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All Research News

  • Women footballers not on level playing field for sports technology

    London, 16th November 2022

    Women football players require specifically tailored products such as kit, boots, and balls in order to optimise their performance and safety on the pitch, according to a paper published in Sports Engineering.

  • Legacy of a molecular dynamics trailblazer

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 November 2022
    Computer simulations meet biochemistry

  • Exploring the duality of gravity and gauge theory

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 November 2022
    This EPJ C Topical Collection presents a series of reviews showcasing the latest developments and applications of gauge/gravity duality, and aims at dissemination to a wider physics community in a way that enables building upon these concepts.

  • Piggy in the middle: Pig aggression reduced when a bystander pig steps in

    London, 8th November 2022

    A small study suggests that when two pigs are fighting, a bystander pig can intervene to either reduce the number of attacks by the aggressor or to help reduce the anxiety of the victim. The study of 104 domestic pigs, published in the journal Animal Cognition, reveals the complex social groups that pigs form and how they may resolve conflict.

  • Cat got your tongue: Cats distinguish between speech directed at them and humans

    London, 25th October 2022

    A small study has found that cats may change their behaviour when they hear their owner’s voice talking in a tone directed to them, the cats, but not when hearing the voice of a stranger or their owner’s voice directed at another person. The study of 16 cats is published in the journal Animal Cognition and adds to evidence that cats may form strong bonds with their owner.

  • Assessing the environmental impact of future ‘Higgs factories’

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 October 2022
    New research looks at planned particle accelerators that will follow the retirement of the Large Hadron Collider— the world’s most powerful particle accelerator

  • How advanced optical tweezers revolutionized cell manipulation

    New York | Heidelberg, 12 October 2022
    A new review looks at devices called optical tweezers and how they are used to better uncover the natural secrets of human life at the single-cell level.

  • Elastic nozzles could create more stable liquid jets

    New York | Heidelberg, 27 September 2022
    New experiments show that nozzles which deform as liquid flows through them could help to improve the stability of liquid jets in many different scenarios.

  • Modelling the use of Beta Radiation in cancer treatment

    New York | Heidelberg, 27 September 2022
    New research pits the simulation of beta radiation doses in tumour treatment against an analytical method.

  • Tiny animal hairs could act as sensitive compass needles

    New York | Heidelberg, 22 September 2022
    Statistical mechanics shows that some animals may be able to perceive Earth’s magnetic field with bundles of microscopic hairs in their inner ears.

  • Fermi’s ground-breaking figure

    New York | Heidelberg, 22 September 2022
    How the radial wave function transformed physics

  • Considering how friction is maximised when liquids flow on nanoscales

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 August 2022
    By simulating a liquid confined by a nanoscale structure, researchers discovered the role molecular clogging plays in friction.

  • Assessing the effect of hydraulic fracturing on microearthquakes

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 August 2022
    New research examines mining sites with hydraulic fracturing comparing it to those without to determine the practice’s effect on seismic hazards.

  • A step towards quantum gravity

    New York | Heidelberg, 11 August 2022
    Resolving the problem of time

  • Bringing consistency to methods of 2D material analysis

    New York | Heidelberg, 29 July 2022
    New research introduces a more cohesive approach to the functional renormalization group — a key tool in the analysis of 2D materials

  • Chaotic circuit exhibits unprecedented equilibrium properties

    New York | Heidelberg, 29 July 2022
    Mathematical derivations have unveiled a chaotic, memristor-based circuit in which different oscillating phases can co-exist along 6 possible lines.

  • QEMMS: Improving measurements of the kilogram

    New York | Heidelberg, 29 July 2022
    Currently in development by NIST, QEMMS will allow researchers to measure macroscopic masses, based on quantum principles. New analysis shows how an optimised design of this device could significantly reduce the errors associated with current approaches to mass measurement.

  • Quantum control for advanced technology: Past and present

    New York | Heidelberg, 29 July 2022
    Quantum devices are a promising technological advance for the future, but this will hinge on the application of quantum optimal control top real-world devices. A new review looks at the status of the field as it stands.

  • 2022 Julius Springer Prize

    New York | Heidelberg, 19 July 2022
    Applied Physics A and Applied Physics B congratulate the winner of the 2022 Julius Springer Prize!

  • The fascinating ways animals navigate

    New York | Heidelberg, 30 June 2022
    Many animals – from birds to whales to zebras – find their way across great distances using a variety of environmental factors.

  • Investigating the temperature of large biomolecules in ion-storage rings with jellyfish protein

    New York | Heidelberg, 27 June 2022
    New research introduces a simple way to determine the temperature of a stored biomolecule and assess how it changes over time.

  • Investigating positron scattering from giant molecular targets

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 June 2022
    New research looks at positron scattering from rare gas atoms encapsulated in carbon 60 to investigate quantum properties that can’t be tested with electrons.

  • Exotic carbon microcrystals in meteorite dust

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 June 2022
    Unusually shaped microcrystals formed of pure, graphite-like carbon were discovered in the dust of the 21st-century’s largest meteorite. They are likely to have grown in layers from complex carbon nuclei such as fullerene.

  • Probing high-energy neutrinos with an IceCube

    New York | Heidelberg, 13 June 2022
    Studying a high-energy neutrino that was observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole and that is believed to be intergalactic in origin has yielded some intriguing ‘new physics’ beyond the Standard Model.

  • How can x-ray diffraction be used for a reliable study of nanostructured materials?

    New York | Heidelberg, 13 June 2022
    A new overview shows how x-ray diffraction can effectively measure lattice defects responsible for the unique properties of nanostructured materials – but special care is required for the application.

  • Energy harvesting to power the Internet of Things

    New York | Heidelberg, 13 June 2022
    A new paper in EPJ Special Topics shows how energy can be harvested from vibrating micromagnets to power the now ubiquitous wireless sensors in the most efficient way.

