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Burial grounds strike an immediate chord with all who visit them. They are land scapes full of pathos and cultural associations which many find attractive, though a minority feel are too morbid to deserve detailed attention. This book is designed to offer a framework for studying historic burial ground monuments, and contains a certain amount of information regarding below-ground archaeology, as some projects will involve the study of both. Moreover, from a research perspective above and below ground archaeology together can throw considerable light on the process of dying, body disposal and commemoration that formed a continuum for those involved. However, the more easily accessible graveyard memorials can be used to study many aspects of past culture beyond that directly associated with death, and they are the focus of the book. Most people who become interested in historic graveyard memorials come to the subject via the material itself. Only rarely does a research question get posed, and graveyard data seem like an appropriate arena for investigation. This has the advantage that many researchers have some ideas about the data available, but the disadvantage that they may not have clear questions to ask of it, nor how to set their discoveries in a wider intellectual context.
List Of Figures. List Of Tables.
I: Introduction. 1: A Brief History - Historical Mortuary Archaeology. 1.1. Antiquarian interests. 1.2. The Origins and Development of Contemporary Research. 2: Theoretical Approaches. 2.1. Culture-history. 2.2. Functionalist Approaches. 2.3. Structuralist Approaches. 2.4. Marxist Approaches. 2.5. Symbolic studies. 2.6. Other recently developed approaches. Summary.
II: Folk Traditions and High Culture: Funerary and Commemorative Practice to the Early 18th Century. 1. Death. 1.1. The Good Death. 2. The Funeral Mourning Dress and Funeral Expenditure. 3: Burial Grounds. 3.1. Location. 3.2. Spatial Arrangement. 3.3. Burial. 4: Internal Memorials. 4.1. Materials. 4.2. Forms. 5: External Memorials. 5.1. Materials. 5.2. Forms. 5.3. Decoration and Symbols. 6: Conclusions.
III: A Maturing Industry: the Mid 18th century to Early 20th Century. 1: The Funeral. 1.1. The Coffin and Preparation of the Body. 1.2. Increasing Commercialisation. 1.3. Popular Fears Regarding Burial. 2: Mourning. 2.1. Mourning Jewelry. 2.2. Other Mourning Material Culture. 3: Commemoration. 4: Burial Grounds and Cemeteries. 4.1. Location. 4.2. Intra-site spatial arrangement. 5: Internal Memorials. 5.1. Materials. 5.2. Form and style. 6: External Memorials. 6.1. Materials. 6.2. Forms. 7: Decorationand Symbols. 8: Text. 9: Conclusions.
IV: A Marginalized Activity: From After World War I. 1: The Funeral. 1.1. The Context of Death. 1.2. Changes in Organization. 1.3. Coffins and Caskets. 1.4. Choices in Body Disposal. 2: Mourning. 3: Commemoration. 4: Burial Grounds and Cemeteries. 4.1. Location. 4.2. Intra-site Spatial Arrangement. 5: Internal Memorials. 6: External Memorials. 6.1. Materials. 6.2. Forms. 6.3. Decoration and Symbols. 6.4. Text. 7: Conclusions.
V: Production and Consumption. 1: Funerary and Mourning Paraphernalia. 1.1. Coffins and Fittings. 1.2. Mourning Paraphernalia. 2: Commemoration. 2.1. Materials and the Process of Monument Manufacture. 2.2. Production and the Role of Carvers. 2.3. Commissioning and Production of Monuments. 3: Temporal Change. 4: Spatial Change. 4.1. Regional Studies. 4.2. Distribution of Carvers' Products. 4.3. Intra-site Patterns. 5: Conclusions.
VI: Social Structures. 1: The Relationship between Living Communities and Burial Ground Populations. 2: Status. 3: Family Structures. 3.1. Scale of Family. 3.2. Male Roles. 3.3. Female Roles. 3.4. Children. 3.5. Family Relationships. 4: Institutional Structures. 5: Patterns of Dependency. 6: Social Hierarchies. 6.1. Elite Burial. 6.2. Pauper Burial. 7: Necrogeography. 8: Emulation.
VII: Identities. 1: Religious Affi