of celestial objects such as Sun, Earth, and Moon should be written with capital letters.
- In series of three or more items, a comma should be placed before the final item, e.g., `brightness, temperature, and density'.
- The word `data' is plural and therefore takes a plural verb.
We encourage the use of Solar Physics Naming Conventions, please see the
- Scope of the journal: Solar Physics is concerned with the fundamental study of the Sun. It treats all aspects of solar physics, ranging from the internal structure of the Sun to outer corona and solar wind in interplanetary space. Papers on solar−terrestrial physics are included if they are clearly related to the physics of the Sun or if they use terrestrial phenomena as indicators of solar activity. The journal also accepts papers on stellar research as long as their results have a direct impact upon the understanding of the Sun, its structure and activity, or when solar observations are used when interpreting stellar data.
- Originality: Solar Physics accepts only original research papers which have not been published, and are not under consideration for publication, in the same or a similar form elsewhere. This also includes English versions of papers earlier published in another language, for example Russian or Chinese. Exceptions can be made for greatly modified papers, provided the author sends the Editor also the original version for a comparison.We also do not handle papers rejected by other journals, unless the author informs us about the rejection and substantially revises the paper. Again, the original rejected paper should be enclosed for a comparison.In case an author does not follow these rules, besides the rejection of the manuscript, his or her name will be made known to the Editors of all other important journals in the field.
- Review papers are accepted only if invited by the editors.
- Proceedings of conferences are not published in Solar Physics. However, some issues of the journal may be Topical Issues which are concerned with a specific topic selected by the editors and, in some cases, may contain papers presented at a monothematic conference. All papers submitted to such a Topical Issue are handled and refereed in the same way as regular research papers. Contrary to Proceedings, the length of such papers is not limited, and other papers related to the same topic, not presented at the conference, can be added to the issue.
- Permissions: It is the responsibility of the author to obtain written permission for a quotation from unpublished material, all for any quotation in excess of 250 words in one extract or 500 words in total from any work still in copyright, and for the reprinting of figures or tables from unpublished or copyrighted material.
- Copyright: Authors will be asked, upon acceptance of an article, to sign a form which transfers copyright of the article to the Publisher. US Government employees signing this form would transfer copy right to the extent transferable.
- Page Charges: No page charges are levied on authors or their institutions.
- Proofs: Proofs will be sent to the first, or corresponding author by email. One corrected proof, should be returned to the publisher within three days of receipt in response to the proof email. The second proof is not sent to the authors, but is checked only by the production editor and one of the scientific editors. If any additional late corrections are necessary, contact the production editor email@example.com
- Offprints: E-offprints (electronic offprints) of each article will be provided free of charge. Additional offprints can be ordered by means of an offprint order form supplied with the proofs.
English Language Editing
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
- Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
- Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
- Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.
● 使用专业语言编辑服务，编辑人员会对英语进行润色，以确保您的意思表达清晰，并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。
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Springer Open Choice
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice.
A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription−based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springers online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please complete the relevant order form automatically supplied to you via e-mail prior to the article proof production process and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subsription-model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.
Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).
Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.
Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement.Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential conflict of interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘Declarations’ section.
Summary of requirements
The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Funding’ and/or ‘Conflicts of interests’/’Competing interests’. Other declarations include Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Material and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.
Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
When all authors have the same (or no) conflicts and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.
Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:
- Partial financial support was received from [...]
- The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
- This study was funded by […]
- This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]
Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:
- The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
- No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.
- No funding was received for conducting this study.
- No funds, grants, or other support was received.
Examples of statements to be used when there are interests to declare:
- Financial interests: Author A has received research support from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company Wand owns stock in Company X. Author C is consultant to company Y.
Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.
- Financial interests: The authors declare they have no financial interests.
Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.
- Financial interests: Author A received a speaking fee from Y for Z. Author B receives a salary from association X. X where s/he is the Executive Director.
Non-financial interests: none.
- Financial interests: Author A and B declare they have no financial interests. Author C has received speaker and consultant honoraria from Company M and Company N. Dr. C has received speaker honorarium and research funding from Company M and Company O. Author D has received travel support from Company O.
Non-financial interests: Author D has served on advisory boards for Company M, Company N and Company O.
Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:
- The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.
- The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
- All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
- The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.
Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.