- Instructions for Authors
- Online Manuscript Submission
- Manuscript Style
- LaTeX and Online Submission
- English Language Editing
- Springer Open Choice
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
- Research Data Policy
- Open Choice
- Open access publishing
Instructions for Authors
Online Manuscript Submission
Springer now offers authors, editors and reviewers of The Journal of Economic Inequality the option of using our fully web-enabled online manuscript submission and review system. To keep the review time as short as possible (no postal delays!), we encourage authors to submit manuscripts online to the journal‘s editorial office. Our online manuscript submission and review system offers authors the option to track the progress of the review process of manuscripts in real time.
The online manuscript submission and review system for The Journal of Economic Inequality offers easy and straightforward log-in and submission procedures. This system supports a wide range of submission file formats: for manuscripts - Word, WordPerfect, RTF, TXT and LaTex; for figures - TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, and Postscript.
By using the online manuscript submission and review system, it is NOT necessary to submit the manuscript also in printout + disk. In case you encounter any difficulties while submitting your manuscript on line, please get in touch with the responsible Editorial Assistant by clicking on “CONTACT US” from the tool bar.
- Electronic versions of your figures must be supplied. For vector graphics, EPS is the preferred format. For bitmapped graphics, TIFF is the preferred format. The following resolutions are optimal: line figures - 600 - 1200 dpi; photographs - 300 dpi; screen dumps - leave as is. Colour figures can be submitted in the RGB colour system. Font-related problems can be avoided by using standard fonts such as Times Roman, Courier and Helvetica.
- Colour figures may be printed at the author’s expense. Please indicate at submission which figures should be printed in colour, the number of colour pages you prefer and to which address we can send the invoice. In addition, please specify if figures are to appear together on a colour page.
- We appreciate any efforts that you make to ensure that the language is corrected before submission. This will greatly improve the legibility of your paper if English is not your first language.
Manuscripts should be submitted to:
There is no strict length limit for manuscripts, but authors are reminded that excessively long papers can be returned to the authors for shortening. The advisable length limit for manuscripts is not more than 30 typewritten double-spaced A4 pages.
The English can be either British or American spelling variants, but not a mixture.
The entire manuscript (including abstract, keywords, references, captions, and notes) should be typed double spaced. Liberal margins (2,5 cm) should be left at the top and the bottom, as well as the sides of each page.
Manuscripts should be arranged in the following order with all pages numbered consecutively.
- (1) Page one should contain, in order:
(a) title of paper (words to be italicized should be underlined; do not terminate the title with a period or colon)
(b) subtitle, if any
(c) full name of author(s)
(d) authors‘ addresses (give full mailing addresses, including e-mail address, if more than one, add to one of these addresses ‘for correspondence and/or offprints‘ between parentheses (if applicable); if more than one address (and author), use numbers (as superscript) after author and before address)
(e) leave space for date of receipt of original manuscript and date of acceptance of revised manuscript (to be filled in by editors)
- (2) Page two; the key words (separated by commas, in alphabetical order) and the abstract (not exceeding 250 words), and the abbreviations alphabetically arranged;
- (3) Text (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussions) and Acknowledgement (if applicable)
- (4) References
- (5) Tables
- (6) Figure legends
- (7) Figures (high quality original drawings or photographic prints)
The abstract should highlight the major findings of the study. It should be written to attract readers to the paper and it should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references. The abstract must be able to stand alone.
Avoid using too many footnotes. If used, they should be typed on appropriate pages, but clearly separated from the text with a line above them.
- Please indicate clearly the differences between 0 (zero) and O, o (the letters), between the numeral 1 and the letter l, between a and alpha, k and kappa, p and rho, u and mu, v and nu, n and eta, epsilon (e) and , z and x, d and Q, a and [infty], X and etc.
- The use of the exponent 1/2 is preferred to the sign (.
- The author should also see to it that the level of subscripts, subscripts to subscripts, exponents as well as exponents in exponents, cannot be misunderstood.
- Fractions to be printed in the body of the text (not in display formulae) should make use of the solidus. The use of negative exponents (e.g. u−1 instead of 1/u) will save both space and typesetting costs.
