Instructions for Authors
AIMS & SCOPE
EcoHealth aims to advance research, practice, and knowledge integration at the interface of ecology and health by publishing high quality research and review articles that address and profile new ideas, developments, and programs. The journal’s scope encompasses research that integrates concepts and theory from many fields of scholarship (including ecological, social and health sciences, and the humanities) and draws upon multiple types of knowledge, including those of relevance to practice and policy. Papers address integrated ecology and health challenges arising in public health, human and veterinary medicine, conservation and ecosystem management, rural and urban development and planning, and other fields that address the social-ecological context of health. The journal is a central platform for fulfilling the mission of the International Association for Ecology & Health to strive for sustainable health of people, domestic animals, wildlife, and ecosystems by promoting discovery, understanding, and transdisciplinarity.
The journal invites substantial contributions in the following areas:
One Health and Conservation Medicine
o Integrated research on health of humans, wildlife, livestock and ecosystems
o Research and policy in ecology, public health, and agricultural sustainability
o Emerging infectious diseases affecting people, wildlife, domestic animals, and plants
o Research and practice linking human and animal health and/or social-ecological systems
o Anthropogenic environmental change and drivers of disease emergence in humans, wildlife, livestock and ecosystems
o Health of humans and animals in relation to terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems
Ecosystem Approaches to Health
o Systems thinking and social-ecological systems in relation to health
o Transdisciplinary approaches to health, ecosystems and society
o Multi-stakeholder problem solving and Governance arrangements for social systems, ecosystems and human health
o Ecosystem Sustainability and Health
o Gender and social equity dimensions of health in social-ecological systems
o Knowledge to Action in ecohealth research
o Learning and collaboration across multiple types of knowledge and different fields of research (including ecological, social and health sciences, and the humanities)
Public Health, Ecosystems and Society
o Social-ecological determinants of health inequities, chronic disease and well-being
o Local and global environmental change and impacts on health, ecosystems and biodiversity
o Ecological dynamics of and ecosystem approaches to infectious and chronic disease
o Relationships between development (including international trade and travel), ecosystem sustainability, poverty and health
o Local, traditional and Indigenous knowledge of links between ecosystems and health
o Impacts of urbanization, migration, population growth and land-use change on health and ecosystems
o Ecosystem services for health, equity, and sustainability
WHAT WILL EcoHealth PUBLISH?
EcoHealth publishes high quality papers that reflect the broad Aims and Scope of the journal. Papers are reviewed rapidly; the time from submission to publication is exceptionally fast. Papers are printed in hard copy and on the web. Word limits are adhered to strictly, but consideration will be given to studies that have signification additional material.
There is no fee for publishing with EcoHealth, however there are fees with Springer to make manuscripts Open Access, or to print in color. Please see the EcoHealth Author Instructions for pricing.
•Original Contributions. Papers that make a substantial, original contribution to research in one or more of the EcoHealth thematic areas constitute the major body of each issue of EcoHealth. Papers presenting novel research on areas of policy or practice are also considered. 3000-4000 words (excluding abstract, references, figures) and abstract (200 words).
•Reviews. EcoHealth will consider occasional reviews. Reviews should not focus on the author’s own work, but set the scene for the field by providing an objective review of the literature and synthesizing recent developments in the field. 4000-word limit and abstract of 200 words.
•Short Communications. Papers which present research results of immediate relevance to EcoHealth. Short Communications do not require in-depth discussion of methods and highly technical analyses as would an Original Contribution. Short Communications do not include section headings (“Methods”, “Discussion”, etc.), and have a 1500-word limit with an abstract (100 words).
•Forum. Papers that present a well-argued point of view on any scientific or policy issue related to EcoHealth Aims and Scope. Forum manuscripts undergo peer review for content accuracy, objectivity, and rigor. 1500-word limit, no abstract and no keywords.
•Book Reviews. EcoHealth publishes reviews of books that touch on or otherwise involve the journal’s Aims and Scope. Prospective authors should first email a query addressed to the Book Review Editor. 1200-word limit; no abstract; no keywords; and limit of 5 or fewer references.
