Self-archiving policy

We are a 'green' publisher, as we allow self-archiving, but most importantly we are fully transparent about your rights.

Publishing in a subscription-based journal

By signing the Copyright Transfer Statement you still retain substantial rights, such as self-archiving:

Author(s) are permitted to self-archive a pre-print and an author’s accepted manuscript version of their Article.

a. a pre-print is the author’s version of the Article before peer-review has taken place ("Pre-Print”). Prior to acceptance for publication, Author(s) retain the right to make a Pre-Print of their Article available on any of the following: their own personal, self- maintained website; a legally compliant, non-commercial pre-print server such as but not limited to arXiv and bioRxiv. Once the Article has been published, the Author(s) should update the acknowledgement and provide a link to the definitive version on the publisher’s website: “This is a pre-print of an article published in [insert journal title]. The final authenticated version is available online at:[insert DOI]”.

b. An Author’s Accepted Manuscript (AAM) is the version accepted for publication in a journal following peer review but prior to copyediting and typesetting that can be made available under the following conditions:

a. Author(s) retain the right to make an AAM of their Article available on their own personal, self- maintained website immediately on acceptance,

b. Author(s) retain the right to make an AAM of their Article available for public release on any of the following 12 months after first publication ("Embargo Period"): their employer’s internal website; their institutional and/or funder repositories. AAMs may also be deposited in such repositories immediately on acceptance, provided that they are not made publicly available until after the Embargo Period.

An acknowledgement in the following form should be included, together with a link to the published version on the publisher’s website: “This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in [insert journal title]. The final authenticated version is available online at:[insert DOI]”.

When publishing an article in a subscription journal, without open access, authors sign the Copyright Transfer Statement (CTS) which also details Springer’s self-archiving policy.

Springer Nature terms of reuse for archived author accepted manuscripts (AAMs) of subscription articles

For articles published within the Springer Nature group of companies that have been archived into academic repositories such as institutional repositories, PubMed Central and its mirror sites, where a Springer Nature company holds copyright, or an exclusive license to publish, users may view, print, copy, download and text and data-mine the content, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full conditions of use. The conditions of use are not intended to override, should any national law grant further rights to any user.


Conditions of use

Articles published within the Springer Nature group of companies which are made available through academic repositories remain subject to copyright. Any reuse is subject to permission from Springer Nature. The following restrictions on reuse of such articles apply:


  • Academic research only

1.    Archived content may only be used for academic research. Any content downloaded for text based experiments should be destroyed when the experiment is complete.     


  • Reuse must not be for Commercial Purposes

2.    Archived content may not be used for purposes that are intended for or directed towards commercial advantage or monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, licence, loan, transfer or any other form of commercial exploitation ("Commercial Purposes"). 

  • Wholesale re-publishing is prohibited

3.    Archived content may not be published verbatim in whole or in part, whether or not this is done for Commercial Purposes, either in print or online. 

4.    This restriction does not apply to reproducing normal quotations with an appropriate citation.  In the case of text-mining, individual words, concepts and quotes up to 100 words per matching sentence may be reused, whereas longer paragraphs of text and images cannot (without specific permission from Springer Nature).

  • Moral rights

5.    All reuse must be fully attributed.  Attribution must take the form of a link - using the article DOI - to the published article on the journal's website.

6.    All reuse must ensure that the authors' moral right to the integrity of their work is not compromised.

  • Third party content

7.    Where content in the document is identified as belonging to a third party, it is the obligation of the user to ensure that any reuse complies with copyright policies of the owner.

  • Reuse at own risk

8.    Any reuse of Springer Nature content is at your own risk and Springer Nature accepts no liability arising from such reuse.

Publishing open access

If you publish your article open access, the final published version can be archived in institutional or funder repositories and can be made publicly accessible immediately.