Layout & templates


If you are comfortable using templates, we offer Word and LaTeX templates for monographs as well as for contributed books. If you prefer not to use a template, please follow the alternate instructions given under the appropriate template below.

Book layout

When writing a book for Springer, please do not worry about the final layout. To ensure we always keep pace with all the requirements both online and in print, Springer

  • structures the data as XML as the basis for print or conversion into the latest online formats such as for Kindle, iPad, Google Android and smartphones
  • uses standard layouts with style specifications suitable for multiple display formats.

What advantages does this mean for you in manuscript preparation? It means you can focus on the structured content and let Springer take care of the rest. We will professionally typeset the book and, with XML structuring, ensure that your content will be available to readers in many formats for many years to come.

Cover design

A key part of the publication process (and in response to the changing requirements of the book industry), are the standard corporate book covers that Springer introduced for each subject area in which it publishes. These covers provide a strong, corporate brand identity for Springer books, making them instantly recognizable amongst the scientific community. In addition the covers also assist speed of publication, as having standardized versions greatly reduces the time traditionally spent on creating individual book covers for each title.

Word template

Springer provides templates for Word users that help structure the manuscript, e.g., define the heading hierarchy. Predefined style formats are available for all the necessary structures that are supposed to be part of the manuscript, and these formats can be quickly accessed via hotkeys or special toolbars.

Note: These templates are not intended for the preparation of the final page layout! The final layout will be created by Springer according to our layout specifications.

The usage of these templates is not mandatory. Alternatively, you may either use a blank Word document or the standard LaTeX book class (for monographs) or article class (for individual contributions) and apply the default settings and styles (e.g., for heading styles, lists, footnotes, etc.).

Tip (If you cannot use our Word template)

If you cannot use our Word template:

  • Open a blank Word document.
  • Use the default styles in Word to identify the heading levels.
  • Use the standard Word functions for displayed lists, type styles such as bold or italics, the indexing function, and the footnote function.
  • Use a single main font for the entire text. We recommend Times New Roman.
  • For special characters, please use Symbol and/or Arial Unicode.

LaTeX template

Springer provides templates for LaTeX users that help structure the manuscript, e.g., define the heading hierarchy. Predefined style formats are available for all the necessary structures that are supposed to be part of the manuscript, and these formats can be quickly accessed via hotkeys or special toolbars.

Note: These templates are not intended for the preparation of the final page layout! The final layout will be created by Springer according to our layout specifications.

LaTeX2e macro packages for 

and for

The usage of these templates is not mandatory. Alternatively, you may either use a blank Word document or the standard LaTeX book class (for monographs) or article class (for individual contributions) and apply the default settings and styles (e.g., for heading styles, lists, footnotes, etc.).

Springer Milan has developed macros and templates in Italian language to help you prepare your textbook in Italian.

Book structure


To guarantee a smooth publication process and a seamless transformation of your manuscript into the final layout and various electronic formats (e.g., HTML for online publication, ePub for e-book readers), the manuscript needs to be structured as follows:

  • Front Matter: Title page, dedication (optional), foreword (optional), preface (optional), table of contents, list of abbreviations (optional).
  • Text Body: It comprises the chapters containing the content of the book, i.e. text, figures, tables, and references. Chapters can be grouped together in parts.
  • Back Matter: After the last chapter, the back matter can contain an appendix, a glossary, and/or an index, all of which are optional.

Front matter

Title page, preface, and table of contents precede the actual content of a book. The preface should be about the book: why it was written, who it is for, its organization, or the selection of contributors. An introduction in the subject of the book, however, should appear as the first chapter of the book.
Optional items in the front matter at the beginning of a book are e.g., a foreword or a list of abbreviations.

Title page

Please include all author names (for contributed books the editor names) and their affiliations, the book title and subtitle. Ensure that the sequence of the author names is correct and the title of your book is final when you submit your manuscript.
Please supply all emails, telephone numbers and address of each author and editor.
Once the manuscript has been delivered to production, changes to title or authorship are no longer possible


The preface should be about the book: why it was written, who it is for, its organization, or the selection of contributors.

  • An introduction to the subject of the book does not belong in the front matter, but should appear as the first chapter of the book.
  • A preface should not contain a reference list.
  • Acknowledgment of support or assistance in preparing the book can be included as the last paragraph(s) of the preface.
  • If the acknowledgement is longer than one page, start a separate page with the heading “Acknowledgements”.


If you intend to include a foreword, please submit it with the manuscript.

  • A foreword is usually written by an authority in the subject and serves as a recommendation for the book
  • The name of the foreword’s contributor is always given at the end of the foreword; affiliations and titles are generally not included, but the date and place of writing may be.

