Astronomers' Universe

The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics

Authors: Nath, Biman B.

  • Tells the true story behind the discovery of helium while explaining how the curiously distorted narrative of its discovery came into existence
  • Includes interesting facts and anecdotes in the narrative, about the personalities of the scientists and the time in which they lived
  • Explains the concepts behind the scientific adventures of the nineteenth century in clear and simple language
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About this book

What if one of the most thrilling stories in the history of science turned out to be wrong? Can urban legends creep into the hallowed grounds of scientific history? As incredible as it may sound, the story of one of the most important elements in modern times – helium - has been often misrepresented in books, encyclopedias, and online sources, despite the fact that archival materials tell a different story. Open the entry for Helium in any encyclopaedia and you will read a false story that has been repeated over the years. ‘Encyclopaedia Britannica’, for example, says that helium was discovered by the French astronomer Pierre Janssen while observing a total solar eclipse from India in 1868. Apparently he noticed something new in the spectrum of the sun, which he thought was the signature of an undiscovered element.

The truth is that Janssen never saw any sign of a new element during his observations in India. His reports and letters do not mention any such claim.

Other sources would have you believe that helium was jointly discovered by Janssen and Norman Lockyer, a British scientist, and that their discovery letters reached Paris the same day, one sent from India, and the other from England.

Again, the truth is completely different. Two letters from Lockyer and Janssen did reach Paris the same day in 1868, but their letters did not mention any new element. What they had discovered was a new way of observing the Sun without a solar eclipse. This would ultimately lead to the discovery of helium, in which Lockyer would play a prominent role, but not Janssen.

At the same time, Norman Robert Pogson, a disgruntled British astronomer stationed in India did notice something peculiar during the eclipse. He was the first one to notice something odd about the spectrum of the Sun that day, and his observations would prove crucial to Lockyer’s own investigations of helium. But Pogson’s report was never published in any peer reviewed journal and it languished on the desk of a local British officer in colonial India.

This book tells the real story behind the discovery of helium, along with biographical sketches of the scientists and descriptions of the milieu in which they worked. It will convey the excitement, confusion, and passion of nineteenth century scientists, using their own words, from their letters and reports.

“The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics” chronicles one of the most exciting discoveries ever made and explains why it also marked the birth of a new branch of science called ‘astrophysics.’

About the authors

Biman Nath studied physics at the University of Delhi, India and received his Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of Maryland, College Park, in the United States. He is currently at the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore, India. His research focuses on the interaction of gas with galaxies and its implications for the evolution of galaxies and diffuse gas in the universe. He is also interested in the popularization of science and writing fiction.

Reviews

From the reviews:

“This book is a labor of love and a rather personal document, shedding light on a portion of physics and chemistry history that previously seems to have received too little careful analysis. … Astronomer Nath … has done some key detective work in mid-19th-century physics, starting with helium and expanding into the transformational perspective created by spectroscopy. … a fine book that makes good reading and fills a gap in the literature. It belongs in all college libraries. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All readership levels.” (K. L. Schick, Choice, Vol. 50 (11), July, 2013)

“Biman Nath clearly loves helium, and you very probably will too after reading this book. … I think typical ageing astronomers will enjoy the book … .” (Virginia Trimble, The Observatory, Vol. 133 (1233), April, 2013)


Table of contents (13 chapters)

  • The Unbearable Lightness of a ‘Noble’ Element

    Nath, Biman B.

    Pages 1-10

  • From Alchemy to Chemistry

    Nath, Biman B.

    Pages 11-19

  • From Chemistry to the Stars

    Nath, Biman B.

    Pages 21-63

  • Father Secchi, the Priest Who Became an Astronomer

    Nath, Biman B.

    Pages 65-81

  • Janssen, a Traveling Scientist

    Nath, Biman B.

    Pages 83-99

Buy this book

eBook $29.99
price for USA (gross)
  • ISBN 978-1-4614-5363-5
  • Digitally watermarked, DRM-free
  • Included format: PDF, EPUB
  • ebooks can be used on all reading devices
  • Immediate eBook download after purchase
Softcover $39.95
price for USA
  • ISBN 978-1-4614-5362-8
  • Free shipping for individuals worldwide
  • Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
Rent the ebook  
  • Rental duration: 1 or 6 month
  • low-cost access
  • online reader with highlighting and note-making option
  • can be used across all devices
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Bibliographic Information

Bibliographic Information
Book Title
The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics
Authors
Series Title
Astronomers' Universe
Copyright
2013
Publisher
Springer-Verlag New York
Copyright Holder
Springer Science+Business Media New York
eBook ISBN
978-1-4614-5363-5
DOI
10.1007/978-1-4614-5363-5
Softcover ISBN
978-1-4614-5362-8
Series ISSN
1614-659X
Edition Number
1
Number of Pages
XI, 274
Number of Illustrations and Tables
31 b/w illustrations, 6 illustrations in colour
Topics