- Instructions to Authors
- Scope of the Journal
- Types of Papers
- Page Charges and Page Limits
- Scientific Ethics
- Editorial Office
- Manuscript Submission
- Manuscript Preparation
- Title Page
- Scientific Style
- Typographical Rules
- Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines
- Supplementary Information (SI)
- Cover photographs
- Data Policy
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- Compliance with Ethical Standards
- Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
- After Acceptance
- Open Choice
- Open access publishing
Instructions to Authors
(Revised: 5 April 2021)
Scope of the Journal
The Journal of Plant Research is an international journal dedicated to the dissemination of fundamental knowledge in all areas (see below disciplines) of basic plant sciences. In addition, the journal welcomes papers in interdisciplinary areas and in newly developing areas of basic plant biology. The journal especially encourages publication of work based on unique approaches and those reporting unprecedented findings. Papers that are purely descriptive with no clear hypothesis are not suitable for this journal. Manuscripts in the area of applied plant sciences, such as agricultural or medicinal research, are accepted only if the manuscripts contribute to basic plant sciences.
taxonomy, phylogeny, evolutionary biology, morphology, anatomy, structural biology, ecology, ecophysiology, environmental biology, genetics, developmental biology, physiology, cell biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, bioinformatics, theoretical biology, and systems biology.
Types of Papers
The journal publishes contributions in the following categories: Regular Papers, Technical Notes, Current Topics in Plant Research, JPR Symposium, and Letters.
Regular Papers describe significant original and fundamental findings that enhance our understanding of plants. Technical Notes report new methodologies that contributes to exploring new aspects of plant sciences and should not exceed 10 printed pages. Reviews, which may be submitted at any time, are published under the article category Current Topics in Plant Research. JPR Symposium is a special feature, providing an opportunity to publish Regular Papers and Reviews on specific topics. Letters present opinions, commentaries and challenges to papers published in the journal. They should include no table or figure and no more than 10 references, and be no more than 800 words (including the body of the article and acknowledgements).
Regular Papers are published in the following sections:
1. Taxonomy/Phylogenetics/Evolutionary Biology
2. Ecology/Ecophysiology/Environmental Biology
3. Morphology/Anatomy/Structural Biology
4. Genetics/Developmental Biology
5. Physiology/Biochemistry/Molecular and Cellular Biology
6. Biophysics/Theoretical and Systems Biology
Page Charges and Page Limits
There are no page charges for publishing in this journal. There is no page limitation except for Technical Notes and Letters. However, the author may be requested to shorten the manuscript if it is unnecessarily long.
Any manuscript to be considered for publication as a Regular Paper or Technical Note in the Journal of Plant Research should not contain data that already have been published elsewhere. However, manuscripts for review articles such as JPR Symposium and Current Topics in Plant Research may include figures or text passages that already have been published elsewhere, provided that the original sources are cited appropriately and that authors have obtained permission from the copyright owner(s) to use the material.
Authors wishing to include published data are required when submitting their manuscripts to include evidence that such permission has been granted. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors’ original research.
Papers that already have been published in conference proceedings in full (except in the form of an abstract) may not be considered for publication. If in doubt, please submit the published material together with your manuscript.
Authors retain the right to make a pre-print, the author’s version of the manuscript before peer-review has taken place, available on a legally compliant, non-commercial pre-print server prior to acceptance for publication. Once the paper has been published, the authors should update the acknowledgement and provide a link to the definitive version on the publisher’s website: “This is a pre-print of a paper published in the Journal of Plant Research. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/[insert DOI]”.
Allegations of scientific misconduct or ethical violation with respect to manuscripts submitted to or articles published in this journal will be subject to investigation and a course of action by the Ethics Investigation Committee of the Journal of Plant Research according to the JPR Ethics Investigation Committee Bylaws.
Additional information is provided at the end of the Instructions to Authors. Please refer to the sections Ethical Responsibilities of Authors, Authorship Principles, Compliance with Ethical Standards, and Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest.
Editorial Office, Journal of Plant Research
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files might cause unnecessary delays in the review and production process.