Table of contents

List all parts, chapters, and back matter material (e.g., an index) in the final sequence.

If your chapters are numbered, use Arabic numerals and number the chapters consecutively throughout the book (Chapter 1, Chapter 2, etc.), i.e., do not start anew with each part

If there are parts, use Roman numerals for parts (Part I, Part II, etc.).

List of abbreviations


A list of abbreviations and/or symbols is optional but it may be very helpful if numerous abbreviations and special symbols are scattered throughout the text.


Chapters contain the actual content of the book, i.e., text, figures, tables, and references. Chapters can be grouped together in parts; subparts are not possible. Only one chapter (e.g. an introduction) may precede the first part and would be the first chapter.

  • Decide the numbering style for the chapters and apply this style consistently to all chapters: consecutively numbered (monographs or textbooks) or unnumbered (contributed volumes).
  • If an introduction to the subject of the book (historical background, definitions, or methodology) is included, it should appear as the first chapter and thus be included in the chapter numbering. It can contain references, figures, and tables, just as any other chapter.


Either British or American English can be used, but be consistent within your chapter or book. In contributed books chapter-specific consistency is accepted
Check for consistent spelling of names, terms and abbreviations, including in tables and figure legends.

  • For American spelling please consult Merriam–Webster's Collegiate Dictionary; for British spelling you should refer to Collins English Dictionary. 
  • If English is not your native language, please ask a native speaker to help you or arrange for your text to be checked by a professional editing service. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts Please insert their final corrections into your data before submitting the manuscript.

Chapter title & authors

For contributed volumes, please include each chapter authors’ names (spelled out as they would be cited), affiliations and e-mail addresses and telephone numbers after the chapter title.


Begin each chapter with an abstract that summarizes the content of the chapter in 150 to 250 words. The abstract will appear on SpringerLink and be available with unrestricted access to facilitate online searching (e.g. Google) and allow unregistered users to read the abstract as a teaser for the complete chapter.

If no abstract is submitted, we will use the first paragraph of the chapter instead.

  • Abstracts appear only in the printed edition of contributed volumes unless stipulated otherwise  
  • Don’t include reference citations or undefined abbreviations in the abstract, since abstracts are often read independently of the actual chapter and without access to the reference list.

Keywords (if applicable)

Some books also publish keywords. Please check with the editor of your book or with the publishing editor to see if keywords are required.

  • ​Each keyword should not contain more than two compound words, and each keyword phrase should start with an uppercase letter.   
  • When selecting the keywords, think of them as terms that will help someone locate your chapter at the top of the search engine list using, for example, Google. Very broad terms (e.g. ‘Case study’ by itself) should be avoided as these will result in thousands of search results but will not result in finding your chapter.

Headings & heading numbering

  • Heading levels should be clearly identified and each level should be uniquely and consistently formatted and/or numbered.
  • Use the decimal system of numbering if your headings are numbered.
  • Never skip a heading level. The only exception are run-in headings which can be used at any hierarchical level.
  • In cross-references, for hyperlink purposes, please refer to the chapter or section number (e.g., see Chap. 3 or see Sect. 3.5.1).  
  • In addition to numbered headings, two more (lower) heading levels are possible. Their hierarchical level should be identified with the help of Springer’s templates or the standard Word or LaTeX heading styles.   
  • Another option for lower level headings are run-in headings, i.e., headings which are set immediately at the beginning of the paragraph. Such headings should be formatted in bold or italics.

Terminology, units & abbreviations

  • Technical terms and abbreviations should be defined the first time they appear in the text.
  • Please always use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (also called SI units).
  • Numerals should follow the British/American method of decimal points to indicate decimals and commas to separate thousands

If the manuscript contains a large number of terms and abbreviations, a list of abbreviations or a glossary is advised.

Formal style & text formatting

Manuscripts will be checked by a copy editor for formal style. Springer follows certain standards with regard to the presentation of the content, and the copy editors make sure that the manuscript conforms to these styles


Remember not to make changes that involve only matters of style when you check your proofs. We have generally introduced forms that follow Springer’s house style.

Emphasis & special type

  • Italics should be used for emphasized words or phrases in running text. Do not format entire paragraphs in italics. Use italics for species and genus names, mathematical/physical variables, and prefixes in chemical compounds.
  • Bold formatting should only be used for run-in headings and small capitals for indicating optical activity (D- and L-dopa).
  • Sans serif (e.g., Arial) and non-proportional fonts (e.g., Courier) can be used to distinguish the literal text of computer programs from running text.


Do not set entire pages as boxes, because this diminishes online readability.


Additional text elements for professional and text books such as examples, questions or exercises, summaries or key messages can be highlighted with Springer’s template styles. If you do not use the template, use a consistent style for each of these elements and submit a list of the styles used together with your manuscript.


  • Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.
  • Never use footnotes or endnotes instead of a reference list.
  • Footnotes should not consist of a reference citation.
  • Footnotes should not contain figures, tables and the bibliographic details of a reference.

Equations & program code

  • In Word, use the Math function of Word 2007 or 2010, MathType or Microsoft Equation Editor with Word 2003 to create your equations, and insert the graphic into your text file as an object.
  • In LaTeX, use the Math environment to create your equations.


  • Give each table a heading (caption). Add a reference to the table source at the end of the caption if necessary.
  • Number tables consecutively using the chapter number (e.g. Table 1.1 for the first table in Chapter 1) and ensure that all tables are cited in the text in sequential order. Do not write “the following table”.
  • Use the table function to create and format tables. Do not use the space bar or multiple tabs to separate columns and please do not use Excel to create tables as this can cause problems when converting your tables into the typesetting program and other formats.
  • Simple, one-column lists should not be treated as tables. Use the displayed list function instead.
  • Save the tables in the same file as text, references, and figure legends.
  • Do not manually insert table rules in the manuscript, because they cannot be retained.

Figures and illustrations


Number the figures using the chapter number (e.g. Fig. 1.1 for the first figure in Chap. 1) and ensure that all figures are cited in the text in sequential order. Do not write “the following figure”.

Figure captions

Give each figure a concise caption, describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions at the end of the text file, not in the figure file.

Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs instead of color lines.

If a figure is reproduced from a previous publication, include the source as the last item in the caption.

Figure & illustration files

A figure is an object that is drawn or photographed; it does not consist solely of characters and thus cannot be keyed.

Do not submit tabular material as figures.

Graphics and diagrams should be saved as EPS file with the fonts embedded. MS Office files (Excel or PowerPoint) can be submitted in the original format (xls, xlsx, ppt, pptx). Scanned graphics in TIFF format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.

Photos or drawings with fine shading should be saved as TIFF with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

A combination of halftone and line art (e.g., photos containing line drawing or extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.) should be saved as TIFF with a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.

  • Color figures will appear in color in the eBook but may be printed in black and white. In that case, do not refer to color in the captions and make sure that the main information will still be visible if converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a black and white printout to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent. Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
  • Ensure consistency by using similar sizing and lettering for similar figures. Ideally, you should size figures to fit in the page or column width. For books in Springer’s standard format, the figures should be 78 mm or 117 mm (3 or 4 1/2 inch) wide and not higher than 198 mm (7 3/4 inch).
  • To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts) and avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc. Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt). Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.


Reference citations

Cite references in the text with author name/s and year of publication in parentheses (“Harvard system”)

  • One author: (Miller 1991) or Miller (1991)
  • Two authors: (Miller and Smith 1994) or Miller and Smith (1994)
  • Three authors or more: (Miller et al. 1995) or Miller et al. (1995)

If it is customary in your field, you can also cite with reference numbers in square brackets either sequential by citation or according to the sequence in an alphabetized list:
[3, 7, 12].

Reference list

Include a reference list at the end of each chapter so that readers of single chapters of the eBook can make full use of the citations. References at the end of the book cannot be linked to citations in the chapters. Please do not include reference lists at the end of a chapter section, at the end of a book part, in a preface or an appendix.

Include all works that are cited in the chapter and that have been published (including on the internet) or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes as a substitute for a reference list.

Entries in the list must be listed alphabetically except in the numbered system of sequential citation. The rules for alphabetization are:

  • First, all works by the author alone, ordered chronologically by year of publication
  • Next, all works by the author with a coauthor, ordered alphabetically by coauthor
  • Finally, all works by the author with several coauthors, ordered chronologically by year of publication
  • For authors using EndNote software to create the reference list, Springer provides output styles that support the formatting of in-text citations and reference lists.
  • For authors using BiBTeX, the style files are included in Springer's LaTeX package.

Reference styles

Springer StyleDisciplinesKey Style Points: Reference StyleEndNote Software: Springer reference styles
Springer Basic Style: Based on Harvard style and recommendations of the Council of Biology Editors (CBE)Biomedicine, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics, Engineering, Geo-sciences, Life Sciences, MedicineSpringer Basic StyleSpringer Basic End-Note Style
Springer Vancouver Style:Based on the NLM guidelines Citing MedicineBiomedicine, MedicineSpringer Vancouver StyleSpringer Vancouver EndNote Style
Springer MathPhys StyleMathematics, Physics, StatisticsSpringer MathPhys StyleSpringer MathPhys EndNote Style
Springer Physics Style: Based on the reference list style of the American Physical Society (APS)PhysicsSpringer Physics StyleSpringer Physics EndNote Style
Springer SocPsych Style: Based on the reference list style established by the American Psychological Association (APA)Psychology, Social SciencesSpringer SocPsych StyleSpringer SocPsych EndNote Style
Springer Humanities Style:Based on the reference list style as suggested by the Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition.)Humanities, Linguistics, PhilosophySpringer Humanities StyleSpringer Humanities EndNote Style
  • Springer follows certain standards with regard to the presentation of the reference list. They are based on reference styles that were established for various disciplines in the past and have been adjusted to facilitate automated processing and citation linking. This allows us to easily cross link the cited references with the original publication.
  • Always select one of the reference list styles that are supported by Springer and suits your publication best or follow the instructions received from your book editor. There are, however, recommended styles depending on the discipline.

