Springer Theses

Factors Governing Tin Whisker Growth

Authors: Crandall, Erika R

  • Nominated by Auburn University, USA, as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis
  • Identifies and defines several factors that govern whisker formation and growth
  • Describes whisker prevention using a variety of impenetrable topside hard metal films which prevent Sn whiskers from penetrating through capping barriers
  • Studies why particular topside metal films prevent whisker growth while others do not
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eBook $99.00
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  • ISBN 978-3-319-00470-9
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  • ebooks can be used on all reading devices
  • Immediate eBook download after purchase
Hardcover $129.00
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-319-00469-3
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
Softcover $129.00
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-319-34281-8
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
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About this book

Tin (Sn) whiskers are electrically conductive, single crystal eruptions that grow from Sn film surfaces. Their high aspect ratio presents reliability problems for the electronics industry due to bridging and metal arcing, leading to malfunctions and catastrophic failures in many electronic systems (including satellite and defense sectors). Due to legislation in the EU, Japan, and the U.S., mandating a gradual shift from lead (Pb)-based to lead-free solders and board finishes, there has been a reemergence of Sn whiskers. Continuing reports of Sn whisker induced failures coupled with the lack of an industry-accepted understanding of whisker growth and/or test methods to identify whisker prone products has made pure/high Sn substitutes a risky proposition in high reliability systems.

This thesis is designed to clarify and control the fundamental mechanisms that govern whisker formation. The research focuses on reproducible "laboratory" created whiskers under a variety of rigorously controlled environmental factors such as film thickness, film stress, substrate material, gas environment, and humidity exposure, which are known to play a significant role in whisker production. The ultimate question of how to impede and/or prevent whisker growth is also addressed and shows that whisker prevention is possible via hard metal capping films, which are impenetrable by whiskers.

About the authors

Erika Crandall received her Ph.D. from the Department of Physics at Auburn University under supervisor Michael Bozack. She was awarded the 2012 Outstanding Doctoral Student Award from Auburn University, and was the inaugural recipient of the IEEE International Holm Conference Young Investigator Award for her paper “Whisker Growth Under Controlled Humidity Exposure.”

Table of contents (5 chapters)

  • Introduction: Whiskers and Their Role in Component Reliability

    Crandall, Erika R.

    Pages 1-24

  • Film/Substrate Effects on Whisker Growth

    Crandall, Erika R.

    Pages 25-66

  • Environmental Effects on Whisker Growth

    Crandall, Erika R.

    Pages 67-105

  • Whisker Mitigation and Prevention

    Crandall, Erika R.

    Pages 107-123

  • Conclusions

    Crandall, Erika R.

    Pages 125-131

Buy this book

eBook $99.00
price for USA (gross)
  • ISBN 978-3-319-00470-9
  • Digitally watermarked, DRM-free
  • Included format: EPUB, PDF
  • ebooks can be used on all reading devices
  • Immediate eBook download after purchase
Hardcover $129.00
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-319-00469-3
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
Softcover $129.00
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-3-319-34281-8
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
Rent the ebook  
  • Rental duration: 1 or 6 month
  • low-cost access
  • online reader with highlighting and note-making option
  • can be used across all devices
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Bibliographic Information

Bibliographic Information
Book Title
Factors Governing Tin Whisker Growth
Authors
Series Title
Springer Theses
Copyright
2013
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Copyright Holder
Springer International Publishing Switzerland
eBook ISBN
978-3-319-00470-9
DOI
10.1007/978-3-319-00470-9
Hardcover ISBN
978-3-319-00469-3
Softcover ISBN
978-3-319-34281-8
Series ISSN
2190-5053
Edition Number
1
Number of Pages
XII, 136
Number of Illustrations and Tables
27 b/w illustrations, 65 illustrations in colour
Topics