- Instructions for Authors
- Manuscript Submission
- Preparation of the Manuscript
- Copyright Transmission
- Proofs and Offprints
- English Language Editing
- Springer Open Choice
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
- Links and downloads
- Open access publishing
Instructions for Authors
Manuscripts, in English, should be submitted to the Executive Editors Office via the journals web−based online manuscript submission and peer−review system:
Inquiries regarding journal policy and other such general topics should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief:
Margaret A. Perkinson, PhD
Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy
Doisy College of Health Sciences
Saint Louis University
3437 Caroline St.
St. Louis, MO 63104
The online system offers easy straightforward log−in and submission; supports a wide range of submission file formats [Word, WordPerfect, RTF, TXT and LaTeX for manuscripts; TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, and Postscript for figures (artwork)]; eliminates the need to submit manuscripts as hard−copy printouts, disks, and/or e−mail attachments; enables real−time tracking of manuscript status by author; and provides help should authors experience any submission difficulties (click on "Contact Us" from the toolbar).
The Journal of Cross−Cultural Gerontology is a refereed journal, published as a quarterly. No page charges are levied on authors or their institutions. Books for review should be sent to the Editor−in−Chief. Authors may suggest up to five individuals (including institutional affiliations) who can be contacted as potential reviewers. Note that the Editor is not bound to use the suggested reviewers, and may contact additional or other individuals to review the manuscript.
Preparation of the Manuscript
Manuscripts should be written in English; four copies of the material should be submitted in the format given below. Also, the final revised manuscript should be supplied also on a 3 1/2 inch disk (preferably in Microsoft Word or WP 5.1 or higher). This point does not apply to manuscripts submitted in the online system. Manuscripts should be presented on DIN A4 or 8 ½ × 11 inch bond paper, one side only, leaving at least 2 cm margins on all sides. Please double−space all materials, including Notes, References, and Tables. All pages (including the Cover page, Notes, References, Figure−legends and Tables) should be numbered consecutively, in the right−hand upper corner.
The manuscripts should be arranged in the following order:
Cover page (page 1)
The Title should be concise and accurate, but should contain adequate information regarding the contents.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word
- Authors full first and last names; the middle name only as initial.
Capitalize the name(s)
If more than one, use & for and before the last name.
Each authors affiliation(s) should be identified (including the city and country), and footnoted with superscript numerals for the respective authors.
After 4 lines, type a line across the page and then add:
Address for correspondence: Name, Full address, City, Country
On a new line: Phone number; Fax number; E−mail.
In the published version of the paper, the Address for correspondence will be printed at the last page, just after the References.
After 4 lines, type a second line across the page:
Here give an abbreviated title to be used as the running headlines as the full title may not fit on one line. The running headlines should appear on each page in the right upper corner just before the page number.
Please provide an Abstract, brief and informative, from 100 to approx. 250 words. It is preferable that the Abstract is not in the first person, and it should not contain any mathematical formulae or cite references.
- Key words
Maximum of 6 and a minimum of 3, in alphabetical order, suitable for indexing.
- Main text
The main text usually is arranged as Introduction, Materials (or Subjects) and Methods, Results, and Discussion, without page breaks.
The relative importance of headings and subheadings should be clear.
Headings and subheadings (not numbered) should be made clear by spacing and indentation.
Capitalize only the first word; do not use all capital letters. The approximate location of Tables and Figures should be indicated within square brackets, on a separate line with a spaceline above and below, preferable after the paragraph in which it is first mentioned.
New Paragraphs should be indicated by clear indentation (use a standard tab). Do not use spacelines between paragraphs.
Breaking a word at the end of a line is not allowed.
Endnotes are to be numbered consecutively and placed just before the References cited section.
Acknowledgments and grant numbers should be placed at the end after the main text, before Notes and References.
- Each table should be mentioned in the text and its place indicated in the text.
- The tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers, followed by a title (at the end no period), for ex.: Table 1. Characteristics of focus group participants, 1990−1995 (n = 39)
- Horizontal rules should be indicated; vertical rules are not used.
- Table−footnotes should be marked with superscript letters; if only one, an asterix (*) may be used.
- Tables may be edited by the publisher to permit more compact typesetting.
- Each table should be typed on a separate page.
- Each figure should be mentioned in the text and its place indicated in the text.
- The figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers.
- Line drawings should be in a form suitable for reproduction without modification. Extremely small type should be avoided as figures are often reduced in size. Maximum width (after reduction) 115mm.
- Photographs should be supplied as black−and−white, high contrast glossy prints.
- Color prints may be inserted at the authors own expense.
- All the figure−legends should be listed on one sheet. Avoid double phrasing in figure and figure legend.
All references must be closely checked to determine that dates and spelling are consistent. Please note that the names of all authors should be given in the list of References, and et al. used only in the text. The literature references should be arranged alphabetically, typed double−spaced and in the text referred to as: author(s) and year of publication, e.g.: (Quah et al. 1991; Velkoff & Kinsella 1993). Use always & for and between two authors names. Always state the full page−numbers in the Reference section. Some examples of references are
Articles in a periodical
- Cheung, C−K., Lee, J−J. & Chan, C−M. (1994). Selfresteem and perceptions of the elderly, Social Behavior and Personality 22: 279−290.
