- Instructions for Authors
- Initial Manuscript Submission
- Final Manuscript Preparation
- Manuscript Presentation, General
- Key Words
- Symbols and Units
- Figures and Tables
- Section Headings
- Page Charges and Colour Figures
- Research Data Policy and Data Availability Statements
- Springer Open Choice
- English Language Editing
- Additional Information
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
- Open access publishing
Instructions for Authors
Initial Manuscript Submission
Initial Submission of Manuscripts for Review
Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
There is no submission fee, and authors are provided with 25 offprints of their papers. Papers should be submitted in any double−spaced format. Accepted papers must be supplied in their final version in conformity with the Review's exact format.
Final Manuscript Preparation
Springer requests the submission of accepted manuscripts and figures in electronic form in addition to a hard−copy printout. Please label your manuscript properly, giving exact details on the name(s) of the file(s), the operating system and software used. Always save your electronic manuscript in the word processor format that you use; conversions to other formats and versions tend to be imperfect. In general, use as few formatting codes as possible. For safety's sake, you should always retain a backup copy of your file(s).
Springer prefers articles submitted in word processing packages such as MS Word, WordPerfect, etc. running under operating systems MS DOS, Windows and Apple Macintosh, or in the file format LaTeX. Articles submitted in other software programs can also be accepted.
For submission in LaTeX, Springer have developed a Springer LaTeX class file, which can be downloaded from: (please use the link below the chapter)
Use of this class file is highly recommended. Do not use versions downloaded from other sites.
Technical support is available at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
If you are not familiar with TeX/LaTeX, the class file will be of no use to you. In that case, submit your article in a common word processor format.
Manuscript Presentation, General
The journals language is English. British English or American English spelling and terminology may be used, but either one should be followed consistently throughout the article. Manuscripts should be printed or typewritten on A4 or US Letter bond paper, one side only, leaving one inch margins on all sides. Please double−space all material, including notes and references. Quotations of more than 40 words should be set off clearly, either by indenting the left−hand margin or by using a smaller typeface. Use double quotation marks for direct quotations and single quotation marks for quotations within quotations and for words or phrases used in a special sense.
Number the pages consecutively with the first page containing:
- running head (shortened title)
- author (s)
- full address for correspondence, including telephone and fax number and e−mail address (for sending page proofs and offprints
On the second page, please provide a short abstract of up to 100 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
Please provide 2 to 6 key words or short phrases in alphabetical order.
Symbols and Units
Any numerical results in dimensional form should be presented in SI units. Please indicate clearly the difference between 0 (zero) and O, o (the letters), between the numeral 1 and letter l, between a and alpha, k and kappa, p and rho, u and mu, n and eta, X and X (times) etc.
The use of the exponent 1/2 is preferred. The author should also see to it that the level of subscripts, subscripts to subscripts, exponents as well as exponents in exponents, cannot be misunderstood. Fractions to be printed in the body of the text (not in display formulae) should make use of the solidus. The use of negative exponents will save both space and typesetting costs. Attention should be paid to the consistent use of braces, brackets, and parentheses.
Figures and Tables
Submission of electronic figures
In addition to hard−copy printouts of figures, authors are requested to supply the electronic versions of figures in either Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) or TIFF format. Many other formats, e.g., Microsoft Postscript, PiCT (Macintosh) and WMF (Windows), cannot be used and the hard copy will be scanned instead.
Figures should be saved in separate files without their captions, which should be included with the text of the article. Files should be named according to DOS conventions, e.g., figure1.eps. For vector graphics, EPS is the preferred format. Lines should not be thinner than 0.25pts and in−fill patterns and screens should have a density of at least 10%. Font−related problems can be avoided by using standard fonts such as Times Roman and Helvetica. For bitmapped graphics, TIFF is the preferred format but EPS is also acceptable.