  • Higher fish consumption may be associated with increased melanoma risk

    London, 9th June 2022

    Eating higher levels of fish, including tuna and non-fried fish, appears to be associated with a greater risk of malignant melanoma, suggests a large study of US adults published in Cancer Causes & Control.

  • Modelling the behaviour and dynamics of microswimmers

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 May 2022
    The understanding of the clustering and movement of microswimmers has a range of applications from human health to tackling ecological problems.

  • Revisiting the history of CPT theorem

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 May 2022
    A new review looks at an important and often overlooked aspect of physics that suggested symmetry in the particle zoo and how it could be broken.

  • Assessing the impact of loss mechanisms in solar cell candidate

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 May 2022
    The superconductor antimony sulfide selenide is a potential candidate for solar materials, but this depends on understanding how to boost its efficiency.

  • Studying the pseudogap in superconducting cuprate materials

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 May 2022
    Despite being vital to the study of superconductivity in cuprate materials the physical origins of the pseudogap remain a mystery.

  • Characterising limestone rocks with Raman spectroscopy

    New York | Heidelberg, 20 April 2022
    Research published in EPJ Plus shows that it is possible to classify rocks according to the size of the particles they contain during quarrying, using a portable Raman spectrometer.

  • Thin quantum wires work better with less insulating coatings

    New York | Heidelberg, 19 April 2022
    New theoretical analysis considers cases where the electrons are allowed to exist beyond the boundaries of semiconducting quantum wires – with important implications for their performance.

  • Searching for dark matter with a haloscope

    New York | Heidelberg, 14 April 2022
    A new paper in EPJ Plus introduces a novel method of searching for a type of dark matter known as axions; a modified version of this technique may have useful ‘real life’ applications.

  • Using AI to expand the quality and fairness of urban data

    New York | Heidelberg, 14 April 2022
    The sparse and inconsistent availability of urban data is currently hampering efforts to manage our cities fairly and effectively – but this could be solved by exploiting the latest advances in artificial intelligence.

  • Optimizing silicon structure to reduce reflection

    New York | Heidelberg, 14 April 2022
    New research connects the porous structure of silicon and its ability to “trap” incident light.

  • Ranking nanodevice functionality methods

    New York | Heidelberg, 14 April 2022
    Examining the charge transfer influence of three charge control methods and producing a hierarchy promises important practical applications in nanodevices.

  • A novel computing approach to recognising chaos

    New York | Heidelberg, 14 April 2022
    Chaos isn’t always harmful to technology, in fact, it can have several useful applications if it can be detected and identified.

  • The relationship between active areas and boundaries with energy input in snapping shells

    New York | Heidelberg, 5 April 2022
    New research looks at how the geometry of shells relates to the energy input required to actuate snap-through instability.

  • Investigating newly synthesised thallium compounds for optoelectronic devices

    New York | Heidelberg, 5 April 2022
    The burgeoning field of optoelectronic devices is driving the development of new alkali metal-based chalcogenides with qualities that have to be robustly investigated.

  • Astrophysical plasma study benefits from new soft X-ray transition energies benchmark

    New York | Heidelberg, 5 April 2022
    The new benchmark for X-ray transition energies set for neon, carbon dioxide, and sulfur hexafluoride paves a pathway to high accuracy analysis of astrophysical plasmas.

  • Tackling large data sets and many parameter problems in particle physics

    New York | Heidelberg, 21 March 2022
    A new tool to break down and segment large data set problems and problems with many parameters in particle physics could have a wide range of applications.

  • Acknowledging Fermi’s contributions to early quantum statistics

    New York | Heidelberg, 18 March 2022
    Enrico Fermi’s ideas played a key role in the origins of quantum statistics, but so far, they have been largely overlooked in historical analysis

  • Documenting the first attempt at a gravitational-wave observatory in Europe

    New York | Heidelberg, 21 March 2022
    EUROGRAV was set to be a network of gravitational wave antennas in Europe. A new paper looks at the reasons it never happened.

  • A cautionary tale of machine learning uncertainty

    New York | Heidelberg, 7 March 2022
    By decorrelating the performance of machine learning algorithms with imperfections in the simulations used to train them, researchers could be estimating uncertainties that are lower than their true values.

  • Tyrannosaurus remains hint at two possible species distinct from T. rex

    London, 1st March 2022

    A new analysis of Tyrannosaurus skeletal remains reveals physical differences in the femur, other bones and dental structures across specimens that could suggest Tyrannosaurus rex specimens need to be re-categorised into three distinct groups or species, reports a study published in Evolutionary Biology.

  • An overview of neutrinos and their interactions

    New York | Heidelberg, 18 February 2022
    A new summary of the study of neutrinos, and the ways in which they interact with regular matter, could inspire both new and senior neutrino researchers to open up new areas of investigation within the field.

  • A new era of research into laser-matter interactions

    New York | Heidelberg, 8 February 2022
    Studies of laser-matter interactions are an important and rapidly growing area of physics. This special issue of EPJ ST, edited by Sivarama Krishnan at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras and Marcel Mudrich at Aarhus University, Denmark, contains a set of 21 articles in this field, encompassing a broad range of experimental and theoretical approaches. The collection provides researchers with useful insights into this burgeoning area of science, and the exciting applications it may soon lead to.

  • A shifting approach to modelling phase transitions

    New York | Heidelberg, 2 February 2022
    Between the years 1937 and 1970, physicists went from taking a ‘naturalistic’ approach to modelling phase transitions, to a ‘caricature’ approach – which incorporated far less realistic models. New analysis of this period provides new insights into this profound shift in thinking.

  • Reassessing radon as a reliable groundwater tracer

    New York | Heidelberg, 1 February 2022
    A widely used technique for tracing natural radioactive atoms within flowing groundwater may not be as accurate as previously thought.

