- Instructions for authors
- Aims and Scope
- Title page
- LaTeX Author Package for Astrophysics and Space Science
- Online Manuscript Submission
- Electronic figures
- Colour figures
- Manuscript Presentation
- Astronomical images
- Consent to publish
- Springer Open Choice
- English Language Editing
- Supplementary Information (SI)
- Research Data Policy and Data Availability Statements
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
- Open access publishing
Instructions for authors
Aims and Scope
Astrophysics and Space Science publishes original contributions and invited reviews covering the entire range of astronomy, astrophysics, astrophysical cosmology, planetary and space science and the astrophysical aspects of astrobiology. This includes both observational and theoretical research, the techniques of astronomical instrumentation and data analysis and astronomical space instrumentation. We particularly welcome papers in the general fields of high-energy astrophysics, astrophysical and astrochemical studies of the interstellar medium including star formation, planetary astrophysics, the formation and evolution of galaxies and the evolution of large scale structure in the Universe. Papers in mathematical physics or in general relativity which do not establish clear astrophysical applications will no longer be considered.
The journal also publishes topically selected special issues in research fields of particular scientific interest. These consist of both invited reviews and original research papers. Conference proceedings will not be considered. All papers published in the journal are subject to thorough and strict peer-reviewing.
Astrophysics and Space Science features short publication times after acceptance and colour printing free of charge.
Please make sure your title page contains the following information.
The title should be concise and informative.
- The name(s) of the author(s)
- The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
- A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author
- If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)
If address information is provided with the affiliation(s) it will also be published.
For authors that are (temporarily) unaffiliated we will only capture their city and country of residence, not their e-mail address unless specifically requested.
Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
For life science journals only (when applicable)
Trial registration number and date of registration
Trial registration number, date of registration followed by “retrospectively registered”
Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.
All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading 'Declarations'.
If any of the sections are not relevant to your manuscript, please include the heading and write 'Not applicable' for that section.
To be used for all articles, including articles with biological applications
Funding (information that explains whether and by whom the research was supported)
Conflicts of interest/Competing interests (include appropriate disclosures)
Availability of data and material (data transparency)
Code availability (software application or custom code)
Authors' contributions (optional: please review the submission guidelines from the journal whether statements are mandatory)
Additional declarations for articles in life science journals that report the results of studies involving humans and/or animals
Ethics approval (include appropriate approvals or waivers)
Consent to participate (include appropriate statements)
Consent for publication (include appropriate statements)
Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
LaTeX Author Package for Astrophysics and Space Science
Astrophysics and Space Science and Springer now strongly encourages the use of LaTeX for all manuscript submissions. The Astrophysics and Space Science Springer package ASTR uses the aastex conventions. The ASTRstyle_v0.2 LaTeX style files and worked examples are available as a package for download.
However, if authors do not have access to LaTeX, submissions in Microsoft Word or in Postscript format will also be entertained. Be sure where possible to embed all font information into the document so that the submitted manuscript is easily readable to the reviewers.
Online Manuscript Submission
All authors should submit their manuscripts to the journal's editorial office online via Editorial Manager: http://www.editorialmanager.com/astr
This fully web-enabled manuscript submission and review system offers authors the option to track the progress of the review process of manuscripts in real time.
The online manuscript submission and review system for Astrophysics and Space Science offers easy and straightforward log-in and submission procedures.
LaTeX users should submit the manuscript with the following naming convention:
as well as any necessary supporting files (.bib, .sty, .cls, .bst etc.).
If you are missing necessary style files, the system will fail to form a .pdf format output file of your manuscript, but the error log will show why this occurred.
While we recommend to upload all source files used, we understand that you may prefer to submit one PDF file for initial submission only
In case you encounter any difficulties while submitting your manuscript on line, or cannot for some other reason submit on line, please get in touch with the responsible Editorial Assistant by clicking on "CONTACT US" from the tool bar.
Electronic versions of your figures must be supplied.
For vector graphics, EPS is the preferred format.
For bitmapped graphics, TIFF or EPS is the preferred format.
The following resolutions are optimal: line figures - 600 - 1200 dpi; photographs - 300 dpi; screen dumps - leave as is. Colour figures can be submitted in either the CMYK or RGB colour system.
