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Earth Sciences & Geography - Oceanography | Journal of Oceanography

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Journal of Oceanography

Journal of Oceanography

edited by The Oceanographic Society of Japan

Editor-in-Chief: Naoto Ebuchi

ISSN: 0916-8370 (print version)
ISSN: 1573-868X (electronic version)

Journal no. 10872

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Instructions for Authors

Manuscript Submission 

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. The editorial board of the journal decides the acceptance of the manuscript on the basis of peer-reviews and is responsible for its final editing. The Society and Springer reserve the copyright of all papers in the Journal.
  • Publishing ethics
    The publishing ethics of the Journal of Oceanography reflects that of Springer. Please refer to the following website:
  • Permissions
    Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owners for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
  • Online Submission
    Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.
  • Listing Fee
    The Oceanographic Society of Japan levies a listing charge for the publication of original papers, reviews, and short contributions. The manuscript, if accepted, will be published only after a commitment to pay the charge on the part of the authors or the financial officer of their institution. If the first author is a member of the Oceanographic Society of Japan when submitting the manuscript, the authors are expected to pay a charge of 20,000 JPY prior to publication. If the first author is NOT a member of the Oceanographic Society of Japan when submitting the manuscript, the authors are expected to pay a charge of 50,000 JPY prior to publication. The authors will be invoiced for the listing fees by the Oceanographic Society of Japan after acceptance, and for offprint and color page charges by Springer separately during the proof stage. Open Choice articles whose first author is a member of the Oceanographic Society of Japan are exempted from the listing fee by the Oceanographic Society of Japan, however the publication charge will be levied by Springer.

Manuscript Preparation 

Title Page

  • Title Page
    The title page should include:
    • The name(s) of the author(s)
    • A concise and informative title
    • The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
    • The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author
  • Abstract
    Please provide an abstract of less than 250 words for original articles or reviews and less than 100 words for short contribution. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
  • Keywords
    Please provide 5-10 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Text 

  • Text Formatting
    Manuscript should be written in English.
    There is no word limit for original papers and reviews, but short contributions should be no more than 3500 words long.
    Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.
    • Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 12-point Times Roman) for text.
    • Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
    • Do not use field functions.
    • Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
    • Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
    • Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
    Note: If you use Word 2007, do not create the equations with the default equation editor but use the Microsoft equation editor or MathType instead.
    • Save your file in doc format. Do not submit docx files.
Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX.
  • Headings
    Please use the decimal system of headings with no more than three levels.
  • Abbreviations
    Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.
  • Footnotes
    Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables. Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols. Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.
  • Acknowledgments
    Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

References 

  • Citation
    Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
    • Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
    • This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
    • This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1993).
  • Reference List
    The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work.
    • Journal article
    Cox RA, McCartney MJ, Culkin F (1970) The specific gravity/salinity/ temperature relationship in natural sea water. Deep Sea Res 17(4):679-689. doi:10.1016/0011-7471(70)90034-3
    Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
    Roemmich D, Gilson J, Davis R et al (2007) Decadal Spinup of the Southern Pacific Subtropical Gyre. J Phys Oceanogr 37(2):162–173
    • Article by DOI
    Johnson GC (2008) Quantifying Antarctic Bottom Water and North Atlantic Deep Water volumes. J Geophys Res 113 C05027. doi:10.1029/2007JC004477
    • Book
    Sverdrup HU, Johnson MW, Fleming RH (1942) The Oceans: Their Physics, Chemistry and General Biology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New York, pp. 1087
    • Book chapter
    Goldberg ED (1965) Minor elements in sea water. In: Riley JP, Skirrow G (eds) Chemical Oceanography, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York, pp. 163-196
    • Online document
    Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
    • Dissertation
    Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
    Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
    http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php

Tables 

• There is no limit on the number of figures and/or tables for original papers and reviews, but short contributions should include no more than 5.
• All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
• Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
• For each table, please supply a table title. The table title should explain clearly and concisely the components of the table.
• Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table title.
• Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.

Artwork 

There is no limit on the number of figures and/or tables for original papers and reviews, but short contributions should include no more than 5.
  • Electronic Figure Submission
    • Supply all figures electronically.
    • Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
    • For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.
    • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
    • Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
  • Line Art
    • Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
    • Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
    • All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
    • Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
    • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
  • Halftone Art
    • Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
    • If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
    • Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
  • Combination Art
    • Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
    • Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
  • Color Art
    • Color art is free of charge for online publication.
    • If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
    • If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
    • Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
  • Figure Lettering
    • To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
    • Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork,usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
    • Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
    • Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
    • Do not include titles or captions into your illustrations.
  • Figure Numbering
    • All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
    • Figures should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
    • Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
    • If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices (Electronic supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered separately.
  • Figure Captions
    • Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
    • Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
    • No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
    • Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
    • Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
  • Figure Placement and Size
    • When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
    • The figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
  • Permissions
    If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.
  • Accessibility
    In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
    • All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
    • Patterns are used instead or in addition to colors for conveying information (color-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
    • Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.

