- Instructions for Authors
- Types of Papers
- Manuscript Submission
- Additional submission information
- Title page
- Conflict of Interest
- Methods and Materials
- Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines
- Additional Figure Guidelines
- Color is free
- Supplementary Information (SI)
- Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
- Authorship principles
- After Acceptance
- Open Choice
- Copyright Transfer
- Ethical considerations
- Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC)
- Policy and Guidelines on the Sharing of Research Materials and Genetic Database Information
- English Language Editing
- Open access publishing
Instructions for Authors
Types of Papers
Original Research Article
Research Articles should present original scientific observations. The text should be organized into the following sections: Introduction (~750 words), Methods (no word limit), Results (no word limit), and Discussion (~1500 words). An unstructured single-paragraph Abstract of not more than 250 words is required, and keywords are mandatory. When the manuscript reports a connected series of experiments with differing methods, the headings can be optionally organized as "Experiment 1", "Experiment 2", etc., each with their Methods and Results sections. There should only be a single Introduction and Discussion. There is no limit to the number of tables, figures, and references, although authors are encouraged to combine logically related individual panels into composite figures. Supplemental data is not allowed except for movies and large tables (such as gene expression studies). Retrospective reviews and case reports will not be considered. We encourage authors whose work depends on, or implements computational models or unique/novel data analysis algorithms, make the software code publicly available with a permanent DOI.
Review articles are invited papers by recognized authorities on particular topics within the Aims and Scope of the journal. An unstructured single-paragraph Abstract of not more than 250 words is required, and keywords are mandatory. Review articles should not exceed 10,000 words.
Technical Advance articles describe new techniques or technologies as applied to studies related to the Aims and Scope of the journal. They should include evidence of how the advance is significant and leads to new scientific insights. An unstructured single-paragraph Abstract of not more than 250 words is required, and keywords are mandatory. The text of the article should not exceed 4,000 words. There is no limit to the number of tables, figures, and references. A pre-submission inquiry to the Editor-in-Chief is recommended before submitting Technical Advances manuscript to confirm that the work is likely to be considered. We encourage authors whose work depends on or implements computational models or unique/novel data analysis algorithms, make the software code publicly available with a permanent DOI.
Symposia are invited papers based on symposium presentations at recent meetings or workshops and are solely considered through an invitation from the Editor in Chief. Symposia manuscripts are expected to review the current status of a particular field and to have multiple authors. An unstructured single-paragraph Abstract of not more than 250 words is required, and keywords are mandatory. Manuscripts should be 2500-4000 words in length, may have figures and references.
Editorials are invited papers at the discretion of the Editor in Chief. They should not exceed 1,500 words and ten references. No abstract or keywords are required.
Commentaries are invited short papers referring to articles published in the journal or other journals. They should not exceed 2,000 words. An unstructured single-paragraph Abstract of not more than 50 words is required, and keywords are mandatory. The text should not be divided into separate sections. The title of the Commentary should be related to the article under discussion. Please do not include the following text in the title of the Commentary: "Commentary to....". The article to which the Commentary refers must be formally quoted in the text and appropriately cited in the list of the references. If the Commentary addresses an original article published in the journal, the Authors of the original articles will have the opportunity of replying to the Commentary concerning their article. The Journal will endeavor to publish the reply alongside the comment. The title of the replying letter should be: "TITLE OF THE ORIGINAL ARTICLE: reply".
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files might cause unnecessary delays in the review and production process.
Additional submission information
Additional Information for JARO manuscripts…
Title page: Please include word/ number counts for:
Number of tables
Number of figures
Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-12-point Times Roman, 11-12 point Arial) for text.
Word Limits (regular articles):
JARO has the following guidelines for word limits. Note that word limits may be waived at editor’s discretion if the topic requires.
Introduction: 750 (including citations)
Methods, Results: No limit.
Discussion: 1750 (including citations)
Footnotes should be used sparingly, if at all.