  • Assessing and optimising the quality of sensor networks

    New York | Heidelberg, 1 February 2022
    A new method for optimising the arrangements of complex sensor networks could lead to improvements in a variety of cutting-edge experiments: including the ongoing search for Dark Matter

  • Understanding changes in a non-equilibrium economy

    New York | Heidelberg, 1 February 2022
    A novel theory can link abrupt, non-equilibrium changes to the state of the economy to a central principle of dynamics and thermodynamics

  • Small study found no evidence of transmitting virus through breastfeeding

    London, 19th January 2022

    There is no evidence of recently infected mothers transmitting infectious SARS-CoV-2 through breastmilk to their baby, reports a study published in the journal Pediatric Research.

  • Examining recent developments in Quantum Chromodynamics

    New York | Heidelberg, 22 December 2021
    The strong nuclear force is responsible for binding together quarks, the basic building blocks of protons and neutrons, that comprise almost all of the visible matter. A new collection looks at recent development in the field of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) from a range of perspectives.

  • An exploration of tipping in complex systems

    New York | Heidelberg, 22 November 2021
    This special issue examines the extensive landscape of research into tipping within complex systems, and provides guidance as to where the field will likely be headed in the future.

  • Examining the dynamics of complex networks

    New York | Heidelberg, 22 November 2021
    A new collection of papers focuses on the theories and methodology of dynamical networks with a focus on neuroscience and Earth sciences, and climate systems.

  • Celebrating the impacts of Jacques Raynal’s work in the development of nuclear reaction formalism, codes and analysis

    New York | Heidelberg, 12 November 2021
    This topical article edition of EPJ A is dedicated to the memory of French nuclear physicist Jacques Raynal, who passed away on April 10th, 2020.

  • Hubble tension: Showing the cracks in Gaussian Processes

    New York | Heidelberg, 12 November 2021
    Today, Gaussian Processes data reconstruction is viewed as a vital tool in cosmology. Yet through new analysis of tensions in the value of Hubble’s constant, two researchers suggest that the approach may not be as valid as currently thought.

  • The first black hole image: A gravitomagnetic monopole as an alternative explanation

    New York | Heidelberg, 12 November 2021
    The Event Horizon Telescope made science history when it captured the first image of the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87. New research suggests alternative explanations for the massive compact object at the centre of this galaxy questioning if this could contain gravitomagnetic monopole.

  • Black hole thermodynamics: a history from Penrose to Hawking

    New York | Heidelberg, 21 October 2021
    New research explores the historical context of Penrose’s theory of black hole energy extraction, and how it inspired collaborations across political boundaries: ultimately leading to Stephen Hawking’s celebrated theory of black hole radiation.

  • Examining the accelerating Universe

    New York | Heidelberg, 21 October 2021
    A new collection of papers focuses on the paradigm of the accelerating expansion of the Universe in turn unpacking some of cosmology’s most pressing questions.

  • Quantum battles in attoscience: Following three debates

    New York | Heidelberg, 21 October 2021
    Discussions among an extensive panel of attoscience researchers have clarified points of tension within the field, and offer new suggestions of how research should move forward in the face of these divisions.

  • African grey parrots may have better self-control than macaws

    African grey parrots may be better able than macaws to delay gratification – rejecting an immediate reward in favour of a better one in the future – according to a study published in the journal Animal Cognition.

  • Mixing mineral and chemical sunscreens may limit protection against UVA

    Combining chemical sunscreen mixtures, which are safe on their own, with zinc oxide, which is commonly used in hybrid sunscreens, may result in decreased UVA protection, according to a study published in Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences. Sunscreen mixed with zinc oxide was also found to cause toxic effects when tested in zebra fish embryos reports the study.

  • Uncovering fragmentation differences in chiral biomolecules

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 August 2021
    By combining mass spectroscopy with further analytical and simulation techniques, researchers have revealed key differences in the fragmentation of dipeptide biomolecules with different chiral structures

  • Understanding the ionisation of proton-impacted helium

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 August 2021
    Advanced mathematical analysis of the ionisation of a helium atom by an impacting proton has revealed where discrepancies arise between experiments and existing theoretical calculations of the process

  • Beer mats make bad frisbees and why it matters

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 August 2021
    Whilst modelling the forces acting upon a thrown beer mat, physicists discover why flat discs have such poor flight potential.

  • Revisiting Clebsch’s early papers

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 August 2021
    New analysis of two recently translated papers, first published in the 1850s, assesses the early methods used by Alfred Clebsch to describe the flow of incompressible fluids, and explores their impact on active areas of cutting-edge research

  • Using particle accelerators to investigate the quark-gluon plasma of the infant Universe

    New York | Heidelberg, 8 August 2021
    In the early stages of the Universe, quarks and gluons were quickly confined to protons and neutrons which went on to form atoms. With particle accelerators reaching increasingly higher energy levels the opportunity to study this fleeting primordial state of matter has finally arrived.

  • Gaining insight into the Universe’s most powerful objects and events

    New York | Heidelberg, 29 July 2021
    A timely new collection reminds us that even in times of great hardship, our understanding of the Universe’s most explosive, spectacular and mysterious events and objects continues to grow

  • Celebrating the life and work of Mahir Hussein through cutting-edge research

    New York | Heidelberg, 29 July 2021
    A new collection of papers focusing on the dynamics of nuclei pays fitting tribute to Iraqi/Brazilian physicist Mahir Saleh Hussein.

  • Exposure to second-hand marijuana smoke associated with more frequent respiratory infections in children

    Children whose parents regularly smoke or vape marijuana may experience viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold, more frequently than those whose parents do not smoke, according to a study published in the journal Pediatric Research.

  • Simulating microswimmers in nematic fluids

    New York | Heidelberg, 12 July 2021
    A combination of two simulation techniques has allowed researchers to investigate how swimming microparticles propel themselves through ‘nematic liquid crystals’ – revealing some unusual behaviours

  • Hunting Dark Energy with Gravity Resonance Spectroscopy

    New York | Heidelberg, 29 June 2021
    A highly sophisticated technique enables researchers to search for minuscule anomalies in the quantum state transitions of neutrons, which could offer key clues about the elusive nature of Dark Energy

  • Studying wombat burrows with WomBot, a remote-controlled robot

    A new robot – named WomBot – that can be used to explore and study wombat burrows is presented in a study published in the journal SN Applied Sciences.