Electronic supplementary material 

Electronic supplementary material will be published in the online version only. It may consist of
• Information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings
• Information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.
• Large original data, e.g. additional tables, illustrations, etc.
  • Submission
    • Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
    • Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
    • To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.
  • Audio, Video, and Animations
    • Always use MPEG-1 (.mpg) format.
  • Text and Presentations
    • Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
    • A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.
  • Spreadsheets
    • Spreadsheets should be converted to PDF if no interaction with the data is intended.
    • If the readers should be encouraged to make their own calculations, spreadsheets should be submitted as .xls files (MS Excel).
  • Specialized Formats
    • Specialized formats such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb
    (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.
  • Collecting Multiple Files
    • It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.

Research Data Policy 

The journal encourages authors, where possible and applicable, to deposit data that support the findings of their research in a public repository. Authors and editors who do not have a preferred repository should consult Springer Nature’s list of repositories and research data policy.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may also be used.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at researchdata@springernature.com.
This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:
  • The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).
  • A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).
  • Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.
  • Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).
  • Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.
  • Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.
*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.
If there is suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud the Journal and/or Publisher will carry out an investigation following COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, there are valid concerns, the author(s) concerned will be contacted under their given e-mail address and given an opportunity to address the issue. Depending on the situation, this may result in the Journal’s and/or Publisher’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the manuscript is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction:
    - an erratum/correction may be placed with the article
    - an expression of concern may be placed with the article
    - or in severe cases retraction of the article may occur.
The reason will be given in the published erratum/correction, expression of concern or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the article is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and the explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed
  • A notice of suspected transgression of ethical standards in the peer review system may be included as part of the author’s and article’s bibliographic record.

Fundamental errors

Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.

Suggesting / excluding reviewers

Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when they submit their manuscripts. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they are totally independent and not connected to the work in any way. It is strongly recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and different institutions. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer, or, if this is not possible to include other means of verifying the identity such as a link to a personal homepage, a link to the publication record or a researcher or author ID in the submission letter. Please note that the Journal may not use the suggestions, but suggestions are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.

Authorship principles 

These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.

Authorship clarified

The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:
All authors whose names appear on the submission
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3) approved the version to be published; and
4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
* Based on/adapted from:

Disclosures and declarations

All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).
The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.

Data transparency

All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations. Please check the Instructions for Authors of the Journal that you are submitting to for specific instructions.

Role of the Corresponding Author

One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:
  • ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors;
  • managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication;*
  • providing transparency on re-use of material and mention any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor;
  • making sure disclosures, declarations and transparency on data statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate (see above).
* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Author contributions

Please check the Instructions for Authors of the Journal that you are submitting to for specific instructions regarding contribution statements.
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the end of the submission.
Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:
• Free text:
All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….
For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.
For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:

Affiliation

The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.

Changes to authorship

Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!
Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.
Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.

Author identification

Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.

Deceased or incapacitated authors

For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.

Authorship issues or disputes

In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.

Confidentiality

Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.
  • Copyright transfer
    Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer. This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws.
    Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.
  • Offprints
    50 offprints of each contribution are supplied free of charge to the corresponding author. Additional offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
  • Color illustrations
    Online publication of color illustrations is free of charge. For color in the print version, authors will be expected to make a contribution towards the extra costs.
  • Proof reading
    Authors are informed by e-mail that a temporary URL has been created from which they can obtain their proofs. The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor. After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
  • Online First
    The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

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For authors and editors


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    2017 Impact Factor
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  • Aims and Scope

    Aims and Scope

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    The Journal of Oceanography is the official journal of the Oceanographic Society of Japan and open to all oceanographers in the world. The main aim of the journal is to promote understandings of ocean systems from various aspects including physical, chemical, biological, geological oceanography as well as paleoceanography, etc. The journal welcomes research focusing on the western North Pacific and Asian coastal waters, but the study region is not limited to the Asian Pacific. The journal publishes original articles, short contributions, reviews, and correspondence in oceanography and related fields.

    Papers describing important new techniques, methods, and apparatuses will also be considered. Descriptive work will, however, be accepted if they contain general principles. Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Please go to http://www.springer.com/10872 for submission and for a full guide for authors.

  • Submit Online
  • Open Choice - Your Way to Open Access
  • Instructions for Authors

    Instructions for Authors

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  • Special Section Procedures (pdf, 114 kB)...
  • Author Academy: Training for Authors
  • English Language Editing

    English Language Editing

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  • Copyright Information

    Copyright Information

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    Copyright Information

    For Authors

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as – tacitly or explicitly – by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

    Author warrants (i) that he/she is the sole owner or has been authorized by any additional copyright owner to assign the right, (ii) that the article does not infringe any third party rights and no license from or payments to a third party is required to publish the article and (iii) that the article has not been previously published or licensed. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. Transfer of copyright to Springer (respective to owner if other than Springer) becomes effective if and when a Copyright Transfer Statement is signed or transferred electronically by the corresponding author. After submission of the Copyright Transfer Statement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted by Springer.

    The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is assigned for good and valuable consideration to Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

    The copyright assignment includes without limitation the exclusive, assignable and sublicensable right, unlimited in time and territory, to reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, make available and store the article, including abstracts thereof, in all forms of media of expression now known or developed in the future, including pre- and reprints, translations, photographic reproductions and microform. Springer may use the article in whole or in part in electronic form, such as use in databases or data networks for display, print or download to stationary or portable devices. This includes interactive and multimedia use and the right to alter the article to the extent necessary for such use.

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