Please make sure your title page contains the following information.
The title should be concise and informative.
- The name(s) of the author(s)
- The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
- A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author
- If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)
If address information is provided with the affiliation(s) it will also be published.
For authors that are (temporarily) unaffiliated we will only capture their city and country of residence, not their e-mail address unless specifically requested.
Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
For life science journals only (when applicable)
Trial registration number and date of registration
Trial registration number, date of registration followed by “retrospectively registered”
Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.
All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading 'Declarations'.
If any of the sections are not relevant to your manuscript, please include the heading and write 'Not applicable' for that section.
To be used for all articles, including articles with biological applications
Funding (information that explains whether and by whom the research was supported)
Conflicts of interest/Competing interests (include appropriate disclosures)
Availability of data and material (data transparency)
Code availability (software application or custom code)
Authors' contributions (optional: please review the submission guidelines from the journal whether statements are mandatory)
Additional declarations for articles in life science journals that report the results of studies involving humans and/or animals
Ethics approval (include appropriate approvals or waivers)
Consent to participate (include appropriate statements)
Consent for publication (include appropriate statements)
Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.
In addition to that of the corresponding author, JARO requires email addresses for all authors included on the manuscript.
Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.
- Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
- Use italics for emphasis.
- Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
- Do not use field functions.
- Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
- Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
- Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
- Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format (older Word versions).
Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX. We recommend using Springer Nature’s LaTeX template.
Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.
Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.
Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.
Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
Conflict of Interest
Authors must indicate whether or not they have a financial relationship with the organization that sponsored the research. This note should be added in a separate section before the reference list as well as in a separate letter accompanying the manuscript.
If no conflict exists, authors should state: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
• JARO recommends that authors obtain the advice of a statistician prior to starting a study, to aid in the study design. Any statistical analysis must be checked for accuracy by the authors; if statistical software is used, the source (including version number) of the tools must be listed in Materials and Methods; this information should be provided in the final paragraph. Authors are strongly encouraged to seek the assistance of a statistician at their institution or elsewhere; if they seek such advice, the resource should be identified in the letter of submission, and in the acknowledgements.
• Statistics should be fully reported in the manuscript/article. This includes stating the statistical test(s) used, the exact value of N (sample size), and the definitions of the distribution center (mean, median) and measures of variability (SD, SEM, and confidence intervals) reported in the text and shown in figures.
• All legends should include specific "N" for each treatment group and a description (or brief description) of statistics used for each experiment. The definition of a sample should be made clear (N cells, N subjects). If data are pooled from multiple observations on individual subjects, the operations involved in computing the pooled value must be stated.
• Statements that indicate the presence of “significant effects” should be supported by an appropriate statistical test.
• State the type of test that was used, including the degrees of freedom, the resulting test value, and the exact P-value (to 2 significant figures) that the result occurred at chance under the null hypothesis. For t-tests, always state whether the test is for a one-sided or two-sided hypothesis.
• Format: The format of the description of the statistical results should indicate the degrees of freedom, the statistic value, and the P value, as in these examples:
• F (3,21) = 5.62, P = 0.0054
• T(7) = 4.582, P = 0.0025
• r2(9) = 0.77, P = 0.0004
• To avoid ambiguities, all statistical variables should be italicized (F, t, P).
• The type of post-hoc tests used when following any ANOVA with multiple comparisons should be identified.
• Reporting P values with inequalities should be limited to data is grouped in tables or figures, or for post-hoc tests (multiple comparisons) if no exact value is reported by the software.
• Manuscripts that report results based on the analysis of large data sets, including (but not limited to) genomic sequencing studies and fMRI imaging studies are also required to specify in detail how the statistical analyses were done.