  • THOR: Driving collaboration in heavy-ion collision research

    New York | Heidelberg, 3 June 2021
    As an expansive platform for collaboration between different research groups, the THOR COST Action has enabled hundreds of physicists studying the aftermath of high-energy collisions between heavy ions to improve their predictions

  • Understanding the mechanism that gives light a ‘little extra push’

    New York | Heidelberg, 7 May 2021
    The use of light to move matter has a wide range of technological applications and could one day even power spaceflight. New research suggests a method to better understand this subtle phenomenon.

  • A deeper understanding of how cells move and stick together

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 May 2021
    The way cells adhere to surfaces is an important element in allowing them to form cohesive tissues. A new study looks at how cells stick to a surface and spread across it.

  • Obesity may be a more significant risk factor for death from COVID-19 for men than women

    Obesity may be a stronger risk factor for death, severe pneumonia and the need for intubation in men than in women with COVID-19, according to a study published in the European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases.

  • Investigating heavy quark physics with the LHCb experiment

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 April 2021
    In ten years of operation the LHCb experiment has probed the nature of physics attempting to answer some of the Universe’s most fundamental questions. A new review examines its past achievements and future potential.

  • Investigating heavy quark physics with the LHCb experiment

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 April 2021
    In ten years of operation the LHCb experiment has probed the nature of physics attempting to answer some of the Universe’s most fundamental questions. A new review examines its past achievements and future potential.

  • Tracking the progress of fusion power through 60 years of neutral particle analysis

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 April 2021
    Harnessing the fusion power of the stars requires the control of plasma and a powerful diagnostic tool to analyse it

  • Micro-environmental influences on artificial micromotors

    New York | Heidelberg, 31 March 2021
    New experiments reveal the characteristic ways in which self-propelled ‘Janus particles’ with charged coatings will slide across or move away from charged boundaries in their surrounding environments.

  • Effective Field Theories and the Nature of the Universe

    New York | Heidelberg, 23 March 2021
    Effective Field Theories were introduced to simplify the mathematics involved in unifying interactions into the Standard Model of particle physics. An article in EPJ H presents Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg’s recent lecture on the development of these theories.

  • Modelling speed-ups in nutrient-seeking bacteria

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 March 2021
    By considering how some bacteria will swim faster within higher nutrient concentrations, researchers have created a more accurate model of how these microbes search for nutrients

  • Factoring in gravitomagnetism could do away with dark matter

    New York | Heidelberg, 4 March 2021
    Models of galactic rotation curves built of a general relativistic framework could use gravitomagnetism to explain the effects of dark matter.

  • Investigating dense plasmas with positron waves

    New York | Heidelberg, 26 February 2021
    Astrophysical and lab-created plasmas under the influence of magnetic fields are the source of intense study. New research seeks to understand the dynamics of position waves travelling through these clouds of highly ionised gas.

  • Using neutron scattering to better understand milk composition

    New York | Heidelberg, 26 February 2021
    By using a more complex model for neutron scattering data, researchers can better understand the composition of materials such as milk.

  • Considering disorder and cooperative effects in photon escape rates from atomic gases

    New York | Heidelberg, 26 February 2021
    Investigating more complex models of photon escape rates from cold atomic gases could help researchers learn more about light-matter interactions

  • Slutpage visits may be common among US college students

    Visits to digital groups, websites or email lists that share nude or semi-nude photos of women without their consent, known as slutpages, may be common among US college students, according to a survey conducted at a large university in the USA. The findings, published in the journal Archives of Sexual Behavior, could help inform sexual violence prevention education offered by universities, according to the authors.

  • New data on COVID-19 patients with diabetes show that one in five die within 28 days of hospital admission

    Updated results from the CORONADO study, analysing the outcomes of patients with diabetes admitted to hospital with COVID-19, shows that one in five patients die within 28 days while around half are discharged. The study is published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]), and is by Professor Bertrand Cariou and Professor Samy Hadjadj, diabetologists at l’institut du thorax, University Hospital Nantes, INSERM, CNRS, and University of Nantes, France, and colleagues.

  • Placing cosmological constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology

    New York | Heidelberg, 9 February 2021
    Researchers have used cosmological data to place stringent new limits on a model which emerges in attempts to reconcile gravity with the principles of quantum mechanics.

  • Modelling the brain during pain processing

    New York | Heidelberg, 2 February 2021
    Novel approaches in graph theory have enabled researchers to reveal the characteristic configurations of neurons which arise as our brains process pain

  • A full-scale prototype for muon tomography

    New York | Heidelberg, 1 February 2021
    Building on previous studies of muon tomography techniques, this topical issue demonstrates a full-scale prototype for the technology, capable of determining the position of a small lead block within a large sensing area

  • Paving the way for effective field theories

    New York | Heidelberg, 1 February 2021
    A detailed analysis of theories which approximate the underlying properties of physical systems could lead to new advances in studies of low-energy nuclear processes

  • Absence of supporters during football matches associated with fewer altercations on pitch

    Players, staff and officials engaged in shorter and less extensive emotional behaviour and interactions, such as arguments and discussions in games played during the 2020 Covid-19 pandemic, when supporters were absent. The findings are presented in a case study of 20 FC Redbull Salzburg championship group games published in Humanities and Social Sciences Communications.

  • GEFS: Searching beyond seismology for earthquake precursors

    New York | Heidelberg, 25 January 2021
    A proposed collaborative initiative involving researchers in a wide range of fields could lead to better predictions of large-scale seismic events.

  • Tracking the evolution Maxwell knots

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 January 2021
    New research investigates the properties of particular solutions of Maxwell equations, tracking their evolution over time and determining a route to combine them with other systems.