The following resolutions are optimal:
black−and−white line figures − 600 − 1200 dpi; line figures with some grey or coloured lines − 600 dpi; photographs − 300 dpi; screen dumps − leave as is. Higher resolutions will not improve output quality but will only increase file size, which may cause problems with printing; lower resolutions may compromise output quality. Please try to provide artwork that approximately fits within the typeset area of the journal. Especially screened originals, i.e. originals with grey areas, may suffer badly from reduction by more than 10−15%.
AVOIDING PROBLEMS WITH EPS GRAPHICS
Please always check whether the figures print correctly to a PostScript printer in a reasonable amount of time. If they do not, simplify your figures or use a different graphics program. If EPS export does not produce acceptable output, try to create an EPS file with the printer driver (see below). This option is unavailable with the Microsoft driver for Windows NT, so if you run Windows NT, get the Adobe driver from the Adobe site (www.adobe.com).
If EPS export is not an option, e.g., because you rely on OLE and cannot create separate files for your graphics, it may help us if you simply provide a PostScript dump of the entire document.
HOW TO SET UP FOR EPS AND POSTCRIPT DUMPS UNDER WINDOWS
Create a printer entry specifically for this purpose: install the printer Apple Laserwriter Plus and specify FILE: as printer port. Each time you send something to the printer you will be asked for a filename. This file will be the EPS file or PostScript dump that we can use.
The EPS export option can be found under the PostScript tab. EPS export should be used only for single−page documents. For printing a document of several pages, select Optimise for portability instead. The option Download header with each job should be checked.
Submission of hard−copy figures
If no electronic versions of figures are available, submit only high−quality artwork that can be reproduced as is, i.e., without any part having to be redrawn or re−typeset. The letter size of any text in the figures must be large enough to allow for reduction. Photographs should be in black−and−white on glossy paper. If a figure contains colour, make absolutely clear whether it should be printed in black−and−white or in colour. Figures that are to be printed in black−and−white should not be submitted in colour. Authors will be charged for reproducing figures in colour.
Each figure and table should be numbered and mentioned in the text. The approximate position of figures and tables should be indicated in the margin of the manuscript. On the reverse side of each figure, the name of the (first) author and the figure number should be written in pencil; the top of the figure should be clearly indicated. Figures and tables should be placed at the end of the manuscript following the Reference section.
Each figure and table should be accompanied by an explanatory legend. The figure legends should be grouped and placed on a separate page. Figures are not returned to the author unless specifically requested.
In tables, footnotes are preferable to long explanatory material in either the heading or body of the table. Such explanatory footnotes, identified by superscript letters, should be placed immediately below the table.
Section headings should be numbered (e.g., I., 1., A.).
Supplementary material should be collected in an Appendix and placed before the Notes and Reference sections.
Please use footnotes rather than endnotes. Notes should be indicated by consecutive superscript numbers in the text. A source reference note should be indicated by means of an asterisk after the title. This note should be placed at the bottom of the first page.
In the text, a reference identified by means of an authors name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses and page number(s) where appropriate. When there are more than two authors, only the first authors name should be mentioned, followed by et al.. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like a and b after the date to distinguish the works.
- Winograd (1986, p. 204)
- (Winograd, 1986a, b)
- (Winograd, 1986; Flores et al., 1988)
- (Bullen and Bennett, 1990)
Acknowledgements of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the References.
1. Journal article:
Bertram, G., & Twaddle, D. (2005). Price-cost margins and profit rates in New Zealand electricity distribution networks since 1994: The cost of light handed regulation. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 27(3), 281–307
2. Book chapter:
Adib, P., & Zarnikau, J. (2006). Texas: The most robust competitive market in North America. In F. P. Sioshansi & W. Pfaffenberger (Eds.), Electricity market reform: An international perspective (pp. 383–417). Oxford: Elsevier Science.