Font-related problems can be avoided by using the standard fonts such as:
Ariel, Ariel Narrow, Times Roman, Times New Roman, Courier, Palatino and Helvetica.
If colour adds significant scientific information to a graph, figure or photo, the publisher will no longer charge a fee for colour reproduction either in the electronic version or the hard-copy of the Journal.
The journal’s language is English. British English or American English spelling and terminology may be used, but either one should be followed consistently throughout the article. Number the pages consecutively with the first page containing:
• running head (shortened title)
• article type
• full address for correspondence, including telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address
Please provide a short abstract of 100 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain undefined abbreviations or references to papers.
Section headings should be numbered systematically (e.g., 1., 1.1, 1.1.1, 2., 2.1, etc.).
Supplementary material should be collected in an Appendix and placed before the Notes and Reference sections.
Figures and Tables
All photographs, graphs and diagrams should be referred to as a 'Figure' and they should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). Multi-part figures ought to be labelled with lower case letters (a, b, etc.). Please insert keys and scale bars directly in the figures. Relatively small text and great variation in text sizes within figures should be avoided as figures are often reduced in size. Figures may be sized to fit within a single column of the journal, or else to fit over two columns. Examples of how to do this in LaTeX are provided in the sample-apss.tex file. Provide a detailed legend (without abbreviations) to each figure, refer to the figure in the text and note its approximate location in the margin. Please place the legends in the manuscript after the references.
Each table should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). In tables, footnotes are preferable to long explanatory material in either the heading or body of the table. Such explanatory footnotes, identified by superscript letters, should be placed immediately below the table. Please provide a caption (without abbreviations) to each table, refer to the table in the text and note its approximate location in the margin. Finally, please place the tables after the figure legends in the manuscript.
All scientific or technical data included in the text should be stated in the metric and other absolute (c.g.s.) systems. The use of the English, American or other regional systems of units is not permitted.
Footnotes designed to appear at the bottom of a page should be reduced to a minimum, and used only when essential.
In the text, a reference identified by means of an author’s name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses. Page number(s) may also be given where appropriate. When there are more than three authors, only the first author’s name should be mentioned, followed by ‘et al.’. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like ‘a’ and ‘b’ after the date to distinguish the works.
(Winograd, 1986a, b)
(Winograd, 1986; Flores et al., 1988)
(Bullen & Bennett, 1990)
Acknowledgements of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the References. The use of web-based astronomical data sets such as NED, ADS or astro-ph should be acknowledged here in the form requested on the appropriate home page of the data set used. The facilities used for the observations should also be given in the form listed on the AASTeX Web site at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AAS/AASTeX.
Please use the keywords defined by the editors of Astronomy & Astrophysics, The Astrophysical Journal and Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. The list of allowed keywords can be found on the web pages of these journals.
References should be given in the following formats:
1. Journal article
Bruggen, M., & Kaiser, C. R. 2001, MNRAS, 325, 676
Note that journal abbreviations and the generating LaTeX commands follow the conven-tion of other astronomy journals. A list of some of the most commonly used LaTeX commands can be downloaded from the sidebar of this webpage.
2. Conference Paper or Book Chapter
Boulanger, F., 2002, in Les Houches Workshop, “Solid Interstellar Matter: The ISO Revo-lution”, eds L. d’Hendecourt, C. Joblin, & A. Jones, Springer:Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p.19
3. Paper presented at a conference without published proceedings:
Terada, H. 2005, poster presented at the Conference “Protostars & Planets”
4. Book, authored
Dopita, M. A., & Sutherland, R. S., 2003, “Astrophysics of the Diffuse Universe”, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York
The page number may be added if appropriate:
Dopita, M. A., & Sutherland, R. S., 2003, “Astrophysics of the Diffuse Universe”, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p273
5. Paper presented at a conference without published proceedings:
Terada, H. 2005, poster presented at the Conference “Protostars & Planets”
6. Paper published only on astro-ph
Fritze-v. Alvensleben, U. 2005, preprint, astro-ph/0508099
7. Paper in press, but also published on astro-ph
Fritze-v. Alvensleben, U. 2005, A & A, in press (astro-ph/0508099)
Name and date of patent are optional
L.O. Norman: Lightning rods. US Patent 4,379,752, 9 Sept 1998
9. Dissertation or Ph.D. thesis (either text is acceptable)
Frebel, A. L. 2007, “Abundance Analysis of Bright Metal-Poor Stars from the Ham-burg/ESO Survey” PhD Thesis, Australian National University
10. Institutional author (book)
International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee, 1966 “Nomina anatomica. Excerpta Medica: Amsterdam
11. Non-English publication cited in an English publication
Wolf, G.H., Lehman, P.-F. 1976, Atlas der Anatomie, vol. 4/3, 4th edn. Fischer, Berlin [NB: Use the language of the primary document, not that of the reference for "vol" etc.!]