  • Drinking water in several Chinese cities contains high levels of persistent chemicals

    Drinking water in several cities and regions in China contains high levels of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), according to a study published in Environmental Sciences Europe

  • Characterising cold fusion in 2D models

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 December 2020
    A new 2D modelling approach has been used to directly calculate how hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium after capturing muons

  • Trapping nanoparticles with optical tweezers

    New York | Heidelberg, 10 December 2020
    By exploiting a particular property of light diffraction at the interface between a glass and a liquid, researchers have demonstrated the first optical tweezers capable of trapping nanoscale particles.

  • Predicting epilepsy from neural network models

    New York | Heidelberg, 7 December 2020
    Improved modelling techniques have enabled a group of researchers to better predict how damaging conditions in the brain can be triggered by complex dynamics in branching networks of neurons.

  • Optimising laser-driven electron acceleration

    New York | Heidelberg, 3 December 2020
    A new paper examines how tuning aspects of a powerful laser beam can affect the acceleration of electrons, attempting to find the recipe for maximum net energy gain.

  • Characterising complex flows in 2D bubble swarms

    New York | Heidelberg, 3 December 2020
    In 2D simulations, the flows surrounding rising swarms of bubbles display characteristically different behaviours to those observed in 3D models

  • Detecting solar neutrinos with the Borexino experiment

    New York | Heidelberg, 3 December 2020
    Neutrinos produced by the CNO cycle within the core of the Sun are being hunted by the Borexino experiment so that we may learn more about this important nuclear process.

  • Building better diffusion models for active systems

    New York | Heidelberg, 19 November 2020
    Modifications to existing theories have enabled researchers to better understand and model the dynamics of systems which don’t obey conventional laws of diffusion.

  • Surgical face masks may impair facial identification

    People may not be able to correctly verify the identity of individuals in photos if they are wearing surgical face masks, according to a study published in the open access journal Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications.

  • Modelling microswimmers for drug delivery

    New York | Heidelberg, 11 November 2020
    Mathematical models of the motion of cells in viscous liquids that show how this motion is affected by the presence of a surfactant coating have applications in the design of artificial microswimmers for targeted drug delivery, micro-surgery and other applications.

  • Investigating optical activity under an external magnetic field

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 November 2020
    New research reveals that applying a magnetic field to a chiral metamaterial can change the way it polarises light.

  • Outcome of 2016 US election associated with poorer mental health in Clinton voters

    There were 54.6 million more days of poor mental health among adults in states that voted for Hillary Clinton in December 2016, compared to October 2016, according to a study published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

  • Identifying biomolecule fragments in ionising radiation

    New York | Heidelberg, 28 October 2020
    Research published in EPJ D has revealed how the nature of biomolecule fragmentation varies with the energies of electrons produced when living cells are irradiated with heavy ions.

  • Weak equivalence principle violated in gravitational waves

    New York | Heidelberg, 28 October 2020
    Calculations reveal that a key principle of classical physics is broken by quantum particles as they pass through ripples in spacetime.

  • Slowing light in an optical cavity with mechanical resonators and mirrors

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 October 2020
    Theoretical physicists Kamran Ullah and Hameed Ullah have shown how a position-dependent mass optomechanical system involving a cavity between two mirrors, one attached to a resonator, can enhance induced transparency and reduce the speed of light.

  • Avoiding environmental losses in quantum information systems

    New York | Heidelberg, 28 September 2020
    Through new techniques for generating ‘exceptional points’ in quantum information systems, researchers have minimised the transitions through which they lose information to their surrounding environments.

  • Antiferromagnet lattice arrangements influence phase transitions

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 September 2020
    Calculations involving ‘imaginary’ magnetic fields show how the transitioning behaviours of antiferromagnets are subtly shaped by their lattice arrangements.

  • Impurities enhance polymer LED efficiencies

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 September 2020
    Molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the mysteriously high efficiency of polymer LEDs arises from interactions between triplet excitons in their polymer chains, and unpaired electrons in their molecular impurities.

  • A question of reality

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 September 2020
    John Stewart Bell’s eponymous theorem and inequalities set out, mathematically, the contrast between quantum mechanical theories and local realism. They are used in quantum information, which has evolving applications in security, cryptography and quantum computing.

  • Climate change may harm flight of Monarch butterflies

    Projected increases in global temperature may reduce the flight performance and alter the wing shape of North America’s Monarch butterflies in a way that may impede their ability to migrate, according to an experimental study published in the Journal of Insect Conservation.

  • Understanding electron transport in graphene nanoribbons

    New York | Heidelberg, 10 September 2020
    New understanding of the electrical properties of graphene nanoribbons (GRBs), when bounded with aromatic molecules, could have significant benefits in the development of chemosensors and personalised medicine.

  • Measuring electron emission from irradiated biomolecules

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 August 2020
    OrigiA new experiment has characterised the properties of the electrons emitted when a key constituent of DNA is bombarded with high-velocity ions.

  • Updating Turing’s model of pattern formation

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 August 2020
    Through fresh analysis of a method first proposed by Alan Turing to explain the diversity of natural patterns, a team of researchers offer new explanations of how living systems can order themselves on large scales.

  • People with right-wing authoritarian attitudes less likely to alter existing beliefs

    People with strong right-wing authoritarian attitudes, which are characterised by a desire for order, structure, and preservation of social norms, are less likely to alter their beliefs in response to new information, according to a study published in the journal Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

  • Music training may not make children smarter after all

    Music training does not have a positive impact on children’s cognitive skills, such as memory, and academic achievement, such as maths, reading or writing, according to a study published in Memory & Cognition

  • Study links abnormally high blood sugar with higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients not previously diagnosed with diabetes

    London, 10th July 2020

    New research from Wuhan, China shows that, in patients with COVID-19 but without a previous diagnosis of diabetes, abnormally high blood sugar is associated with more than double the risk of death and also an increased risk of severe complications. The study is by Dr Yang Jin, Union Hospital and Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China, and colleagues. The study is published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]).

  • Pet dogs may improve social-emotional development in young children

    London, 6th July 2020

    Young children from dog-owning households have better social and emotional wellbeing than children from households who do not own a dog, suggests research published in the journal Pediatric Research.