Methods and Materials
Although JARO has word limits on the Abstract, Introduction and Discussion, JARO does not have a page limit or word limits on the Methods and Materials or Results sections. Therefore, the methods and materials should be complete. References to prior methods papers may be made, but only if the original method has been exactly followed, and is completely and clearly described in the prior material. Otherwise, JARO requires that the methods be rewritten (to avoid plagiarism) and be completely described. The purpose of complete methods is to aid in reproducibility and to allow readers to fully understand how the study was done. The following are the guidelines for JARO:
• Methods include all procedures and instructions, manipulations of subject material, selection of subjects, methods used to compute stimuli, versions of programs used, specific hardware, etc. Materials include samples, animal sources and lineage, special storage of key reagents, identification of antibodies by lot, complete primer sequences, etc. The goal of the methods section is to allow studies to be replicated in a lab that is similarly equipped.
• For work that relies on antibodies, the methods section should include information about how antibodies were validated either by citing prior work (for example antibodies listed in the JCN database (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1096-9861/homepage/other_resources.htm) or (preferably) in the Antibody Registry (http://antibodyregistry.org). Alternatively, authors may provide a full blot image (not cropped) for each antibody to demonstrate protein specificity, and should include an evaluation of staining in a knock-out animal if possible.
• In animal studies, the methods section should also include relevant information as outlined in the ARRIVE Guideline checklist for Methods (http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines). A filled-out copy of the checklist may be included as a supplemental file (not to be published) to aid in the review process.
• The description of data analysis in the methods section should include all processing steps taken to analyze the data (including, but not limited to: additional software filtering, how samples and/or subjects and technical replicates were pooled to determine sample sizes, whether aspects of the experiments were randomized or not, whether the experimenters (and subjects, if relevant) were blinded to subject treatment, and if blinding was used, at what point in the analysis such blinding was unmasked).
• For studies using analysis of images, the analysis section should also include a description of all steps taken while acquiring images, image processing steps prior to analysis, and any additional steps taken in the preparation of images for figures.
• Custom software should be publicly available (for example, on GitHub or a similar repository) or a statement regarding the availability of the software from the authors should be made. Key elements of computational models should be deposited in a database such as ModelDB (https://senselab.med.yale.edu/modeldb/). We also encourage authors to share data in a way that suits the data. Such sharing may include placing the data on a public repository, on a lab web site, or offering to provide the primary data upon request. If work in the manuscript relies on computer simulation code, instructions for providing access to the code for review by both reviewers and readers should be provided.
Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
- Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
- This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
- This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995a, b; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999, 2000).
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Please alphabetize according to the following rules: 1) For one author, by name of author, then chronologically; 2) For two authors, by name of author, then name of coauthor, then chronologically; 3) For more than two authors, by name of first author, then chronologically.
If available, please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list (e.g. “https://doi.org/abc”).
- Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
- Article by DOI
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001090000086
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
- Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
- Online document
Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.
- All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
- Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
- Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines
Electronic Figure Submission
- Supply all figures electronically.
- Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
- For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MSOffice files are also acceptable.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
- Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
- Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
- All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
- Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
- If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
- Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
- Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
- Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
- Color art is free of charge for online publication.
- If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
- If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
- Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
- To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
- Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
- Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
- Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
- Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.
- All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
- Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
- If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures,"A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices [Supplementary Information (SI)] should, however, be numbered separately.
- Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
- Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
- No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
- Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
- Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
Figure Placement and Size
- Figures should be submitted separately from the text, if possible.
- When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
- For large-sized journals the figures should be 84 mm (for double-column text areas), or 174 mm (for single-column text areas) wide and not higher than 234 mm.
- For small-sized journals, the figures should be 119 mm wide and not higher than 195 mm.
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
- All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
- Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (colorblind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
- Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1
Additional Figure Guidelines
- Please do not submit figures embedded in PDF or Word .doc/.docx files.
- All panels of a given figure should be in a single file.
- Top and right axes: Do not include right and top axes unless they are for data that is plotted on a different scale than the opposing axis. Do not box the figure panels with lines.
- Frames: Remove ALL frames from around figure panels.