•Cover Art and Cover Essay. Each EcoHealth issue will feature cover art and an associated essay. The images on the cover may be drawn from the work of visual artists, but may also encompass still pictures from models and simulations used to explore possible futures, or photographs, which capture current investigations at a particularly resonant moment. The cover essay explores similar terrain along with providing textual accompaniment to that in the artwork. 1000-word limit; no abstract; no keywords; and limit of 5 or fewer references.
•Letters to the Editor. Readers and contributors to EcoHealth are encouraged to write brief letters on relevant topics or in response to material and manuscripts published in EcoHealth. 1000-word limit; no abstract; no keywords; and limit of 5 or fewer references.
Instructions for Authors and more information about EcoHealth may be found at: www.ecohealth.net
All inquires as well as questions about content, context, or manuscript type should be addressed to the editorial office: email@example.com
ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS
Authors must submit their manuscripts to EcoHealth online via our online manuscript management system called Manuscript Central.
Please log directly onto the site and upload your manuscripts following the instructions given on the screen.
Authors entering the journal's Manuscript Central site can either create a new account or use an existing one. When you have an existing account, use it for all your submissions and you can track their status on the same page.
Once you have logged into your account, Manuscript Central will guide you through the submission process in a step-by-step orderly process. If you cannot finish your submission in one visit, you may save a draft and continue at a later time.
While submitting your electronic manuscript, you will be required to enter data about your manuscript. These include title, subtitle, author names and affiliations, cover letter, abstract, 100-word summary,
supplemental files, figures, and so forth. Support for special characters is available. At any point during this process, there are Help buttons available to see common question and a support link to ask a specific question via email.
Note: All files uploaded for review in Manuscript Central should not exceed 50 MB in size. Text files must be uploaded as editable MS Word files. PDFs will not be accepted. All figures must be in either TIFF, JPG, or EPS format and not embedded in a word document. Figures uploaded as PPT files will also not be accepted. All uploaded files are converted by Manuscript Central into a blinded PDF, so that Editors and Reviewers may view and share them. You will be able to view the result of the conversion in your browser during the submission process. At any point during this process, there are Help buttons available to view common questions/answers and a support link to ask specific questions via email. You will also be notified by email that your submission was successful.
After submission, you may return periodically and monitor the progress of your submission through the review process.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
Inquiries to EcoHealth Editorial Office may be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Information about the EcoHealth journal and network are available at http://www.ecohealth.net. Authors who are not sure whether their manuscript is appropriate for EcoHealth are requested to review our website with especial attention to our thematic areas as well as manuscript types. Submission of a manuscript to EcoHealth implies that the manuscript is original, unpublished, and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.
When submitting manuscripts via Manuscript Central, authors will be prompted to separately upload a title page, a cover letter, image files, and all other manuscript files. Manuscripts not submitted according to EcoHealth style will be unsubmitted or withdrawn and returned to the author. All peer-reviewed submissions must include both an abstract of 200-words and a 100-word or fewer summary (STEP 5: Details & Comments), which latter should briefly introduce the themes of the submitted manuscript, the most salient points or conclusions, and how these relate to the larger picture. This may not be the abstract and should be written with our general, diverse readership in mind.
To ensure blind review, please submit a title page as a separate file on STEP 5 (Details & Comments Page) of the Manuscript Central author submission process. Only the title page should include all identifying information:
Title and subtitle of your manuscript;
Full names and affiliations for all authors (including any author disclaimers);
Word-count – only the text of your manuscript and does not include abstract, key-words, title, tables, references, appendices, legends, and other material.
Full mailing and e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the author to whom correspondence and proofs should be sent;
You may download a title page template here:
A Cover Letter should be entered or pasted into the "Cover Letter" box or attached as a separate file on STEP 5 (Details & Comments Page) of the Manuscript Central author submission process. This should be
addressed to the Editor-in-Chief and may explain why you think your manuscript is a particularly good fit for EcoHealth.
Any figures, illustrations and maps should be uploaded as separate TIFF, EPS, or JPG files and should NOT be included within the manuscript text. Figure locations may be indicated within your text by bracketed inserts: “[insert Figure 1 here]”, “[Insert Figure 3a, Figure 3b, and Figure 3c here]”. Figure numbers, legends, and titles should not be included within the figures and are only to be detailed in your submitted manuscript files (see below). All figure files should be labeled (file name) corresponding exactly to text references (i.e. Figure 1, Figure 2, et al.).
