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朱作言 (Zuoyan Zhu) 院士/研究员

Zuoyan Zhu
1941年9月出生,研究员,中国科学院院士,博士生导师。主要研究方向为发育与分子生学。1965年毕业于北京大学,1978年9月至1980年7月,中国科学院研究生院研究生毕业。主要科研结果:1.开创鱼类基因工程研究新领域:在合作完成了鲤鱼和鲫鱼之间细胞核移植克隆基础上,开创鱼类基因工程研究新领域,培育出快速生长2.3至4.3倍的鲤、鲫和泥鳅;揭示了外源基因整合的动力学过程,证实其嵌合性整合、表达、以细胞核整合和核外非整合两种方式传递给子代,提出了转基因鱼形成的模型理论和培育纯合转基因鱼品系对策;阐明了转GH基因对内源垂体分泌GH的代偿作用,以及转GH基因鱼饵料利用的蛋白质节省效应和合成代谢的蛋白质积累效应,为转基因鱼育种奠定了理论基础。2.克隆了鲤鱼和草鱼的肌动蛋白基因(CA)和生长激素基因(gcGH),构建了“全鱼”转移基因表达载体CAgcGH;转CAgcGH 基因快速生长鲤鱼群体已进入子二代;评价了转GH 基因快速生长鲤鱼的生态及食用安全性,为转基因鱼育种奠定了实用化基础。现在进行着转基因鱼克隆和纯系培育。3.发现了鲤鱼种的DNA分子标记以及鱼类GH基因结构对研究脊椎动物早期演化的特殊意义。发表研究论文80多篇,其中3篇已成为转基因鱼领域的经典文献。曾6次获国家和中科院科研成果奖,被评为国家有突出贡献中青年专家,1997年当选为中国科学院院士。
Zuoyan Zhu, male, born in September,1941. Professor. Graduated from Peking University in 1965. Throughout his academic and professional careers Professor Zhu Zuoyan has been actively involved in scientific research. He furthered his education at the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), where he studied cell and developmental biology between 1977–1980. During the period 1981–1982, he was a visiting scientist at the University of Southampton and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories in London. He then took up the position of research scientist at the Genetics Institute in Boston, USA, between 1982 and 1983. He was a Hill-visiting professor at the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Minnesota, in 1988 before moving to the Center of Marine Biotechnology, Maryland Biotechnology Institute of the University of Maryland System, where he served as a research professor and faculty member from 1988 to1991.Professor Zhu’s professional career has also taken off in many areas. Since 1965, he has been with the Institute of Hydrobiology at CAS, rising through the ranks as research assistant, research associate, associate professor, professor and finally the director of the institute. During this period, he was concurrently serving as the Director of the State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology. From 1991 and 1994, Prof. Zhu received the UFC Biotechnology Initiative Lectureship from the University of Aberdeen in the UK. He was a scientific committee member of the China High Technology and Development Program (863 Program) between 1986 and 1988, and following that a member of the S-863 program (1996–1998). In 1995 he joined as a reviewer committee member of the National Science Foundation of China. He is also a biotechnology committee member of CAS. Zhu has served on the editorial boards of a few journals, namely Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, Acta Genetica Sinica and Hereditas (Beijing), Journal of Fisheries of China.
Professor Zhu’s more notable research activities include a collaboration, in the early 1970s, with Professor T C Tung’s research group working on fish cloning. The fish were cloned by transferring blastula nucleus of the common carp into the cytoplasm of enucleated eggs of the crucian carp. This resulted in the first ever cloned vertebrate developed from a ‘hybrid egg,’ i.e. an egg whose cytoplasm and nucleus are from different genera. In the late 1970s, Prof. Zhu worked on transferring the entire DNA of the common carp into the zygotes of a warm water species of the mud carp. He successfully integrated cold tolerance (by 3oC) in some of recipients of the DNA. This work was recognized as China’s first attempt at transferring novel genetic material between fish species. Prof. Zhu’s research on the initiation of gene transfer in several species of fish was also noteworthy: In 1984, he successfully cultivated transgenic varieties of the common carp, crucian carp and loach with accelerated growth rate (2.3–4.3 times increase) — these were the first batch of transgenic fish in the world. Prof. Zhu also explored the dynamics and behavior of the foreign gene in the flounder during host embryogenesis. From this work, he discovered the transgene’s mocisism and developed a strategy to clone homogenous transgenic fish. In another important work he employed hypophysectomy to prove that hGH-transgene expression was able to replace endogenous GH in stimulating fish growth. He also discovered that transgenic common carp was able to utilize dietary proteins more efficiently than the controls. His research work also involved cloning the growth hormone gene (gcGH) of the grass carp and the b-actin gene (CA) of the common carp, and then splicing the CA promoter onto the gcGH coding sequence. In this way, he generated an ‘all-fish’ gene construct, CAgcGH. This new construct was used to develop the transgenic Yellow River Carp. This fish weighs, on average, 2.75 kg within five months — more than double the weight of the largest control. He has published more than 80 research articles on this particular topic.
For all his scientific contributions, the Chinese scientific community has bestowed him with a number of prestigious awards:China National Science Meeting Award (1978). Scientific and Technological Progress Award (Third Class), CAS (1984). Award of outstanding Scientist in Hubei Province, China (1985).
Award of Advanced Scientist in Wuhan City, China (1987). Scientific and Technological Progress Award (Second Class), CAS (1988). Award of China Young-Middle Aged Expert with Outstanding Contributions (1996).Natural Science Award (First Class), CAS (1996). China Natural Science Award (Third Class) (1997). Academician of CAS (Elected, 1997).