Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology

Sensing the Environment: Regulation of Local and Global Homeostasis by the Skin's Neuroendocrine System

Authors: Slominski, A.T., Zmijewski, M.A., Skobowiat, C., Zbytek, B., Slominski, R.M., Steketee, J.D.

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About this book

The skin, the body’s largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates and responds to a diverse range of stressors, including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuroendocrine-immune organ that is closely networked with central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones, production which is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and non-infectious) and other physical and chemical agents.  Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, b-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones, as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid  hormones,  steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-δ steroids), secosteroids, opioids and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid and endocannabinoid systems. Disruptions of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks also serve to limit the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve endings to alert the brain to changes in the epidermal or dermal environments, or alternatively to activate other coordinating centers by direct (spinal cord) neurotransmission without brain involvement. Furthermore, rapid and reciprocal communications between epidermal and dermal and adnexal compartments are also mediated by neurotransmission including antidromic modes of conduction. Lastly, skin cells and the skin as an organ coordinate and/or regulate not only peripheral but also global homeostasis.

Table of contents (12 chapters)

  • Introduction

    Slominski, Andrzej T. (et al.)

    Pages 1-6

  • Biogenic Amines in the Skin

    Slominski, Andrzej T. (et al.)

    Pages 7-26

  • Melatoninergic System in the Skin

    Slominski, Andrzej T. (et al.)

    Pages 27-36

  • Cutaneous Cholinergic System

    Slominski, Andrzej T. (et al.)

    Pages 37-39

  • Corticotropin Signaling System in the Skin

    Slominski, Andrzej T. (et al.)

    Pages 41-50

Buy this book

eBook $139.00
price for USA (gross)
  • ISBN 978-3-642-19683-6
  • Digitally watermarked, DRM-free
  • Included format: EPUB, PDF
  • ebooks can be used on all reading devices
  • Immediate eBook download after purchase
Softcover $179.00
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-642-19682-9
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
Rent the ebook  
  • Rental duration: 1 or 6 month
  • low-cost access
  • online reader with highlighting and note-making option
  • can be used across all devices
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Bibliographic Information

Bibliographic Information
Book Title
Sensing the Environment: Regulation of Local and Global Homeostasis by the Skin's Neuroendocrine System
Authors
Series Title
Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology
Series Volume
212
Copyright
2012
Publisher
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright Holder
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
eBook ISBN
978-3-642-19683-6
DOI
10.1007/978-3-642-19683-6
Softcover ISBN
978-3-642-19682-9
Series ISSN
0301-5556
Edition Number
1
Number of Pages
XV, 115
Number of Illustrations and Tables
6 b/w illustrations, 17 illustrations in colour
Topics