The book provides an in-depth discussion on the human nature concept from different perspectives and from different disciplines, analyzing its use in the doping debate and researching its normative overtones. The relation between natural talent and enhanced abilities is scrutinized within a proper conceptual and theoretical framework: is doping to be seen as a factor of the athlete’s dehumanization or is it a tool to fulfill his/her aspirations to go faster, higher and stronger? Which characteristics make sports such a peculiar subject of ethical discussion and what are the, both intrinsic and extrinsic, moral dangers and opportunities involved in athletic enhancement? This volume combines fundamental philosophical anthropological reflection with applied ethics and socio-cultural and empirical approaches. Furthermore it presents guidelines to decision- and policy-makers on local, national and international levels.
Preface by Thomas H. Murray, President Emeritus of the Hastings Center and Chair of the Ethical Issues Review Panel for the World Anti-Doping Agency.
Introduction: Human nature as a promising concept to make sense of the spirit of sport.- Part I Conceptual and Theoretical Framework.- Jan Tolleneer and Paul Schotsmans, Self, other, play, display and humanity. Development of a five-level model for the analysis of ethical arguments in the athletic enhancement debate.- Christian Lenk, Is human enhancement unnatural and would this be an ethical problem?.- Pieter Bonte, Dignified doping: truly unthinkable? An existentialist critique of ‘talentocracy’ in sports. - Part II Transgressing the limits of human nature.- Eric Juengst, Subhuman, superhuman, and inhuman. Human nature and the enhanced athlete.- Trijsje Franssen, Prometheus on dope. A natural aim for improvement or a hubristic drive to mastery?.- Darian Meacham, Outliers, freaks, and cheats. Constituting normality in the age of enhancement.- Part III The normative value of human nature.- Andreas De Block, Doping use as an artistic crime. On natural performances and authentic art.- Andrew Holowchak, Something from nothing or nothing from something?. Performance-enhancing drugs, risk, and the natures of contest and of humans.- Mike McNamee, Transhuman athletes and pathological perfectionism. Recognising limits in sports and human nature.- Part IV Socio-cultural and empirical approaches.- Marianne Raakilde Jespersen, “Definitely not for women”. An online community’s reflections on women’s use of performance enhancing drugs in recreational sports.- Denis Hauw, Toward a situated and dynamic understanding of doping behaviors.- Tara Magdalinski, Restoring or enhancing athletic bodies. Oscar Pistorius and the threat to pure performance.- Part V Practices and policies.- John Hoberman, Sports physicians, human nature, and the limits of medical enhancement.- Bengt Kayser and Barbara Broers, Anti-doping policies: choosing between imperfections.- Roger Brownsword, A simple regulatory principle for performance-enhancing technologies. Too good to be true?