- Attention should be paid to the consistent use of braces, brackets, and parentheses.
LaTeX and Online Submission
All source files you upload in the online submission system will be automatically compiled into a single PDF file to be approved by you at the end of the submission process. While the compiled PDF will be used for peer-review purposes, your uploaded source files will be transferred to the publisher for publication upon acceptance.
Please do not use subfolders for your LaTeX submission, e.g. for figures or bibliographic files. Further technical information on uploading and compiling your LaTeX submission can be found under
All photographs, graphs and diagrams should be referred to as a 'Figure' and they should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). Multi-part figures ought to be labelled with lower case letters (a, b, etc.). Please insert keys and scale bars directly in the figures. Relatively small text and great variation in text sizes within figures should be avoided as figures are often reduced in size. Figures may be sized to fit approximately within the column(s) of the journal. Provide a detailed legend (without abbreviations) to each figure, refer to the figure in the text and note its approximate location in the margin. Please place the legends in the manuscript after the references.
Each table should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). In tables, footnotes are preferable to long explanatory material in either the heading or body of the table. Such explanatory footnotes, identified by superscript letters, should be placed immediately below the table. Please provide a caption (without abbreviations) to each table, refer to the table in the text and note its approximate location in the margin. Finally, please place the tables after the figure legends in the manuscript.
1. Journal article
Hamburger, C.: Quasimonotonicity, regularity and duality for nonlinear systems of partial differential equations. Ann. Mat. Pura. Appl. 169, 321–354 (1995)
2. Inclusion of issue number (optional)
Campbell, S.L., Gear, C.W.: The index of general nonlinear DAES. Numer. Math. 72(2), 173–196 (1995)
3. Journal issue with issue editor
Smith, J. (ed.): Rodent genes. Mod. Genomics J. 14(6), 126–233 (1998)
4. Journal issue with no issue editor
Rodent genes: Mod. Genomics J. 14(6):126–233 (1998)
5. Book chapter
Broy, M.: Software engineering – from auxiliary to key technologies. In: Broy, M., Denert, E. (eds.) Software Pioneers, pp. 10–13. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (2002)
6. Book, authored
Geddes, K.O., Czapor, S.R., Labahn, G.: Algorithms for Computer Algebra. Kluwer, Boston (1992)
7. Book, edited
Seymour, R.S. (ed.): Conductive Polymers. Plenum, New York (1981)
8. Chapter in a book in a series without volume titles
MacKay, D.M.: Visual stability and voluntary eye movements. In: Jung, R., MacKay, D.M. (eds.) Handbook of Sensory Physiology, vol. 3, pp. 307–331. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (1973)
9. Chapter in a book in a series with volume titles
Smith, S.E.: Neuromuscular blocking drugs in man. In: Zaimis, E. (ed.) Neuromuscular Junction. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol. 42, pp. 593–660. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (1976)
10. Proceedings as a book (in a series and sub-series)
Zowghi, D., et al.: A framework for reasoning about requirements in evolution. In: Foo N., Goebel R. (eds.) Topics in Artificial Intelligence, 4th Pacific Rim Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Cairns, August 1996. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 1114, pp. 157–168. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (1996)
11. Proceedings with an editor (without a publisher)
Aaron, M.: The future of genomics. In: Williams, H. (ed.) Proceedings of the Genomic Researchers, Boston, 1999
12. Proceedings without an editor (without a publisher)
Chung, S.-T., Morris, R.L.: Isolation and characterization of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid from Streptomyces fradiae. In: Abstracts of the 3rd International Symposium on the Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 4–9 June 1978
13. Paper presented at a conference
Chung, S.-T., Morris, R.L.: Isolation and characterization of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid from Streptomyces fradiae. Paper presented at the 3rd international symposium on the genetics of industrial microorganisms, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 4–9 June 1978
Name and date of patent are optional
L.O. Norman: Lightning rods. US Patent 4,379,752, 9 Sept 1998
15. Dissertation, Ph.D. thesis (either text is acceptable)
J.W. Trent: Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California (1975)
16. Institutional author (book)
International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee: Nomina anatomica. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1966)
17. Non-English publication cited in an English publication
Wolf, G.H., Lehman, P.-F.: Atlas der Anatomie, vol. 4/3, 4th edn. Fischer, Berlin (1976) [NB: Use the language of the primary document, not that of the reference for "vol" etc.!]