  • Polymers can fine-tune attractions between suspended nanocubes

    New York | Heidelberg, 19 June 2020
    Interactions between hollow silica nanocubes suspended in a solution can be adjusted by varying the concentration of polymer molecules added to the mixture.

  • Skyrmion dynamics and traverse mobility

    New York | Heidelberg, 19 June 2020
    Skyrmions could revolutionise computing exhibiting great potential in the electronic storage of information, and the key to such a breakthrough could be understanding their behaviour under applied currents.

  • Simulating cooperation in local communities

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 June 2020
    Simulations reveal how the social benefits of supplies to goods and service providers in China could be improved through a payoff transfer system, which rewards individuals who cooperate the most with their local communities.

  • Exploring mass dependence in electron-hole clusters

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 June 2020
    New calculations reveal that the behaviours of electron-hole clusters depend strongly on the masses of their particles.

  • Spacecrafts get a boost in ‘Aerogravity Assisted’ interactions

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 June 2020
    New research examines the effect of rotation and other variables in the applications of ‘aerogravity assisted’ manoeuvres to obtain an energy boost for space craft.

  • Reducing the risk of space debris collision

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 June 2020
    An increase in space launches requires the development of a method to clear space debris which could collide with valuable equipment. One plausible method of achieving this through the use of a tug vehicle requires a successful connection procedure.

  • Protecting Earth from asteroid impact with a tethered diversion

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 June 2020
    The use of a tether assisted system could prevent an asteroid impacting Earth without the risk of fragmentation.

  • First study of COVID-19 patients with diabetes shows that 10% die within seven days of hospital admission and two thirds are men

    London, 28th May 2020

    The first study of COVID-19 to specifically analyse the effect of the disease in hospitalised patients with diabetes has found that one in ten patients dies within 7 days of hospital admission, and one in five is intubated and mechanically ventilated by this point. The research is published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]), by Professor Bertrand Cariou and Professor Samy Hadjadj, diabetologists at l’institut du thorax, University Hospital Nantes, INSERM, CNRS, and University of Nantes, France, and colleagues.

  • ‘Bottom-heavy squirmers’ adopt characteristic group behaviours

    New York | Heidelberg, 27 May 2020
    Simulated particles which mimic the behaviours of self-propelling microorganisms have distinct collective properties which depend on their velocities and bottom-heaviness.

  • Stresses and flows in ultra-cold superfluids

    New York | Heidelberg, 8 May 2020
    Mathematical modelling of superfluids, which exhibit quantum mechanical properties at a macroscopic scale, shows that they become deformed when flowing around impurities.

  • Mathematical curves predict evolution in Covid-19 spread

    New York | Heidelberg, 23 April 2020
    With the right approach, statistics can be used to reliably track the growth and fall in daily new cases of Covid-19 in China, raising hopes that similar approaches could more accurately predict the spread of the virus in other nations.

  • What protects minority languages from extinction?

    New York | Heidelberg, 21 April 2020
    Mathematical modelling of competing languages in a geographical area suggests two scenarios in which one or more minority languages will be more likely to survive.

  • Modelling wrinkling and buckling in materials that form the basis of flexible electronics

    New York | Heidelberg, 20 April 2020
    As the demand for flexible electronics grows, researchers must develop robust models of how the materials that comprise them behave under stress.

  • Questionable stability of dissipative topological models for classical and quantum systems

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 April 2020Physicists Rebekka Koch and Jan Carl Budich make important contributions to understanding dissipative topological systems by studying the spectral instabilities that occur in the mathematical description and their effect on experimental setups in a new paper in EPJ D.

  • Looking for dark matter

    New York | Heidelberg, 8 April 2020
    A new paper in EPJ D, ‘Constraining domain wall dark matter with a network of superconducting gravimeters and LIGO’, suggests two novel methods of searching for dark matter by measuring tiny perturbations in fundamental constants.

  • Models explain changes in cooking meat

    New York | Heidelberg, 1 April 2020
    By treating meat as a network of flexible polymers surrounded by flowing moisture, computer models can accurately predict how much it will shrink when cooked.

  • Factors associated with discontinuation of erectile dysfunction treatment

    London, 31st March 2020

    The factors associated with men ending treatment for erectile dysfunction have been reviewed in a study published in IJIR: Your Sexual Medicine Journal. The most influential factors reported were treatment ineffectiveness, side effects, the quality of one’s intimate relationship and cost of treatment. The review also highlights the importance of men’s beliefs with regards to erectile dysfunction and its treatment and suggests that these beliefs are potentially modifiable.

  • Frozen-planet states in exotic helium atoms

    New York | Heidelberg, 18 March 2020
    In an elegant study published in EPJ D, physicists from Serbia and Russia have mapped the energy levels and estimated the stability of a ‘frozen planet’ configuration of anti-protonic helium.

  • Distortion isn’t a drag on fluid-straddling particles

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 March 2020
    The drag forces experienced by particles which straddle and distort the interfaces between un-mixable fluids are less influenced by the shape of the distortion than previously thought.

  • Separations between earthquakes reveal clear patterns

    New York | Heidelberg, 25 February 2020
    A new analysis of real earthquake data shows that the similarity between inter-earthquake times and distances displays a distinct relationship with their separation from an initial earthquake.

  • Possible effects of maternal migration on young children in rural China

    London, 12th March 2020

    Maternal migration before children reach 30 months of age may be associated with delayed cognitive development and lower nutritional status in children in rural China, according to a study published in the journal Demography.

  • A better starting point for exploring entanglement

    New York | Heidelberg, 25 February 2020
    Updated mathematical techniques which can distinguish between two types of ‘non-Gaussian curve’ could make it easier for researchers to study the nature of quantum entanglement.

  • Stimulating resonance with two very different forces

    New York | Heidelberg, 25 February 2020
    In some specialised oscillators, two driving forces with significantly different frequencies can work together to make the whole system resonate.

