Primates is an international journal of primatology whose aim is to provide a forum for the elucidation of all aspects of primates. The oldest primatological journal, Primates publishes original papers that advance the scientific study of primates, and its scope embraces work in diverse fields covering biological bases of behavior, socio-ecology, learning and cognition, social processes, systematics, evolution, and medicine. Contributions relevant to conservation of natural populations and welfare of captive primates are welcome. Studies focusing on nonprimate species may be considered if their relevance to primatology is clear. Original Articles as well as Review Articles, News and Perspectives, and Book Reviews are included. All manuscripts received are initially screened for suitability by members of the Editorial Board, taking into account style and ethical issues, leading to a swift decision about whether to send the manuscript for external review.

The Editor-in-Chief is Masayuki Nakamichi, Osaka University.

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The new cover of Primates features snow monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in the snow. These are Japanese monkeys in Jigokudani, Shiga Heights, in Nagano prefecture. This photograph was taken by Toshio Hagiwara, for which he received the Grand Prize in Nature’s Best Photography Windland Smith Rice International Award in 2006. The award is presented by The Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. The photo is of a young adult female, 6–7 years old, with her infant, and was taken on January 12, 2005. Mr. Hagiwara is currently the General Director of the Jigokudani Yaen-Koen, Wild Snow Monkey Park. Japanese monkeys, often called snow monkeys, of Jigokudani developed hot-spring bathing behavior soon after provisioning began in 1962. This behavior continues to attract attention from people outside of Japan and the foreign media, but without a proper understanding of the origin of the behavior. This is mainly due to the lack of academic literature written on the topic in English. However, the journal Primates has been publishing scientific papers on this unique behavior since 1965: see the most current one by Takeshita et al. (2018). In addition to hot-spring bathing, long-term studies of Japanese monkeys in various places have revealed the culturally trans-mitted behaviors or social customs that are unique to each of the wild groups. Koshima monkeys are known for sweet-potato washing. Awajishima monkeys form extra-large clusters, Arashiyama monkeys engage in stone-handling, Yakushima monkeys (Macaca fuscatayakui) embrace in a unique way, and so forth. Field studies of Japanese monkeys started in 1948.
The long-term research over 7 decades has brought new finding and provides fir foundations for conservation efforts. Many people do not realize that in many countries many wild monkeys are killed because they are considered pests. In Japan, this happens to about 15,000 individuals per year on average. The Primate Research Institute (PRI) of Kyoto University has started setting up monkey colonies for breeding in the financial support from National BioResource Project (NBRP)of the Japanese government in 2002. The use of wild individuals directly for invasive experimental purposes is prohibited. The NBRP contributes toward conservation of the regional groups as well. The pair of monkeys in the photo actually belong to a group that was transferred from Jigokudani to the PRI. They became members of a troop for producing the next generation of captive-born monkeys for various kinds of experimental use. There are hundreds species of living primates de-pending on which classification is used: 447 by Japan Monkey Centre in 2018 and 512 species of 79 genera by IUCN in 2019 Humans and nonhuman primates have to coexist not only in Japan but also in other host countries across the world. We are still on the way to find the best solutions for peaceful coexistence. To that aim, we will continue scientific studies of nonhuman primates in parallel with efforts to improve captive animal welfare and conservation in the wild (written by Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Immediate-Past Editor-in-Chief).

  • Provides a forum for the investigation and elucidation of all aspects of primates
  • Embraces work in all fields of biological investigation such as behavior, socio-ecology, learning and cognition, social processes, systematics, evolution, and medicine
  • Is the world’s oldest primatology journal, founded by Kinji Imanishi
  • Is the official journal of the Japan Monkey Centre published in cooperation with the Primate Society of Japan

Journal information

Editor-in-Chief
  • Masayuki Nakamichi
Publishing model
Hybrid (Transformative Journal). Learn about publishing Open Access with us

Journal metrics

1.590 (2019)
Impact factor
1.455 (2019)
Five year impact factor
57 days
Submission to first decision
159 days
Submission to acceptance
133,624 (2019)
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Electronic ISSN
1610-7365
Print ISSN
0032-8332
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