18. Non-Latin alphabet publication.
The English translation is optional.
Marikhin, V.Y., Myasnikova, L.P.: Nadmolekulyarnaya struktura polimerov
(The supramolecular structure of polymers). Khimiya, Leningrad (1977)
19. Published and In press articles with or without DOI:
19.1 In press:
Wilson, M. et al. In: Wilson M (ed.): Style manual. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (2006)
19.2. Article by DOI (with page numbers)
Slifka, M.K., Whitton, J.L.: J. Mol. Med. 78:74–80. DOI 10.1007/s001090000086 (2001)
19.3. Article by DOI (before issue publication with page numbers)
Slifka, M.K., Whitton, J.L.:J. Mol. Med. (in press). DOI 10.1007/s001090000086 (2006)
19.4. Article in electronic journal by DOI (no paginated version)
Slifka, M.K., Whitton, J.L.: Dig. J. Mol. Med. DOI 10.1007/s801090000086 (2000)
20. Internet publication/Online document
Doe, J. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry.Available via DIALOG. http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document. Cited 15 Jan 1999 (1999)
20.1. Online database
Healthwise Knowledgebase. US Pharmacopeia, Rockville. Http://www.healthwise.org. Cited 21 Sept 1998 (1998)
Supplementary material/private homepage
Doe, J.: Http://www.privatehomepage.com. Cited 22 Feb 2000 (2000)
Doe, J.: Http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/mydata.html. Cited 25 Dec 1999 (1999)
Doe, J.: ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2169.txt. Cited 12 Nov 1999 (1999)
ISSN International Centre: Global ISSN database. http://www.issn.org. Cited 20 Feb 2000 (1999)
The author will receive two sets of page proofs of the article from the printer (with an annotated copy of the manuscript), and is requested to return one, corrected, with the manuscript to the publisher without delay.
In the case of proofs not being returned in time, they may be read by the Editor against a second copy of the manuscript and passed for publication without the author’s comments.
Twenty−five offprints of each article will be provided free of charge to the first−named author of each paper. Additional offprints can be ordered at the current rate when proofs are returned to the publisher.
No page charges are levied on authors or their institutions.
English Language Editing
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
- Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
- Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
- Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.
● 使用专业语言编辑服务，编辑人员会对英语进行润色，以确保您的意思表达清晰，并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。
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Springer Open Choice
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription−based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springers online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please visit the link below to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription−model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.
Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).
Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.
Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement.Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential conflict of interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘Declarations’ section.
Summary of requirements
The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Funding’ and/or ‘Conflicts of interests’/’Competing interests’. Other declarations include Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Material and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.
Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
When all authors have the same (or no) conflicts and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.
Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:
- Partial financial support was received from [...]
- The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
- This study was funded by […]
- This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]
Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:
- The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
- No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.
- No funding was received for conducting this study.
- No funds, grants, or other support was received.
Examples of statements to be used when there are interests to declare:
- Financial interests: Author A has received research support from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company Wand owns stock in Company X. Author C is consultant to company Y.
Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.
- Financial interests: The authors declare they have no financial interests.
Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.
- Financial interests: Author A received a speaking fee from Y for Z. Author B receives a salary from association X. X where s/he is the Executive Director.
Non-financial interests: none.
- Financial interests: Author A and B declare they have no financial interests. Author C has received speaker and consultant honoraria from Company M and Company N. Dr. C has received speaker honorarium and research funding from Company M and Company O. Author D has received travel support from Company O.
Non-financial interests: Author D has served on advisory boards for Company M, Company N and Company O.
Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:
- The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.
- The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
- All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
- The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.
Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.
Research Data Policy
The journal encourages authors, where possible and applicable, to deposit data that support the findings of their research in a public repository. Authors and editors who do not have a preferred repository should consult Springer Nature’s list of repositories and research data policy.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may also be used.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Authors who need help understanding our data sharing policies, help finding a suitable data repository, or help organising and sharing research data can access our Author Support portal for additional guidance.
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