12. Non-Latin alphabet publication
The English translation is optional.
Marikhin, V.Y., Myasnikova, L.P. 1977, “Nadmolekulyarnaya struktura polimerov”
(The supramolecular structure of polymers). Khimiya, Leningrad.
13. Published and In press articles with or without DOI
Wilson, M. et al. 2006, in: Wilson M (ed.): Style manual. Springer:Berlin, Heidelberg, New York
Article by DOI (with page numbers)
Slifka, M.K., Whitton, J.L. 2001, J. Mol. Med. 78:74–80. DOI 10.1007/s001090000086
Article by DOI (before issue publication with page numbers)
Slifka, M.K., Whitton, J.L. 2006, J. Mol. Med. (in press). DOI 10.1007/s001090000086
Article in electronic journal by DOI (no paginated version)
Slifka, M.K., Whitton, J.L. 2006, Dig. J. Mol. Med. DOI 10.1007/s801090000086
14. Internet publication/On-line documents
Doe, J. 1999, in: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemis-try.Available via DIALOG. http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document. Cited 15 Jan 1999
Healthwise Knowledgebase. US Pharmacopeia, Rockville. Http://www.healthwise.org. Cited 21 Sept 1998
Supplementary material/private homepage
Doe, J. 2000, http://www.privatehomepage.com. Cited 22 Feb 2000
Doe, J. 1999 http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/mydata.html. Cited 25 Dec 1999
Doe, J. 1999 ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2169.txt. Cited 12 Nov 1999 (1999)
ISSN International Centre, 1999 Global ISSN database. http://www.issn.org. Cited 20 Feb 2000
Authors wanting to share FITS files of images with their peers may do so by adding them as Supplementary Information to their article. For further instructions please see "Supplementary Information (SI)" below.
Following acceptance of your article, you will receive an e-mail from the typesetter e.g.:
"Orinta Skackauskiene" (vtexspr-corrections-ASTR9537@vtex.lt)
with a hyperlink where to pick up your proofs.
Your response, with or without corrections, should be sent as a reply to this e-mail within 72 hours. Please do not make attempt to make any corrections to the PDF file, but give your corrections by e-mail in the form:
line 436: change “observations was taken” to “observation were taken”
Consent to publish
Consent to publish in this journal entails the author‘s irrevocable and exclusive authorisa-tion of the publisher to collect any sums or considerations for copying or reproduction pay-able by third parties (as mentioned in article 17, paragraph 2, of the Dutch Copyright Act of 1912 and in the Royal Decree of June 20, 1974 (S.351) pursuant to article 16 b of the Dutch Copyright Act of 1912) and/or to act in or out of court in connection herewith.
It is the responsibility of the author to obtain written permission for a quotation from unpublished material, or for all quotations in excess of 250 words in one extract or 500 words in total from any work still in copyright, and for the reprinting of figures, tables or poems from unpublished or copyrighted material.
Springer Open Choice
In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer's online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please visit http://www.springer.com/openchoice to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription-model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.
English Language Editing
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
- Getting a fast, free online grammar check.
- Asking a colleague who is proficient in English to review your manuscript for clarity.
- Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
- Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.