- Horizontal and Vertical Gridlines: Horizontal and vertical gridlines should be removed from all graphs/histograms, unless they are there to indicate specific values, or the graph is a 3-D plot, for which such gridlines provide perspective.
- Shading: Do not use shaded backgrounds on data plots, except to indicate regions of statistical significance.
- Legends: Legends associated with images and plots that indicate the relationship between symbols, line styles, colors, etc. are acceptable. Whenever possible, the legend should be placed so that it fits within the space of the plot. In some cases, the legend information may be better expressed in the figure legend text.
Color is free
Color is free in both the print and online editions of JARO.
Supplementary Information (SI)
Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article or a book chapter. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.
Before submitting research datasets as Supplementary Information, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.
- Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
- Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
- To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
- High resolution (streamable quality) videos can be submitted up to a maximum of 25GB; low resolution videos should not be larger than 5GB.
Audio, Video, and Animations
- Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
- Maximum file size: 25 GB for high resolution files; 5 GB for low resolution files
- Minimum video duration: 1 sec
- Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp
Text and Presentations
- Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
- A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
- Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).
- Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
Collecting Multiple Files
- It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.
- If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
- Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
- Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.
- For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.
Processing of supplementary files
- Supplementary Information (SI) will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
- The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
- Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)
Supplemental material may not consist of:
* Figures and text; these belong in the main article.
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
- The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
- The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
- A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
- Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
- Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
- No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
- Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
- Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.
- Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
- Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
- Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
- If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
- an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
- an expression of concern may be placed with the article
- or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
- The author’s institution may be informed
- A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.
Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.
Suggesting / excluding reviewers
Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.
These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.
The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:
Disclosures and declarations
All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.
All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.
Role of the Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
- ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
- managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
- providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
- making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:
The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.
Changes to authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
- Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.
Deceased or incapacitated authors
For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.
Authorship issues or disputes
In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
Upon acceptance, your article will be exported to Production to undergo typesetting. Once typesetting is complete, you will receive a link asking you to confirm your affiliation, choose the publishing model for your article as well as arrange rights and payment of any associated publication cost.
Once you have completed this, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
Article publishing agreement
Depending on the ownership of the journal and its policies, you will either grant the Publisher an exclusive licence to publish the article or will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher.
Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
Publication of color illustrations is free of charge.
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.
After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
Open Choice allows you to publish open access in more than 1850 Springer Nature journals, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.
Article processing charges (APCs) vary by journal – view the full list
- Increased researcher engagement: Open Choice enables access by anyone with an internet connection, immediately on publication.
- Higher visibility and impact: In Springer hybrid journals, OA articles are accessed 4 times more often on average, and cited 1.7 more times on average*.
- Easy compliance with funder and institutional mandates: Many funders require open access publishing, and some take compliance into account when assessing future grant applications.
It is easy to find funding to support open access – please see our funding and support pages for more information.
*) Within the first three years of publication. Springer Nature hybrid journal OA impact analysis, 2018.
Copyright and license term – CC BY
Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Copyright Transfer vs. "Open Choice"
If you transfer copyright to the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (ARO), then your article will be available to all ARO members and institutional subscribers to JARO for the first year, but not to the public at large until a year has passed. As soon as your article is published in an online issue, Springer will automatically upload your article to PubMed Central with a one year embargo. This procedure will satisfy requirements for research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health.
If you do not wish to transfer copyright and/or wish to make your paper freely available before one year after the publication date, you can do so by choosing Springer's "Open Choice" option for $3,000 at the time your article is accepted for publication. In that case the article will also be available immediately in PubMed Central, as well as on SpringerLink.com. See http://www.springer.com/west/home/open+choice?SGWID=4-40359-0-0-0 for further details on this option.
Authors should submit studies that have not been submitted or published elsewhere. Any submitted paper must not currently be under active review at any other journal. Any re-representation of published data must be fully acknowledged and done with the approval of the copyright holder. A statement affirming submission status should be included in the transmittal letter.
