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Biomedical Sciences - Neuroscience | Brain and Mind - A Transdisciplinary Journal of Neuroscience and Neurophilosophy

Brain and Mind

Brain and Mind

A Transdisciplinary Journal of Neuroscience and Neurophilosophy

ISSN: 1389-1987 (print version)
ISSN: 1573-3300 (electronic version)

Journal no. 10547

Instructions for Authors

Brain and Mind

Manuscript Submission 

Springer request the submission of manuscripts and figures in electronic form in addition to a hard−copy printout. The preferred storage medium for your electronic manuscript is a 3 ½ inch diskette. Please label your diskette properly, giving exact details on the name(s) of the file(s), the operating system and software used. Always save your electronic manuscript in the word processor format that you use; conversions to other formats and versions tend to be imperfect. In general, use as few formatting codes as possible. For safety's sake, you should always retain a backup copy of your file(s). After acceptance, please make absolutely sure that you send the latest (i.e., revised) version of your manuscript, both as hard−copy printout and on diskette (submission in electronic form of the final version of your article is compulsory).
Springer prefer articles submitted in word processing packages such as MS Word, WordPerfect, etc. running under operating systems MS DOS, Windows and Apple Macintosh, or in the file format LaTeX. Articles submitted in other software programs can also be accepted.
For submission in LaTeX, Springer have developed a Kluwer LaTeX class file, which can be downloaded from the link below.
Use of this class file is highly recommended. Do not use versions downloaded from other sites. Technical support is available at:
If you are not familiar with TeX/LaTeX, the class file will be of no use to you. In that case, submit your article in a common word processor format.
For the purpose of reviewing, articles for publication should be submitted as hard−copy printout (4−fold) and on diskette to:
Journals Editorial Office Brain and Mind
P.O. Box 990
3300 AZ Dordrecht
The Netherlands

Reviewing Procedure 

Brain and Mind follows a double−blind reviewing procedure. Authors are therefore requested to place their name and affiliation on a separate page.


When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) or with the Helsinki Declaration (1964, amended in 1975 and 1983) of the World Medical Association. Do not use patients‘ names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in any illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution‘s or the National Research Council‘s guide for, or any national law on, the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