On the submission page, you will be asked to enter potential reviewers. Please suggest at least five potential reviewers including two who are not Japanese and one from the editorial board (the list of editorial board is available at https://www.springer.com/journal/10265/editors).
Manuscripts should be written in clear English. The use of a language editing service is strongly recommended in this journal for authors who are non-native English speakers, but please note that it does not imply or guarantee that the manuscript will be selected for peer review or accepted.
The following web pages may be useful for improving the English in your manuscript:
Manuscript submission should be followed by submission of a cover letter that contains a brief explanation of the essence of the work to be reported in the manuscript as well as statements that the work described has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, and by the responsible authorities. If a pre-print of the submitted manuscript has been posted on a pre-print server, the cover letter must also provide the name of the preprint server and the associated accession number or DOI.
Please note that reviewers will not see the cover letter. In the case of a submission of a revision, detailed explanations for individual revisions, including responses to the reviewers, should be written in the "author's response" in the electronic submission system. The manuscript should be arranged in the order listed below, with all pages numbered consecutively.
The cover page (the first page of the manuscript) should include:
- The full name, mailing address, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
- The subject area that is most relevant to the work (selected from the following):
(1) Taxonomy/Phylogenetics/Evolutionary Biology
(2) Ecology/Ecophysiology/Environmental Biology
(3) Morphology/Anatomy/Structural Biology
(4) Genetics/Developmental Biology
(5) Physiology/Biochemistry/Molecular and Cellular Biology
(6) Biophysics/Theoretical and Systems Biology
- Number of tables, black-and-white figures, and color figures.
The title page (the second page of the manuscript) should include:
- The name(s) of the author(s)
- A concise and informative title
The title should include binomial names for organisms without abbreviation of genus names. The author(s) who described the species should not be included in the title (e.g., Ginkgo biloba and Arabidopsis thaliana). (See "Scientific names" below, under SCIENTIFIC STYLE.)
- The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
- A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author
- If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)
Please provide an abstract, not exceeding 300 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.Keywords should be arranged in alphabetical order.
The text should be prepared with the headings Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, and Discussion, followed by Acknowledgments, References, Tables, and Figure legends.
Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.
- Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
- Use italics for emphasis.
- Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
- Do not use field functions.
- Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
- Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
- Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
- Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format (older Word versions).
Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX.
Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.
In the Abstract and in the main text, abbreviations should be spelled out at their first occurrence, with the abbreviations appearing in parentheses; subsequent occurrences should show only the abbreviations; do not use an abbreviation in the Abstract if it appears only once. In tables, abbreviations and their expansions should be given in footnotes. In figures, abbreviations and their expansions should be given in figure legends (abbreviations in italics and the expansions in roman). Please see the list of abbreviations that can be used without definition.
Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.
Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.
Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
Gene names should be in italics, whereas protein names should be in roman type.
Genus and species names should be in italics.
For scientific names of plants, authors are advised to refer to The International Plant Names Index, which is the standard database for plant names presented collaboratively by The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, The Harvard University Herbaria, and the Australian National Herbarium, at the website http://www.ipni.org/index.html.
In the text, the binomial name for a species should include the author(s) who described the species. The binomial name should not be abbreviated at first use. The genus name may be abbreviated to its first letter (uppercase, with a period) when subsequently used.
If two genera with the same initial letter are used in a section, the genus name should normally be written out on each occasion. If, however, the organisms are common and there is no danger of confusion, the genus names may be abbreviated as usual (e.g., Avena sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana on first use and A. sativa and A. thaliana on subsequent occurrences).
In some model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, the genus name in roman (Arabidopsis) may be used as a common noun for the plant species. Note that a common noun should not be italicized.
Ranks of taxa, as well as words related to scientific names, can be abbreviated following Recommendation 5A and the Glossary in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code).
All the text, tables, and figures should be prepared in compliance with the SI standard.
Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
- Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
- This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
- This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 2011; Kelso and Smith 2000; Medvec et al. 1996).
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work.