Authors are expected to openly declare any commercial interest, or other conflict of interest, when they submit their paper for consideration. This should be done in a letter accompanying the manuscript as well as in the manuscript itself. All authors must have agreed to the content and submission of the final submitted manuscript. Individual email addresses must be provided for all authors so that they may all be contacted should any problem arise.
Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC)
JARO is a member of NPRC, an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to share manuscript reviews at the author's request. The Consortium’s goals are to support efficient and thorough peer review of original research in neuroscience, to speed the publication of research reports, and to reduce the burden on peer reviewers.
Reviews are only shared with other journals at the corresponding author’s request. They are forwarded directly from one editorial office to another. Normally, the reviewers’ names are forwarded along with the review, because anonymous reviews are generally not useful to editors and will do little to speed the review of manuscripts or reduce the burden on peer reviewers. Nevertheless, reviewers will have the option to not allow their names to be forwarded. As before, reviewers' identities are never revealed to authors.
A related change is that JARO no longer accepts confidential comments to the editors (except to discuss human or animal subject welfare, potential conflicts of interest or misconduct). This way, both authors and editors of journals receiving forwarded reviews will have access to the full review upon which each manuscript decision is based.
Policy and Guidelines on the Sharing of Research Materials and Genetic Database Information
Policy and Guidelines on the Sharing of Research Materials and Genetic Database Information
In general, by submitting a manuscript to the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (JARO), the Authors are agreeing to abide by the guidelines stated here concerning sharing of research materials.
In rare instances, considerations of time, money, or personnel, may make sharing of materials impossible. In such a case, the authors must explain the circumstances in a cover letter submitted with the manuscript, indicating that they are prepared to make every effort to assist others in creating their own materials. The Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology may then determine on a case-by-case basis whether or not to accept the manuscript for review.
If it is demonstrated to the Editor-in-Chief that an author has failed to abide by these guidelines, the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology will refuse to publish any manuscript involving that author until the matter is corrected.
Unique materials used in studies being reported in JARO must be made available to qualified scientists for bona fide research purposes.
Before publication, authors must deposit any nucleotide or protein sequence data reported in the manuscript in GenBank or other members of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (EMBL or DDBJ) and SWISS-PROT, and the associated accession numbers must be provided in the article. Similarly, protein or other molecular structure data must be reported in the NCBI Structure database and accession numbers provided in the article.
After publication, authors should be prepared to promptly make available to qualified scientists for bona fide research purposes all materials that were used in the reported research and that were generated in the authors’ laboratories and that are not commercially available. This includes propagatable research materials (such as monoclonal antibodies, transgenic animals, and DNA probes and constructs) and, where possible, non-propagatable materials (for example, serum antibodies). Reasonable costs associated with the production and transfer of these materials should be provided by the recipient if the authors so request.
Such materials should be provided to qualified scientists for bona fide research purposes without restrictions. For example, no restriction may be placed on the kind of research to be done with such materials. Likewise, the person providing the materials should not require future authorship as a condition for this provision.
These guidelines apply to individuals in both the academic and private sectors, except that there is no requirement to provide materials to an individual intending to use them for commercialization.
In some cases, the replication and extension of published work may require materials that are not readily available. In such instances, the authors must make every effort to provide those materials to other qualified scientists. Authors who use materials that they obtain from another source should provide information about that source in the methods.
Authors should try to arrange to provide these materials for a significant period of time after publication.
Authors may, if possible, arrange to distribute materials through entities such as the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD), data banks (e.g., for DNA sequences), or the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME).
Please send questions about formatting or content to the Editorial Office at firstname.lastname@example.org.
English Language Editing
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
- Getting a fast, free online grammar check.
- Asking a colleague who is proficient in English to review your manuscript for clarity.
- Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
- Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.
● 获取快速、免费的在线 语法检查。
● 使用专业语言编辑服务，编辑人员会对英语进行润色，以确保您的意思表达清晰，并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
・高速なオンライン 文法チェック を無料で受ける。
・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。
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