3. Book, authored:
Capland, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
4. Book, edited:
Felner, R. D., Jason, L. A., Moritsugu, J. N. & Farber, S. S. (Eds.) (1983). Preventive psychology: Theory, research and practice. New York: Pergamon Press
5. Paper presented at a conference:
Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., Stueve, A. & Pescosolido, B. A. (1996, November). Have public conceptions of mental health changed in the past half century? Does it matter? (Paper presented at the 124th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, New York)
Name and date of patent are optional
Norman, L. O. (1998) Lightning rods. US Patent 4,379,752, 9 Sept 1998
Trent, J.W. (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
8. Published and In press articles with or without DOI:
8.1 In press
Wilson, M., et al. (2006). References. In: Wilson, Mm (ed) Style manual. Springer. (Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer) (in press)
8.2. Article by DOI (with page numbers)
Slifka, M. K.& Whitton, J. L. (2000). Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Journal of Molecular Medicine 78,74–80. DOI 10.1007/s001090000086
8.3. Article by DOI (before issue publication with page numbers)
Slifka, M. K. & Whitton, J, L, (2000), Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Journal of Molecular Medicine (in press). DOI 10.1007/s001090000086
8.4. Article in electronic journal by DOI (no paginated version)
Slifka, M. K.& Whitton, J. L. (2000). Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Journal of Molecular Medicine. DOI 10.1007/s801090000086
9. Internet publication/Online document
9.1. Internet articles based on a print source
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from http://jbr.org/articles.html
9.2. Article in an Internet-only journal
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
9.3. Article in an Internet-only newsletter
Glueckauf, R. L., Whitton, J., Baxter, J., Kain, J., Vogelgesang, S., Hudson, M., et al. (1998, July). Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy -- Project update. Telehealth News,2(2). Retrieved from http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr4a.html1
9.4. Stand-alone document, no author identified, no date
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from
9.5. Document available on university program or department Web site
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.htmlOther Electronic Sources
9.6. Electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from database
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author.Corrected proofs should be returned within three days of receipt.
Twenty−five offprints of each article will be provided free of charge. Additional offprints can be ordered by means of an offprint order form supplied with them proofs. An order form for additional offprints will be sent to the corresponding author.
Page Charges and Colour Figures
No page charges are levied on authors or their institutions. Colour figures are published at the author’s expense only.
Authors will be asked, upon acceptance of an article, to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher. This will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information under copyright laws.
It is the responsibility of the author to obtain written permission for a quotation from unpublished material, or for all quotations in excess of 250 words in one extract or 500 words in total from any work still in copyright, and for the reprinting of figures, tables or poems from unpublished or copyrighted material.
Research Data Policy and Data Availability Statements
This journal operates a type 3 research data policy. Authors publishing in this journal must provide a data availability statement as part of their articles. Authors are encouraged to share their data or other materials underpinning their study, but are not required to do so. Editorial decisions on the acceptance and publication of submitted articles will not be affected by whether or not authors share their research data.
Data availability statements
The journal requires authors to include a data availability statement as part of their article. If no data was generated or analysed, a statement to that effect should be included.
For the purposes of the data availability statement, “data” refers to any of the materials or sources that were used as inputs to your study, or were generated as outputs: they may include text extracts or images, maps, archival documents, photographs, audio or film recordings, field notes, spreadsheets, interview notes, or other material.
The inclusion of a data availability statement will be verified as a condition of publication. Data availability statements should include information on where data associated with the article can be found including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study.
Where research data are not publicly available, for instance when individual privacy could be compromised, this must be stated in the data availability statement along with any conditions for accessing the data. Data availability statements may take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple types of research data):
|The generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]||“The datasets generated by the survey research during and/or analyzed during the current study are available in the Dataverse repository, https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/205YXZ.”|
Example from: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-00552-5
“The Greek Hippocratic texts used in this study are available to the public under a Creative Commons license at A Digital Corpus for Graeco-Arabic Studies: https://www.graeco-arabic-studies.org/texts.html.”