Manuscript Presentation 

The journal's language is English. British English or American English spelling and terminology may be used, but either one should be followed consistently throughout the article. Manuscripts should be printed or typewritten on A4 or US Letter bond paper, one side only, leaving adequate margins on all sides to allow reviewers' remarks. Please double−space all material, including notes and references. Quotations of more than 40 words should be set off clearly, either by indenting the left−hand margin or by using a smaller typeface. Use double quotation marks for direct quotations and single quotation marks for quotations within quotations and for words or phrases used in a special sense.
Number the pages consecutively with the first page containing:
  • running head (shortened title)
  • article type
  • title
  • author(s)
  • affiliation(s)
  • full address for correspondence, including telephone and fax number and e−mail address
  • Please provide a short abstract of 100 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
Key Words
  • Please provide 5 to 10 key words or short phrases in alphabetical order.
  • Abbreviations should be explained at first occurrence. At the author‘s or editor‘s discretion, abbreviations and their explanations may be collected in a list.
Figures and Tables
  • Submission of Electronic Figures
    In addition to hard−copy printouts of figures, authors are requested to supply the electronic versions of figures in either Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) or TIFF format. Many other formats, e.g., Microsoft Postscript, PiCT (Macintosh) and WMF (Windows), cannot be used and the hard copy will be scanned instead.
    Figures should be saved in separate files without their captions, which should be included with the text of the article. Files should be named according to DOS conventions, e.g., ’figure1.eps‘. For vector graphics, EPS is the preferred format. Lines should not be thinner than 0.25pts and in−fill patterns and screens should have a density of at least 10%. Font−related problems can be avoided by using standard fonts such as Times Roman and Helvetica. For bitmapped graphics, TIFF is the preferred format but EPS is also acceptable. The following resolutions are optimal: black−and−white line figures – 600−1200 dpi; line figures with some grey or colored lines – 600 dpi; photographs – 300 dpi; screen dumps – leave as is. Higher resolutions will not improve output quality but will only increase file size, which may cause problems with printing; lower resolutions may compromise output quality. Please try to provide artwork that approximately fits within the typeset area of the journal. Especially screened originals, i.e., originals with grey areas, may suffer badly from reduction by more than 10−15%.
  • Avoiding problems with EPS graphics
    Please always check whether the figures print correctly to a PostScript printer in a reasonable amount of time. If they do not, simplify your figures or use a different graphics program.
    If EPS export does not produce acceptable output, try to create an EPS file with the printer driver (see below). This option is unavailable with the Microsoft driver for Windows NT, so if you run Windows NT, get the Adobe driver from the Adobe site (www.adobe.com).
    If EPS export is not an option, e.g., because you rely on OLE and cannot create separate files for your graphics, it may help us if you simply provide a PostScript dump of the entire document.
  • How to set up for EPS and postscript dumps under windows
    Create a printer entry specifically for this purpose: install the printer ’Apple Laserwriter Plus‘ and specify ’FILE‘: as printer port. Each time you send something to the ’printer‘ you will be asked for a filename. This file will be the EPS file or PostScript dump that we can use.
    The EPS export option can be found under the PostScript tab. EPS export should be used only for single−page documents. For printing a document of several pages, select ’Optimise for portability‘ instead. The option ’Download header with each job‘ should be checked.
  • If no electronic versions of figures are available, submit only high−quality artwork that can be reproduced as is, i.e., without any part having to be redrawn or re−typeset. The letter size of any text in the figures must be large enough to allow for reduction. Photographs should be in black−and−white on glossy paper. If a figure contains color, make absolutely clear whether it should be printed in black−and−white or in color. Figures that are to be printed in black−and−white should not be submitted in color. Authors will be charged for reproducing figures in color.
    Each figure and table should be numbered and mentioned in the text. The approximate position of figures and tables should be indicated in the margin of the manuscript. On the reverse side of each figure, the name of the (first) author and the figure number should be written in pencil; the top of the figure should be clearly indicated. Figures and tables should be placed at the end of the manuscript following the Reference section. Each figure and table should be accompanied by an explanatory legend. The figure legends should be grouped and placed on a separate page. Figures are not returned to the author unless specifically requested.
    In tables, footnotes are preferable to long explanatory material in either the heading or body of the table. Such explanatory footnotes, identified by superscript letters, should be placed immediately below the table.
Section Headings
  • Section headings should be numbered (e.g., 1., 1.1, 1.1.1, 2., 2.1, etc.).
  • Supplementary material should be collected in an Appendix and placed before the Notes and Reference sections.
  • Please use footnotes rather than endnotes. Notes should be indicated by consecutive superscript numbers in the text and listed at the bottom of the relevant page. A source reference note should be indicated by means of an asterisk after the title. This note should be placed at the bottom of the first page.
  • In the text, a reference identified by means of an author's name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses and page number(s) where appropriate. When there are more than two authors, only the first author's name should be mentioned, followed by ‘et al’. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like ‘a’ and ‘b’ after the date to distinguish the works.
  • Examples:
    Winograd (1986, p. 204)
    (Winograd, 1986a, b)
    (Winograd, 1986; Flores et al., 1988)
    (Bullen and Bennett, 1990)
  • Acknowledgements of people, grants, funds, etc., should be placed in a separate section before the References.
  • References to books, journal articles, articles in collections and conference or workshop proceedings, and technical reports should be listed at the end of the article in alphabetical order. Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text (e.g., T. Moore, personal communication).
  • References to books should include the author's name; year of publication; title; page numbers where appropriate; publisher; place of publication, in the order given in the example below.
    Freed, D. S. And Ulenbeck, K. K., 1991: Instantons and Four−Manifolds, Springer−Verlag, Berlin.
  • References to articles in an edited collection should include the author's name; year of publication; article title; editor's name; title of collection; first and last page numbers; publisher; place of publication, in the order given in the example below.
    Albeverio, S. and Brzezniak, Z. H., 1994: Feyman path integrals as infinite−dimensional oscillatory integrals, in A. Bagchi and M. Hazewinkel (eds), White Noise Models and Stochastic Systems, Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 1−26.
  • References to articles in conference proceedings should include the author's name; year of publication; article title; editor's name (if any); title of proceedings; first and last page numbers; place and date of conference; publisher and/or organisation from which the proceedings can be obtained; place of publication, in the order given in the example below.
    Albeverio, S., 1994: Feyman path integrals as infinite−dimensional oscillatory integrals, in Proc. 24th Karpacz Winter School on Theoretical Physics, Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 201−275.
  • References to articles in periodicals should include the author's name; year of publication; article title; abbreviated title of periodical; volume number (issue number where appropriate); first and last page numbers, in the order given in the example below.
    Deligne, P., Griffiths, Ph., Morgan, J. and Sullivan, D., 1975: Real homotopy theory of Kahler manifolds, Invent. Math. 29, 245−274.
  • References to technical reports or doctoral dissertations should include the author's name; year of publication; title of report or dissertation; institution; location of institution, in the order given in the example below.
    Bixler, N. E., 1981: NORIA – A finite element computer program for analyzing water, vapor, air, and energy transport in porous media, Sandia National Laboratories Report, SAND84−2057, p. 115.


Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. One corrected proof, together with the original, edited manuscript, should be returned to the Publisher within three days of receipt by mail (airmail overseas).


25 offprints of each article will be provided free of charge. Additional offprints can be ordered by means of an offprint order form supplied with the proofs.

Page Charges and Colour Figures 

No page charges are levied on authors or their institutions. Color figures are published at the author's expense only.


Authors will be asked, upon acceptance of an article, to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher. This will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information under copyright laws.


It is the responsibility of the author to obtain written permission for a quotation from unpublished material, or for all quotations in excess of 250 words in one extract or 500 words in total from any work still in copyright, and for the reprinting of figures, tables or poems from unpublished or copyrighted material.

Springer Open Choice 

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription−based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springers online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please click on the link below to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription−model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.

English Language Editing 

For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
  • Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
  • Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
  • Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.


● 请一位以英语为母语的同事审核您的稿件是否表意清晰。
● 查看一些有关英语写作中常见语言错误的教程。
● 使用专业语言编辑服务,编辑人员会对英语进行润色,以确保您的意思表达清晰,并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。


・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。


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• 귀하의 원고의 표현을 명확히 해줄 영어 원어민 동료를 찾아서 리뷰를 의뢰합니다.
• 영어 튜토리얼 페이지에 방문하여 영어로 글을 쓸 때 자주하는 실수들을 확인합니다.
• 리뷰에 대비하여, 원고의 의미를 명확하게 해주고 리뷰에서 요구하는 문제점들을 식별해서 영문 수준을 향상시켜주는 전문 영문 교정 서비스를 이용합니다. Nature Research Editing Service와 American Journal Experts에서 저희와 협약을 통해 서비스를 제공하고 있습니다. Springer 저자들이 본 교정 서비스를 첫 논문 투고를 위해 사용하시는 경우 10%의 할인이 적용되며, 아래의 링크를 통하여 확인이 가능합니다.
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Additional Information 

Additional information can be obtained from:
Publishing Editor Brain and Mind
Social Sciences Unit
P.O. Box 17
3300 AZ Dordrecht
The Netherlands

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