- Journal Article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731–738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
- Article by DOI
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
- Book Chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230–257
- Online Document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
- Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php
- Taxonomic treatment
In taxonomic treatment, author citation in synonym blocks should be as follows:
Millettia chrysamaryssa Adema (1999) 289; Adema (2000) 405.
The sources cited should be included in the Reference section as:
Adema F (1999) Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 4. Millettia chrysamaryssa, a new species from Peninsular Malaysia. Novon 9: 289–291
Adema F (2000) Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 7. The genus Millettia. Blumea 45: 403–422
For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of in-text citations and reference list.
- All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
- Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
- Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines
For the best quality final product, it is highly recommended that you submit all of your artwork – photographs, line drawings, etc. – in an electronic format. Your art will then be produced to the highest standards with the greatest accuracy to detail. The published work will directly reflect the quality of the artwork provided.
Supplementary Information (SI)
Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article or a book chapter. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.
Before submitting research datasets as Supplementary Information, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.
- Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
- Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
- To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
Audio, Video, and Animations
- Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
- Maximum file size: 25 GB
- Minimum video duration: 1 sec
- Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp
Text and Presentations
- Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
- A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
- Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).
- Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
Collecting Multiple Files
- It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
- If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
- Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
- Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.
- For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
Processing of supplementary files
- Supplementary Information (SI) will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
- The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
- Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)
Authors are welcome to contribute a photograph for the cover page. Send digital image files for the plant species described in your paper to the Editor-in-Chief when your submission is accepted for publication. Cover photographs for the journal should be artistic ones taken in native habitats.
Authors whose photographs are selected for use on the cover page will be asked to send high-resolution image files (height 30 cm × width 21 cm, more than 350 dpi) to the publisher.
The Journal of Plant Research strongly encourages authors to ensure that data and materials integral to the paper are available to readers in a form that allows for verification and replication of the results in the paper. In particular, the DNA and RNA sequences, next-generation sequencing data, genetic polymorphisms, macromolecular structure, and microarray data are required to be deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. We recommend following repositories.
|Mandatory deposition||Suitable repositories|
|DNA and RNA sequences|| International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration|
(DDBJ, ENA, GenBank)
|Next-generation sequencing data|| DRA|
|Genetic polymorphisms|| European Variation Archive (EVA)|
|Macromolecular structure||Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB)|
|Microarray data (must be MIAME compliant)||Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)|
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.
Conflicts of Interest / Competing Interests
Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.
Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:
Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.
Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).
Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.
It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."
Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.
Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement.Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.
Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential conflict of interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘Declarations’ section.
Summary of requirements
The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Funding’ and/or ‘Conflicts of interests’/’Competing interests’. Other declarations include Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Material and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.
Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
When all authors have the same (or no) conflicts and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.
Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:
- Partial financial support was received from [...]
- The research leading to these results received funding from […] under Grant Agreement No[…].
- This study was funded by […]
- This work was supported by […] (Grant numbers […] and […]
Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:
- The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.
- No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript.
- No funding was received for conducting this study.
- No funds, grants, or other support was received.
Examples of statements to be used when there are interests to declare:
- Financial interests: Author A has received research support from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company Wand owns stock in Company X. Author C is consultant to company Y.
Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.
- Financial interests: The authors declare they have no financial interests.
Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.
- Financial interests: Author A received a speaking fee from Y for Z. Author B receives a salary from association X. X where s/he is the Executive Director.
Non-financial interests: none.
- Financial interests: Author A and B declare they have no financial interests. Author C has received speaker and consultant honoraria from Company M and Company N. Dr. C has received speaker honorarium and research funding from Company M and Company O. Author D has received travel support from Company O.
Non-financial interests: Author D has served on advisory boards for Company M, Company N and Company O.
Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:
- The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.
- The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
- All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
- The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article.
Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.
Upon acceptance, your article will be exported to Production to undergo typesetting. Once typesetting is complete, you will receive a link asking you to confirm your affiliation, choose the publishing model for your article as well as arrange rights and payment of any associated publication cost.
Once you have completed this, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
Article publishing agreement
Depending on the ownership of the journal and its policies, you will either grant the Publisher an exclusive licence to publish the article or will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher.
Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
Publication of color illustrations is free of charge.
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.
After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
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