Example from: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-0511-7
|The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.||“The datasets generated and analysed during the current study are not publicly available due the fact that they constitute an excerpt of research in progress but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.”|
Example from: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-00555-2
|The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.||“The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.”|
Example from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0803-3
|Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.||“We do not analyse or generate any datasets, because our work proceeds within a theoretical and mathematical approach.”|
Example from: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-0517-1
|All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].||“The author confirms that all data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.”|
Example from: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-0527-z
|The data that support the findings of this study are available from [third party name] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [third party name].||“The dataset generated during the current study is not publicly available as it contains proprietary information that the authors acquired through a license. Information on how to obtain it and reproduce the analysis is available from the corresponding author on request.”|
Example from: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-0520-6
“The datasets analysed during the current study are not publicly available due confidential company data by GoMetro but are available from GoMetro (@email address) on reasonable request.”
Example from: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-0508-2
More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available at https://www.springernature.com/gp/authors/research-data-policy/data-availability-statements/12330880.
The journal does not require that research data are shared in a repository, although authors are recommended to do so if possible.
In particular, the journal does not require public sharing of quantitative or qualitative data that could identify a research participant unless participants have consented to data release.
Additionally the journal does not require public sharing of other sensitive data, such as the locations of archaeologically sensitive areas.
If authors would like to share sensitive or personal data, recommended methods include:
- Deposition of research data in controlled access repositories
- Anonymisation or deidentification of data before public sharing
- Only sharing metadata about the research data
- Stating the procedures for accessing your research data in your article and managing data access requests from other researchers
Embargoes on data sharing are permitted.
We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate). Sharing research data as supplementary information files with a journal article is discouraged.
or http://re3data.org for help finding research data repositories.
The journal encourages authors to cite any publicly available research data in their reference list as well as the data availability statement. References to datasets (data citations) must include a persistent identifier (such as a DOIs, Handles, ARKs, or archival accession codes) where available.
Citations of datasets, when they appear in the reference list, should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite (Dataset Creator, Dataset Title, Publisher [repository], Publication Year, Identifier [e.g. DOI, Handle or ARK]) and should follow journal style.
For example: Álvaro Balaguer, “Not everything helps everyone the same: Relevance of Extracurricular Activities for Academic Achievement,” (2020) Zenodo, 10.5281/zenodo.3689261.
The journal encourages research data to be made available under open licences that permit reuse. The journal does not enforce particular licences for research data when research data are deposited in third party repositories. The publisher of the journal does not claim copyright in research data.
If you are using data owned by a third party it may not be possible for you to apply a particular licence to the dataset. Please check the licensing terms for materials you are reusing, for example if they are sourced from library, archives or museum collections.
If you cannot apply an open licence to your dataset, state this in your data availability statement.
Further information on research data sharing can be found on the Author Support portal.
Springer Open Choice
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription−based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springers online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please visit the link below to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription−model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.
English Language Editing
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
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Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.
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Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.
Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).
Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.
Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement.Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential conflict of interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘Declarations’ section.
Summary of requirements
The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Funding’ and/or ‘Conflicts of interests’/’Competing interests’. Other declarations include Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Material and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.
Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
When all authors have the same (or no) conflicts and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.
Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:
- Partial financial support was received from [...]
- The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
- This study was funded by […]
- This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]
Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:
- The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
- No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.
- No funding was received for conducting this study.
- No funds, grants, or other support was received.
Examples of statements to be used when there are interests to declare:
- Financial interests: Author A has received research support from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company Wand owns stock in Company X. Author C is consultant to company Y.
Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.
- Financial interests: The authors declare they have no financial interests.
Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.
- Financial interests: Author A received a speaking fee from Y for Z. Author B receives a salary from association X. X where s/he is the Executive Director.
Non-financial interests: none.
- Financial interests: Author A and B declare they have no financial interests. Author C has received speaker and consultant honoraria from Company M and Company N. Dr. C has received speaker honorarium and research funding from Company M and Company O. Author D has received travel support from Company O.
Non-financial interests: Author D has served on advisory boards for Company M, Company N and Company O.
Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:
- The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.
- The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
- All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
- The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.
Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.