MANUSCRIPT FILE FOR REVIEW
Your manuscript for review must be anonymous and any identifying information should be submitted separately in the Title Page or supplemental materials not intended for review. Your manuscripts should be double-spaced with text aligned flush left and 1-inch wide margins. Submitted manuscripts must not have line-numbers – this will be added automatically by Manuscript Central after your manuscript is submitted and converted into a PDF.
Your submitted manuscript should conform to the following sequence in a single word document:
Title and Abstract (Page 1)
Title and Text. General format for Original Contributions only: Introduction and purpose, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion
References (begin on a separate page)
Tables (each on a separate page)
List of Figures, Illustrations, and Maps (double spaced on a separate page)
Since the journal welcomes research and practice that crosses disciplinary and sectoral boundaries, alternative structures may be considered, but approval must be requested from the editorial office prior to submission and – if given – referenced in the Cover Letter.
The “Author Date” system should be used for reference citations in the text. List multiple references by year and, within years, by alphabetical order. For example: (Bardach, 1982; Memon, 1982; Leonard, 1989, 1990; Smit, 1989a,b; McMichael et al., 1999). For citations of works by more than two authors, use the first author followed by “et al.” All references cited in the text and in any figures or tables must be included in the References list.
Your list of references should begin on a separate page and must include a full list of literature cited. List references alphabetically by the last name of the first author. If the first author has more than one publication listed, list references in alphabetical order of subsequent authors last names. If the first author shares the last name with another first author (Smith JM vs. Smith RB), alphabetize by initials. If you list more than one publication by the same author/group of authors, arrange publications by date, early to late. If you list more than one publication published in the same year by the same author/group of authors, use a, b, c, d, and so on to distinguish the publications.
Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of their references. All references must include:
Author/editor last name plus initials or authoring agency for all authors. Do not use et al.
Year of publication,
Full title of article or chapter (lower case),
Title of journal (do not abbreviate journal titles) or book/proceedings italicized and in title case
City/state/country of publication: Name of publisher,
Volume and inclusive page numbers,
URL where available, with date accessed
DOI reference (Digital Object Identifier), where relevant.
If you are uncertain what to include, please include all information.
TYPES OF REFERENCES
1. Journal article
McMichael AJ, Bolin B, Costanza R, Daily GC, Folke C, Lindahl-Kiessling K, et al. (1999) Globalization and the sustainability of human health: an ecological perspective. Bioscience 49:205–210
2. Journal article with DOI reference
Skelly C, Weinstein P (2003) Pathogen survival trajectories: an eco- environmental approach to the modelling of human Campylobacteriosis ecology. Environmental Health Perspectives 111:19–28; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.5312 [Online November 7, 2002]
3. Chapters in edited books
Schaeffer DJ, Cox DK (1992) Establishing ecosystem threshold criteria. In: Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environ-mental Management, Costanza R, Norton G, Haskell B (editors), Washington, DC: Island Press, pp 157–169
Aguirre AA, Ostfeld RS, Tabor GM, House C, Pearl MC (2002) Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice, New York: Oxford University Press
5. Conference proceedings
Smit B (1989) Likely impact of climate change on Canadian agriculture. In: Coping with climate change. Topping JC Jr. (editor), Proceedings of the Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change: A Cooperative Approach. Washington, DC: Climate Institute, pp 197-202
6. Web-based resource
Brown VA, Nicholson R, Stephenson P, Bennet K, Smith J (2001) Grass Roots and Common Ground: Guidelines for Community-based Environmental Health Action: A Discussion Paper. University of Western Sydney, Regional Integrated Monitoring Centre Occasional Paper No. 2. Available:http://sites.uws.edu.au/research/rimc/ grassroots_index.html [accessed May 10, 2003]
Abbreviations must be spelled out the first time they are used in your text (manuscript body). Abbreviations in the abstract are discouraged and should be kept to a minimum in the body of the text. Standard international units (SI units) should be used.