  • Deconstructing Schrödinger’s Cat

    New York | Heidelberg, 14 February 2020
    The French theoretical physicist Franck Laloë presents a modification of Schrödinger’s famous equation that ensures that all measured states are unique, helping to solve the problem that is neatly encompassed in the Schördinger’s cat paradox.

  • Breaking up amino acids with radiation

    New York | Heidelberg, 5 February 2020
    A new study describes how the amino acid, glutamine, is broken up when bombarded with different doses of electrons. This has implications for cancer radiotherapy and understanding the origin of life.

  • Ultracold gases in time-dependent magnetic fields

    New York | Heidelberg, 5 February 2020
    The phase transitions of an ultracold gas under a fluctuating magnetic field show interesting patterns, particularly a loss of symmetry in the energy spectrum that is well observed in the disappearance of the ‘Hofstadter’s butterfly’ effect.

  • Exploring strangeness and the primordial Universe

    New York | Heidelberg, 31 January 2020
    Having studied quark-gluon plasma since the late 1970s, Dr Johann Rafelski summarises the evolution in our understanding of the exotic quark signature of this primordial material which once filled the whole Universe.

  • Spinning quantum dots

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 January 2020
    A theoretical analysis of electron spins in slowly moving quantum dots suggests these can be controlled by electric fields.

  • Buckyballs release electron-positron pairs in forward directions

    New York | Heidelberg, 23 December 2019
    Theoretical calculations reveal that when impacted by positrons of particular energies, spherical nanoparticles release unstable electron-positron pairs, with signals dominating in the same direction as the incoming positrons.

  • Time-to-death of Roman emperors followed distinct pattern

    London, 23rd December 2019

    Roman emperors faced a high risk of violent death in their first year of rule, but the risk slowly declined over the next seven years, according to an article published in the open access journal Palgrave Communications.

  • Laser-based prototype probes cold atom dynamics

    New York | Heidelberg, 16 December 2019
    A new prototype design doubles the frequencies of widely used telecommunications lasers to study the dynamics of cold atoms while in space.

  • Unpacking the mystery of Feynman’s reference amplifier

    New York | Heidelberg, 13 December 2019
    A review of lectures given by Feynman between 1946 and 1971 showcase the strong influence that his involvement in the Manhattan Project held on his research, while revealing an intriguing mystery surrounding one particular amplifier device.

  • Colliding molecules and antiparticles

    New York | Heidelberg, 13 December 2019
    A new theoretical study of the interaction between positrons and simple tetrahedral and octahedral molecules agrees with experimental work and could have useful implications for PET scanning techniques.

  • Better studying superconductivity in single-layer graphene

    New York | Heidelberg, 13 December 2019
    An existing technique is better suited to describing superconductivity in pure, single-layer graphene than current methods.

  • Proton-hydrogen collision model could impact fusion research

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 December 2019
    A new theoretical model predicts how protons will collide with hydrogen atoms which have been excited to higher energy levels, over a wide range of impact energies.

  • Preterm birth linked to increased rates of diabetes in children and young adults, with certain effects stronger in females

    London, 5th December 2019

    New research shows that preterm birth is linked to increased rates of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young adults, with certain effects stronger in females. People who have been born preterm may need more intensive monitoring and prevention efforts to lower their risk of diabetes, concludes the study, published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]).

  • Chronic opioid treatment may increase PTSD risk

    London, 2nd December 2019

    Long-term (chronic) treatment with opioids, such as morphine, prior to trauma enhances fear learning in mice, according to a study published in Neuropsychopharmacology

  • Mathematics reveals new insights into Marangoni flows

    New York | Heidelberg, 25 October 2019
    New theoretical analysis describing the movements of impurity-laden, temperature-varying fluids at water-air interfaces better matches previous experimental observations.

  • Advanced cancer drug shrinks and intercalates DNA

    New York | Heidelberg, 25 October 2019
    Experiments and statistical models reveal that the recently developed cancer drug Pixantrone forces itself inside the double helix structure of DNA molecules, then shrinks their backbones.

  • Years of education may impact drinking behaviour and risk of alcohol dependence

    London, 25th October 2019

    Higher educational attainment – spending more years in education – may impact people’s drinking behaviour and reduce their risk of alcohol dependence, according to a study published in Molecular Psychiatry.

  • Science reveals improvements in Roman building techniques

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 October 2019
    A variety of scientific techniques have been combined to highlight improvements in the technologies employed by the Romans in successive modifications to the Atrium Vestae in Rome.

  • Retrieving physical properties from two-colour laser experiments

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 October 2019
    Useful information about ultrafast light-matter interactions is buried deep in the signals produced by two-colour pump-probe experiments, and requires sophisticated techniques to disentangle it.

  • Deflating beach balls and drug delivery

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 October 2019
    The deflation of beach balls, squash balls and other common objects offers a good model for distortion in microscopic hollow spheres. This can help us understand the properties of some cells and, potentially, develop new drug delivery mechanisms.

  • Determining the shapes of atomic clusters

    New York | Heidelberg, 24 October 2019
    By considering the crystal structures of atomic clusters in new ways, researchers may be able to better assess whether the groups have distinctive shapes, or whether they are amorphous.

  • Modelling ion beam therapy

    New York | Heidelberg, 9 October 2019
    Recent analysis shows precisely how beams of charged particles transfer their energy to water, which has important implications for how these beams are targeted in ion beam cancer therapy.

  • Shocking embryonic limbs into shape

    New York | Heidelberg, 18 September 2019
    Electrical stimulation of early chicken embryos has shed light on the process through which the limbs of all vertebrates are formed.

  • Fractal patterns in growing bacterial colonies

    New York | Heidelberg, 18 September 2019
    A new agent-based computer modelling technique has been applied to the growth and sliding movement of colonies of bacteria

  • Global warming may threaten availability of essential brain-building fatty acid

    London, 12th September 2019

    By 2100, 96% of the global population may not have sufficient access to a naturally occurring essential brain-building omega-3 fatty acid, according to a study in the journal Ambio.

