Editors' Choice: "The Major Solar Events on 4 November 2015"
Cairns, I.H., Kozarev, K.A., Nitta, N.V. et al., Comprehensive Characterization of Solar Eruptions with Remote and In-Situ Observations, and Modeling: The Major Solar Events on 4 November 2015, Sol Phys 295, 32 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-020-1591-7
Editor's Choice (Research Article)
Published: 20 February 2020
Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are an important product of solar activity. They are connected to solar active regions and flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), EUV waves, shocks, Type II and III radio emissions, and X-ray bursts. These phenomena are major probes of the partition of energy in solar eruptions, as well as for the organization, dynamics, and relaxation of coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields. Many of these phenomena cause terrestrial space weather, posing multiple hazards for humans and their technology from space to the ground. Since particular flares, shocks, CMEs, and EUV waves produce SEP events but others do not, since propagation effects from the low corona to 1 AU appear important for some events but not others, and since Type II and III radio emissions and X-ray bursts are sometimes produced by energetic particles leaving these acceleration sites, it is necessary to study the whole system with a multi-frequency and multi-instrument perspective that combines both in-situ and remote observations with detailed modeling of phenomena. This article demonstrates this comprehensive approach and shows its necessity by analyzing a trio of unusual and striking solar eruptions, radio and X-ray bursts, and SEP events that occurred on 4 November 2015. These events show both strong similarities and differences from standard events and each other, despite having very similar interplanetary conditions and only two flare sites and CME genesis regions. They are therefore major targets for further in-depth observational studies, and for testing both existing and new theories and models. We present the complete suite of relevant observations, complement them with initial modeling results for the SEPs and interplanetary magnetic connectivity, and develop a plausible scenario for the eruptions. Perhaps controversially, the SEPs appear to be reasonably modelled and evidence points to significant non-Parker magnetic fields. Based on the very limited modeling available, we identify the aspects that are and are not understood, and we discuss ideas that may lead to improved understanding of the SEP, radio, and space-weather events.
Solar Physics Editor's Choice:
In each volume of Solar Physics, a few papers are marked as “Editors’ Choice”. The primary criteria is original, high quality research that is of wide interest within the community.