Place your tables after the References list within your manuscript and not as separate word documents or files. Number with Arabic numerals and refer to tables consecutively in the text. Place each table on a separate page. Provide a brief title above each table. Keep column headings and descriptive matter brief and do not use vertical rules between columns. Tables should not merely duplicate information in the text.
FIGURES (illustrations, including line drawings, photographs, and maps)
Figures may be from original artwork, photographs, graphs, or charts. File-label with Arabic numerals and refer to figures consecutively in the text. Include a legend (i.e., caption) for all figures, typed double-
spaced on a separate page at the end of your manuscript. Note: Figures must be submitted electronically as separate, high-resolution TIFF, JPG, or EPS files and not embedded into the text of your manuscript, a word document, a PPT, or a PDF. You must either be the author of all figures or be able to provide documentation of reproduction permission should your manuscript be accepted for publication.
COST OF COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS
Color figures are encouraged and may be used without charge for the electronic edition of the journal, but will appear in the printed version of the journal only at the author’s expense. The cost for color reproduction in the printed journal is $1,150.00 per manuscript regardless of the number of figures and charged to the author during the production process. For all accepted manuscripts and unless you specify (in the Production Process – post Review) that you wish to pay for color illustration, all color figures will be converted to grey scale for the print-version of EcoHealth.
GUIDELINES FOR ELECTRONICALLY PRODUCED ILLUSTRATIONS
All figures must be uploaded as high-resolution TIFF, JPG or EPS files. Figures must not be submitted as embedded images in a PPT, word, PDF, or other file. All figure numbers, legends, and titles are to be removed from figures; these details are to be entered correctly on your Figures file at the end of your manuscript. Figure file-names must correspond exactly to those used within your manuscript.
Scanned reproductions of black and white photographs should be provided at a minimum of 300 (higher is recommended) ppi EPS or TIFF files. Scanned color illustrations should be provided as EPS or TIFF files scanned at a minimum of 300 ppi with a 24-bit color depth. Line art should be provided as EPS or TIFF files at 600 ppi.
ONLINE FIRST PRODUCTION WORKFLOW
All manuscripts published in EcoHealth will follow the Springer Online First production workflow, enabling publication on the SpringerLink website soon after receipt of author corrections to author proofs – usually within five business days, unless there are significant author proof corrections required. Once a manuscript has been accepted, and received by the publisher in a complete form (with all figures, tables, references, finalized text, and valid e-mail address—see Manuscript specifications), the manuscript will be typeset and author proofs will be available electronically for author proofreading. After your manuscript has been accepted for publication and all pre-production requirements fulfilled, it will be sent to the Springer production department. You should expect receipt of e-mails within approximately 2-4 weeks from Springer production, which will include links to filling out on-line forms including copyright transfer statement, reprint order, color reproduction payment, and culminating in a link to your on-line, author proof of your manuscript. Although off-line corrections are an option, we strongly urge you to fill out the on-line correction form, since this is not only the easiest method for you, but also the most expedient and unequivocal method of receiving corrected author proofs. Delays and back-and-forth of proofs in the production stage will cause your manuscript to be rescheduled to appear in a later issue of EcoHealth.
This will be the only proof you see for your manuscript; the responsibility for proofreading is yours. Once you have returned the proofs, no other corrections will be allowed except in the form of an erratum to be published in a later issue of the journal. After the production editor implements the corrections, your manuscript will be published Online First on SpringerLink. When your manuscript is published it will have a different link (URL) from the one you received for your author proofs. Your manuscript will be citable by the digital object identifier (DOI), a unique and persistent identification code assigned to the manuscript upon acceptance and attached to it throughout the production and publication process. For more information about DOI, visit www.doi.org. Publication of each manuscript will be announced to SpringerLink Alert subscribers, who will then be allowed access to their manuscript abstract; access to your full manuscript is available to individual and institutional subscribers and to EcoHealth Journal Association members. Please remember that the speed with which your manuscript can be published Online First depends whether you (a) have complied with our manuscript submission guidelines, (b) submit a version of your manuscript that has been thoroughly proofed by you and your co-authors -
thereby preventing most major final author proof corrections, (c) respond rapidly to the production process emails, and (d) promptly correct as necessary and return your author proofs.