  • Conductivity at the edges of graphene bilayers

    New York | Heidelberg, 11 September 2019
    The conductivity of dual layers of graphene greatly depends on the states of carbon atoms at their edges; a property which could have important implications for information transmissions on quantum scales.

  • Science puts historical claims to the test

    New York | Heidelberg, 6 September 2019
    The latest analytical techniques available to scientists can confirm the validity of historical sources in some cases, and suggest a need for reconsideration in others

  • Realistic robots get under Galápagos lizards’ skin

    London, 5th September 2019

    Male lava lizards are sensitive to the timing of their opponents’ responses during contest displays, with quicker responses being perceived as more aggressive, a study in Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology suggests.

  • Fragmenting ions and radiation sensitizers

    New York | Heidelberg, 3 September 2019
    A new study using mass spectrometry is helping piece together what happens when DNA that has been sensitized by the oncology drug 5-fluorouracil is subjected to the ionising radiation used in radiotherapy.

  • Enabling longer space missions

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 August 2019
    Hall thrusters, which are already used to propel spacecraft and satellites on long missions, could be used for even longer ones if models for minimising surface erosion were taken into account.

  • Quantum momentum

    New York | Heidelberg, 5 August 2019
    A new quantum-mechanical model has been developed that allows the momentum of quantum particles to be measured using a variant of the classical time-of-flight

  • Entropy explains RNA diffusion rates in cells

    New York | Heidelberg, 5 August 2019
    Mathematical analysis reveals that the exponential patterns in RNA diffusion rates linked to small-scale diffusive behaviours

  • Chemotherapy drugs react differently to radiation while in water

    New York | Heidelberg, 5 August 2019
    A new study looked at the way certain molecules found in chemotherapy drugs react to radiation while in water, which is more similar to in the body, compared to previous research that studied them in gas

  • Spinning towards robust microwave generation on the nano scale

    New York | Heidelberg, 5 August 2019
    New study explains why it is not possible to couple nano-scale microwave generators known as spin-torque oscillators together in series to generate a macroscopic strength signal

  • New insights into the early stages of creep deformation

    New York | Heidelberg, 30 July 2019
    Computer simulations show that the evolution of material structures during creep deformation can modify material properties

  • Optimising structures within complex arrangements of bubbles

    New York | Heidelberg, 30 July 2019
    Computer simulations reveal how groups of bubbles with two different areas can be optimised to minimise the lengths of the edges at which they touch, potentially allowing for stronger, cheaper structures which emulate bubbly foams.

  • Laser solitons: theory, topology and potential applications

    New York | Heidelberg, 30 July 2019
    A group of Russian physicists reviews recent developments in the field of laser solitons, which they have made their own and which may have applications in digital information storage.

  • Diabetes increases the risk of heart failure more in women than men

    London, 18 July 2019

    Diabetes confers a greater excess risk of heart failure in women than men, according to new research in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes).

  • Simulations fix the cracks in magnetic mirrors

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 July 2019
    Computer simulations reveal that magnetic mirrors can be tweaked to confine plasma more effectively, by fine-tuning both the arrangements of their electromagnets, and the initial properties of the plasma itself

  • Spread-changing orders and deletions affect stock prices

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 July 2019
    A new analysis of the bid-ask spread of stock prices reveals that placements and deletions of trade orders can affect stock prices as much as trades themselves

  • Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum chromodynamics simulations

    New York | Heidelberg, 17 July 2019
    A new Monte Carlo based simulation method enables more precise simulation for ensembles of elementary particles

  • Improving heat recycling with the thermodiffusion effect

    New York | Heidelberg, 15 July 2019
    Numerical simulations of the thermodiffusion effect within falling film absorbers reveal that thin films composed of liquid mixtures with negative thermodiffusion coefficients enhance the efficiency of heat recycling

  • UK study shows obesity in pregnant women associated with a 3.5 times increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the child

    London, 25th June 2019

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a 3.5-times increased future risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the child, concludes new research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes).

  • How to stop diseases and forest fires from spreading

    New York | Heidelberg, 12 June 2019
    A new model, published in EPJ B and exploring how epidemics spread, could help prevent infections and forest fires from getting out of hand

  • No assumptions needed to simulate petroleum reservoirs

    New York | Heidelberg, 4 June 2019
    Hydrocarbons trapped within porous media are easier to model with computer simulations than researchers previously assumed – a discovery that opens up new possibilities for thermodynamics research.

  • Dowsing for electric fields in liquid crystals

    New York | Heidelberg, 3 June 2019
    The orientation of the ordered molecules that make up nematic liquid crystals can change under electric fields, and can be used to detect subtle electrical effects.

  • Inhibitory neurons have two types of impact on brain oscillations

    New York | Heidelberg, 28 May 2019
    A certain type of neuron, called inhibitory neurons, can have two types of overall effect on oscillations in the brain

  • Collagen fibres grow like a sunflower

    New York | Heidelberg, 13 May 2019
    A new study suggests the pattern of fibres in tissues is similar to the petals of a flower

  • Using a mobile while browsing the shelves may make shoppers buy more

    London, 7th May 2019

    In-store mobile phone use that is unrelated to shopping may be associated with an increase in unplanned purchases, according to a study published in the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.

  • Vaccine shows lasting effects against fentanyl addiction in rats

    London, 2nd May 2019

    A vaccine that combines a fentanyl antigen with a tetanus toxoid has been shown to reduce fentanyl choices and increase food choices with effects lasting several months in rats.

  • How red blood cells behave in crowded vessels

    New York | Heidelberg, 26 April 2019
    A new model of red blood flowing through narrow capillaries shows that the cells change shape and alignment, allowing plasma to flow down the sides

  • Study reveals elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in young women who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy

    New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for Study of Diabetes [EASD]) shows that, in women who develop gestational diabetes (GDM) during pregnancy, the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the years following childbirth is doubled compared to women who do not develop GDM.