Back matter

After the last chapter, the back matter of the book can contain an appendix, a glossary or an index.

Do not include a reference list containing the cited literature in the back matter, as references are then not linked to citations in the chapters. Instead, please include reference lists at the end of each chapter. A list of further reading may be included in the back matter.


An appendix cannot include a reference list.


Include important original content in a chapter or a chapter appendix, not in the book appendix because any appendix in the back matter of a book will appear with unrestricted access in the eBook on SpringerLink.

Index (if applicable)

If an index is desired, please submit the entries with the manuscript.


Use the indexing function in Word or the index command in LaTeX to identify the index term as your write your text and indicate, on average, one or two index entry terms per manuscript page to be included in the index.

  • Information should be listed under the term that most readers will probably look at first. Use cross-references to list variations or written-out versions and abbreviations/acronyms.
  • If you provide a list with key terms, the editor at our production partner will search for their occurrence in the text and list the respective pages in the index.

Optimizing for Google – tips for book authors


The goal of search engines like Google is to provide users with the best user experience. Therefore, the best results are delivered when you provide the audience with what they expect. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is not a set of tricks. It’s helping Google to present your book chapter to the right audience.

The importance of search engines and optimization

In the first place you write for human readers, but in this digital age, much of the content you write is crawled and indexed by search engines. Some simple optimization steps can help your work be found, read and cited by others. This will likely results in links to your book and chapters which will further increase the visibility of your work. Search engines rank webpages using a complex algorithm: over 200 factors determine in which order pages are displayed in search results. Springer optimizes its websites to help search engines find and index our content as best as possible, but of course it all starts with the content itself.

Selecting the keywords

Who is the audience for the book and the content in the chapters? What is the main topic of the book and the individual chapters? Which words would the audience use in search engines to find the information a chapter in the book provides on this topic?
Put yourself in your audience’s shoes and select a phrase of 2-4 words that best describes the chapter’s content.

Title of your book & its chapters

For both search engines and users, the title is the first impression of book and chapter. It’s the most valuable element for search engines to determine the relevancy of an article on a search query. Therefore it is important to use the right keywords in titles, to provide a good description of the content of a book and chapter.

Guidelines for a good title:

  • Use the keywords in the title. It is best practice to start the title with those words, as words earlier in a title will get more value.
  • Make the title descriptive, avoiding indirect references.
  • Remember chapters are individual items indexed and are not always presented in the context of the book.
  • Only the first 65 characters (including spaces) will be shown in Google. So use the most important words within the first 65 characters.

A book about the programming language Perl has a chapter explaining Scalars and it has the title “Scalars”. In the context of the book it is clear that this chapter discusses Scalars specific for Perl but indexed in Google that is not easy to determine. A title like: “Scalars: Perl’s basic data type” would help to confirm that and helps the user to decide if this is relevant for them.

Headings in chapters

Headings will help search engines (like Google) and users better understand the content and structure of your chapter.

Just like the title should be a description of the book/chapter, headings should describe the section or paragraph.

Use the relevant keywords. If it is possible and makes sense, combine the earlier selected words for the book or chapter with more specific words for the section.

Content of chapters

The selected keywords should appear in the content of the article. Depending on the length of the text, the keywords should occur at least once and for a selected set preferably 3-4 times in a text of 200 words.

Keep in mind to write for your audience. Make sure the text is still readable. Do not overuse keywords as this might have negative effects.

Synonyms & related words

Users might use synonyms or related words to find the information provided in the article. To match the search query, it is recommended to use synonyms and related words. These words help search engines, like Google, better understand the topic.


When in a text words like red, Italy and sports car are used, Google might “think of” Ferrari. The best tool to find related words and synonyms are the Google search results: look for the normal results, which other words show up? In some cases, Google might provide a set of related search phrases.

Authority (links)

Google and other search engines regard links as votes for webpages. You can help the ranking of your book’s pages by creating links. There are many options for links on profile pages, social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) and blog posts.