- Ito, K. (1979). Keisei moji to kanji shido [Phonetic compund kanji and kanji teaching], Gengo Seikatu [Linguistic Life] 326: 68−79.
- Koyana, W. (1989). Japanese attitudes toward the elderly: A review of research findings, Journal of Cross−Cultural Gerontology 4: 335−345.
- Serow, W.J., Friedrich, K. & Haas III, W.H. (1996). Residential relocation and regional redistribution of the elderly in the USA and Germany, Journal of Cross−Cultural Gerontology 11: 293−306.
Article in a newspaper
- Borgman, A. (1994). Areas Asian Americans step up political activism: Korean community flexing fledging muscle, Washington Post, 1 November 1994, pp. A1, A10.
- Chen, E.M. (1989). The Tao Te Ching. A new translation with commentary. New York: A New Era Book.
- Gordon, V.E. (1988) Chem starost obespechim [Why we provide for the elderly]. Moscow: Mysl.
Juiland, A., Brodin D. & Davidovitch, C. (1970). Frequency dictionary of French words. The Hague/Paris: Mouton.
- Quah, S.R., Chiew, S.K., Ko, Y.C. & Lee, S.M., eds. (1991). Social class in Singapore. Singapore: Times Academic Publishers.
- Rosner, J. (1979). Helping children overcome learning disabilities, 2nd edn. New York: Walker.
Chapter in a book
- Kwong, P. & Cai, G.X. (1992). Ageing in China: Trends, problems and strategies. In D.R. Philips (ed.), Ageing in East and Southeast Asia (pp. 105−128). London: Edward Arnold.
- Braun, K.L. (1996). Asian and Pacifir Islander Americans. Paper presented at the 42nd annual meeting of the American Society on Aging, City, State.
- Velkoff, V. & Kinsella, K. (1993) Aging in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Washington, DC: Bureau of Census, Center for International Research. Report No. 93/1.
The author is responsible for obtaining permission from copyright owners whenever illustrations, tables, or lengthy quotes are used from previously published materials.
- Copyright for all published material is held by Springer. Submission of a paper for publication implies that copyright reverts to the publisher from the author and also that the article has not been published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.
- Permission to reproduce, in whole or in part, any material published in Journal of Cross−CulturalGerontology must be obtained from the publishers.
Proofs and Offprints
- When proofs are submitted to the corresponding author, it is important that the proofs be checked and returned by airmail, together with the copy−edited manuscript, to the publisher within two days after their receipt.
- It is the author’s responsibility to guarantee that there are no technical errors.
- Only in proof−stage is it allowed to update references of papers, submitted or in press.
- Alterations other than typographical errors and/or misspellings must be held to a minimum; the author can be charged for the labor required to make extensive text−changes.
- 25 offprints of each paper will be provided free of charge to the corresponding author, together with a complete issue in which the paper is published.
- Ordering information for additional offprints will be sent with the proofs to the corresponding author, and this order−form has to be returned together with the proofs to the publisher.
A Cumulative Index of all the published Articles, the Aging trend series, and Book reviews, published during the period 1986−1995 (Volumes 1−10), including also a Cumulative Author Index, has been published in Volume 10, No. 4 (December 1995), pp. 365−394.
English Language Editing
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
- Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
- Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
- Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.
● 使用专业语言编辑服务，编辑人员会对英语进行润色，以确保您的意思表达清晰，并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。
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원고가 수락될 경우, 출판 전 저희측 편집자에 의해 원고의 철자 및 문체를 검수하는 과정을 거치게 됩니다.
Springer Open Choice
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription−based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springers online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please visit http://www.springeronline.com/openchoice to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription−model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.
Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).
Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.
Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement. Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential conflict of interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘Declarations’ section.
Summary of requirements
The above should be summarized in a statement and included on a title page that is separate from the manuscript with a section entitled “Declarations” when submitting a paper. Having all statements in one place allows for a consistent and unified review of the information by the Editor-in-Chief and/or peer reviewers and may speed up the handling of the paper. Declarations include Funding, Conflicts of interest/competing interests, Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Materials and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements. Please use the title page for providing the statements.
Once and if the paper is accepted for publication, the production department will put the respective statements in a distinctly identified section clearly visible for readers.
Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
When all authors have the same (or no) conflicts and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.
Provide “Funding” as a heading (see template)
- Partial financial support was received from [...]
- The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
- This study was funded by […]
- This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]
In case of no funding:
- The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
- No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.
- No funding was received for conducting this study.
- No funds, grants, or other support was received.
Provide “Conflicts of interest/Competing interests” as a header (see template)
- Financial interests: Author A has received research support from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company Wand owns stock in Company X. Author C is consultant to company Y.
Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.
- Financial interests: The authors declare they have no financial interests.
Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.
- Financial interests: Author A received a speaking fee from Y for Z. Author B receives a salary from association X. X where s/he is the Executive Director.
Non-financial interests: none.
- Financial interests: Author A and B declare they have no financial interests. Author C has received speaker and consultant honoraria from Company M and Company N. Dr. C has received speaker honorarium and research funding from Company M and Company O. Author D has received travel support from Company O.
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