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Engineering | References


General Considerations Regarding References 

The author is responsible for the accuracy of the references. To minimize citation errors, authors should verify references against the original documents. All listed references must be cited in the text.
References should be limited to pertinent works or papers that have been published or accepted for publication in journals covered by major scientific databases.
An abstract or paper published in conference proceedings, research reports, or theses may be cited only when it is the sole source. An internet address as source for a reference is only allowed when it points to a peer reviewed electronic journal. In case a reference points to a foreign language journal, the language should be provided in square brackets (e.g. [publication in French]). This is also only allowed when it is the sole source.
Avoid citing a personal communication unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. Authors should obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication.
Although references to review articles can be an efficient way of guiding readers to a body of literature, review articles do not always reflect recent original work. Authors should therefore provide a balanced list of references to original research sources and review articles in order to avoid extensive lists of references that use excessive words and space on the printed page. Usually, this can be achieved with fewer than 30 references.

Reference Style and Format 

The list of references should be alphabetically by the last name of the first author, and numbered serially. Citations in the text should be identified by appropriate numbers in square brackets, and consecutive references should be concatenated (e.g. [7, 12-15]). The names of all authors should be listed. References by the same author or group of authors should be listed in chronological order.
Journal titles should be properly abbreviated according to ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php
References should be styled as follows, with correct punctuation:
  • Journal articles:
    Only the first word is capitalized in the title of the article.
    Wahle A, Prause GPM, von Birgelen C, Erbel R, Sonka M (1999) Fusion of angiography and intravascular ultrasound in vivo: Establishing the absolute 3-D frame orientation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 46:1176-1180
    Articles which have been accepted for publication should be listed with the expected year of publication (if known) and name of the journal. In place of volume and page numbers, add (in press) at the end.
  • Books:
    Main words of book title are capitalized. Provide inclusive page numbers when possible.
    Nichols W, O'Rourke M (1998) McDonald's Blood Flow in Arteries: Theoretic, Experimental and Clinical Principles. 3rd ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 54-97
    South J, Blass B (2001) The Future of Modern Genomics. Blackwell, London, pp 32-56
  • Chapter in multi-author books:
    Provide editor(s), publisher, place, and inclusive page numbers.
    Hovind HJ (1986) Traumatic birth injuries. In: Raimondi AJ, Choux M, Di Rocco C (eds) Head Injuries in the Newborn and Infant. Principles of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 87–109
    Nyary I, Vajda J (1986) Clinical evidence for compressed lacunar veins causing plateau waves. In: Miller JD, Teasdale GM, Rowan JO, Galbraith SL, Mendelow AD (eds), Intracranial Pressure, vol. VI, Springer, Berlin, pp 142–145
  • Abstract in journal:
    Like Journal article, but add (abstract) at end.
  • Article in conference proceedings:
    Like chapter in book, but provide name of conference proceedings, editors, publisher and place, and page number(s). If applicable, include volume, organizer and conference location.
    Author (Year) Title of article. In: Editor(s) of proceedings, Conference Name, Publisher, Place, Pages.
    Conference Location and Organization may be used in case Publisher and Place are not available. Some examples are given here:
    Holzapfel GA, Schulze-Bauer CAJ, Stadler M (2000) Mechanics of angioplasty: Wall, balloon and stent. In: Casey J, Bao G (eds) Mechanics in Biology. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers; New York, AMD-Vol. 242/BED-Vol. 46, pp 141–156
    Itho K, Hayashi T, Muramoto A, Miyakawa M (1997) Controllability of temporomandibular joint loading by masculation: an analysis using a two-dimension static model incorporating a spring mode of the articular disk. In: Jeager R, Agarwal G, Mykleburst B, Feinberg B (eds) Proceedings of the 19th International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Chicago, Part 4 of 6, IEEE Service Center, Piscataway, NJ, pp1847-1848. Also available from CD-ROM, #85
    Sonka M, Zhang X, Siebes M, Chada RR, McKay CM, Collins SM (1994) Automated detection of wall and plaque borders in intravascular ultrasound images. In: Hoffman EA, Acharya RS (eds) Medical Imaging 1994: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, SPIE 2168, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, pp 13-22
    Svensson J, Gårdhagen R, Heiberg E, Ebbers T, Loyd D, Länne T, Karlsson M (2006) Feasibility of Patient Specific Aortic Blood Flow CFD Simulation. In: Larsen R, Nielsen M, Sporring J (eds) 10th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI), LNCS 4190, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 257–263. DOI 10.1007/11866565
  • PhD Thesis:
    Note: Avoid citing a Master’s Thesis which is generally not available to the public.
    Dekker LRC (1996) Role of intracellular calcium in ischemic damage and preconditioning in cardiac muscle. PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Internet page:
    Try to avoid reference to an internet page and when needed do so in the text between brackets. Internet pages often change or disappear. Sometimes, internet pages are steady (subject to judgment of the Editor) and incorporation in the reference list is allowed. In that case make sure the reference is both current and complete.
    Parker KH (2008) An introduction to wave intensity analysis. http://www.bg.ic.ac.uk/research/intro_to_wia/welcome.html Accessed 23 Sept 2009
    Weisstein E (2008) Correlation coefficient. Wolfram web resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CorrelationCoefficient.html Accessed 23 Sept 2009