Once the production process is complete, your manuscript will be published electronically on Springer Online First. Depending upon the production process, your manuscript will be assigned to a print issue of EcoHealth as determined by the Editor-in-Chief. The date of electronic publication will appear in both the electronic and print versions.
A clear and concise language will help editors and reviewers concentrate on the scientific content of your paper and permit a rapid, smooth review process. Manuscripts that are accepted for publication will be checked by our copyeditors for consistency of spelling and EcoHealth style. This will not be sufficient if substantial editing will be required.
EcoHealth currently does not support copyediting for any manuscripts submitted for review with poor English. Manuscripts determined to have English language issues will not be sent for review and will be withdrawn or rejected. The authors will be requested to improve their English and resubmit.
Authors are encouraged to find colleagues or coauthors with fluency in English from their respective fields, a native speaker, or a professional language editor to help in drafting and proofing their manuscripts prior to submission. Edanz Editing Global (edanzediting.com) provides different levels of language editing at reasonable prices for scientific articles. Please contact this or any other editing service directly to make arrangements for editing and payment. Use of an editing service is neither a requirement nor a guarantee of acceptance for publication in EcoHealth.
ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF AUTHORS
EcoHealth is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results that could damage the trust in the journal and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which includes:
The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling or “self-plagiarism”.
A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the authors own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
Consent to submit has been received from all co-authors and responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out before the work is submitted.
Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are NOT accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
Requests to add or delete authors at revision stage or after publication is a serious matter, and may be considered only after receipt of written approval from all authors and detailed explanation about the role/deletion of the new/deleted author. The decision on accepting the change rests with the Editor-in-Chief of the journal.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been proven, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note.
- The author’s institution may be informed.
DISCLOSURE OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Although an author may not feel there are conflicts, disclosure of relationships and interests affords a more transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of real or perceived conflicts of interests is a perspective to which the readers are entitled and is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
Honoraria for speaking at symposia
Financial support for attending symposia
Financial support for educational programs
Employment or consultation
Support from a project sponsor
Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. The form may be found here and MUST be submitted with your manuscript prior to review.
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
STATEMENT OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS
When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included:
“All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, Springer recommends including the following sentence:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”
For retrospective studies, please add the following sentence:
“For this type of study formal consent is not required.”
All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies e.g. have the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered and to what they have said e.g. during a study or an interview as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) has given written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”
Last, First1, Last, First2, Last, First3, Last, First2, and Last, First2
Running Head: (no more than 50 characters)
Key Words: (at least 6 general words or short phrases that will make your manuscript easy to find on an indexing & abstracting service)
Word Count: (not including abstract, references, and figure/table legends)
Full Address & Country
[NB other than your manuscript title, none of the other information on this title page, above, should be included in your submitted manuscript (body) to ensure that when sent for review your manuscript is blinded]
Acknowledgments and Funding Information
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. In addition, please provide the funding information in a separate step of the submission process in the peer review system. Funder names should preferably be selected from the standardized list you will see during submission. If the funding institution you need is not listed, it can be entered as free text. Funding information will be published as searchable metadata for the accepted article, whereas acknowledgements are published within the paper.
Research Data Policy and Data Availability Statements
This journal operates a type 2 research data policy (life sciences). A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.
The journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Persistent identifiers (such as DOIs and accession numbers) for relevant datasets must be provided in the paper
For the following types of data set, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory:
|Mandatory deposition||Suitable repositories|
|DNA and RNA sequences||Genbank|
DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ)
EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (ENA)
|DNA and RNA sequencing data||NCBI Trace Archive|
NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA)
European Variation Archive (EVA)
|Linked genotype and phenotype data||dbGAP|
The European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA)
|Macromolecular structure||Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB)|
Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB)
Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB)
|Microarray data (must be MIAME compliant)||Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)|
|Crystallographic data for small molecules||Cambridge Structural Database|
For more information:
The journal encourages authors to provide a statement of Data availability in their article. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found, including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. Data availability statements can also indicate whether data are available on request from the authors and where no data are available, if appropriate.
Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):
- 1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
- 2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
- 3. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
- 4. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
- 5. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:
Authors who need help understanding our data sharing policies, help finding a suitable data repository, or help organising and sharing research data can access our Author Support portal for additional guidance.