● 获取快速、免费的在线 语法检查。
● 使用专业语言编辑服务，编辑人员会对英语进行润色，以确保您的意思表达清晰，并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
・高速なオンライン 文法チェック を無料で受ける。
・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。
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• 리뷰에 대비하여, 원고의 의미를 명확하게 해주고 리뷰에서 요구하는 문제점들을 식별해서 영문 수준을 향상시켜주는 전문 영문 교정 서비스를 이용합니다. Nature Research Editing Service와 American Journal Experts에서 저희와 협약을 통해 서비스를 제공하고 있습니다. Springer 저자들이 본 교정 서비스를 첫 논문 투고를 위해 사용하시는 경우 10%의 할인이 적용되며, 아래의 링크를 통하여 확인이 가능합니다.
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Supplementary Information (SI)
Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article or a book chapter. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.
Before submitting research datasets as Supplementary Information, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.
- Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
- Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
- To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
- High resolution (streamable quality) videos can be submitted up to a maximum of 25GB; low resolution videos should not be larger than 5GB.
Audio, Video, and Animations
- Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
- Maximum file size: 25 GB for high resolution files; 5 GB for low resolution files
- Minimum video duration: 1 sec
- Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp
Text and Presentations
- Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
- A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
- Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).
- Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
Collecting Multiple Files
- It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
- If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
- Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
- Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.
- For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
Processing of supplementary files
- Supplementary Information (SI) will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
- The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
- Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)
Research Data Policy and Data Availability Statements
This journal operates a type 3 research data policy. A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.
All original research must include a data availability statement. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found, if applicable. Statements should include, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. For the purposes of the data availability statement, “data” is defined as the minimal dataset that would be necessary to interpret, replicate and build upon the findings reported in the article. When it is not possible to share research data publicly, for instance when individual privacy could be compromised, data availability should still be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for access. Data availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):
1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
3. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
4. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON(S) WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.].
5. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
6. The data that support the findings of this study are available from [THIRD PARTY NAME] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under licence for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [THIRD PARTY NAME].
More templates for data availability statements, including examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available here:
This journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely are available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.
The journal also requires that authors cite any publicly available data on which the conclusions of the paper rely. Data citations should include a persistent identifier (such as a DOI), should be included in the reference list using the minimum information recommended by DataCite, and follow journal style. Dataset identifiers including DOIs should be expressed as full URLs.
Research data and peer review
Peer reviewers are encouraged to check the manuscript’s Data availability statement, where applicable. They should consider if the authors have complied with the journal’s policy on the availability of research data, and whether reasonable effort has been made to make the data that support the findings of the study available for replication or reuse by other researchers. Peer reviewers are entitled to request access to underlying data (and code) when needed for them to perform their evaluation of a manuscript.
If the journal that you’re submitting to uses double-blind peer review and you are providing reviewers with access to your data (for example via a repository link, supplementary information or data on request), it is strongly suggested that the authorship in the data is also blinded. There are data repositories that can assist with this and/or will create a link to mask the authorship of your data.
Authors who need help understanding our data sharing policies, help finding a suitable data repository, or help organising and sharing research data can access our Author Support portal for additional guidance.
For more information:
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.
Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).
Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.
Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement.Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential conflict of interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘Declarations’ section.
Summary of requirements
The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Funding’ and/or ‘Conflicts of interests’/’Competing interests’. Other declarations include Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Material and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.
Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
When all authors have the same (or no) conflicts and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.
Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:
- Partial financial support was received from [...]
- The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
- This study was funded by […]
- This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]
Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:
- The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
- No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.
- No funding was received for conducting this study.
- No funds, grants, or other support was received.
Examples of statements to be used when there are interests to declare:
- Financial interests: Author A has received research support from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company Wand owns stock in Company X. Author C is consultant to company Y.
Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.
- Financial interests: The authors declare they have no financial interests.
Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.
- Financial interests: Author A received a speaking fee from Y for Z. Author B receives a salary from association X. X where s/he is the Executive Director.
Non-financial interests: none.
- Financial interests: Author A and B declare they have no financial interests. Author C has received speaker and consultant honoraria from Company M and Company N. Dr. C has received speaker honorarium and research funding from Company M and Company O. Author D has received travel support from Company O.
Non-financial interests: Author D has served on advisory boards for Company M, Company N and Company O.
Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:
- The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.
- The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
- All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
- The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.
Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.