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Public Health | Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health - incl. option to publish open access

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

Editor: Sana Loue

ISSN: 1557-1912 (print version)
ISSN: 1557-1920 (electronic version)

Journal no. 10903

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Instructions for Authors

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

Manuscript Submission 

Manuscripts, in English, should be submitted to the Journal through its web-based submission system, which can be accessed at http://joih.edmr.com
Questions regarding manuscripts should be directed to the relevant editor.
Sana Loue, J.D., Ph.D., M.P.H.
Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4945
Tel: (216) 368-3743
E-mail: Sana.Loue@case.edu
EDITORIAL BOARD
JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT AND MINORITY HEALTH
(as of December 2016)
ASSOCIATE EDITORS:
ADDICTION AND BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE EDITOR
Declan T. Barry, Ph.D.
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut 06519
E-mail:Declan.barry@yale.edu
BEHAVIORAL AND MENTAL HEALTH EDITOR
Susan Hatters-Friedman, MD
Auckland, New Zealand
E-mail: susanhfmd@hotmail.com
CHILD AND REFUGEE HEALTH EDITOR
Paul Geltman, MD
Franciscan Children’s
Brighton, Massachusetts 02135
E-mail: PGeltman@franciscanchildrens.org
CLINICAL CARE EDITOR
Beatrice Ioan, MD, Ph.D.
University of Medicine and Pharmacy, “Gr. T. Popa”
Iasi, Romania
E-mail: ioanbml@yahoo.com
ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH EDITOR
Douglas M. Brugge, Ph.D., MS, Associate Professor
Department of Public Health and Family Medicine
Tufts University School of Medicine
Boston, Massachusetts 02111
E-mail: dbrugge@aol.com
HEALTH CARE COMMUNICATION AND RELATIONS EDITOR
Elaine Hsieh, Ph.D.
Department of Communication
University of Oklahoma
Norman, Oklahoma 73019
E-mail: ehsieh@ou.edu
EDITORS:
Paul Bakaki, Ph.D.
Case Western Reserve University
School of Medicine
Cleveland, Ohio
Scott C. Carvajal, Ph.D., MPH
Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona
John Elder, Ph.D.
San Diego State University
San Diego, California
Monirul Islam, MD, Ph.D.
Department of Epidemiology
College of Public Health
University of Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, Nebraska
Linda S. Lloyd, Dr.P.H.
San Diego, California
Bebe Loff, LLB, MA, Ph.D.
Michael Kirby Centre
School of Epidemiology
Monash University
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Linda Sprague Martinez, Ph.D.
Boston University
Boston, Massachusetts
Kathrin S. Mautino, J.D.
Mautino and Mautino
San Diego, California
Hal Morgenstern, Ph.D.
School of Public Health
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Lisa R. Norman, Ph.D.
Ponce School of Medicine
Puerto Rico, USA
Victoria D. Ojeda, Ph.D., MPH
UCSD School of Medicine
La Jolla, California
Martha Sajatovic, MD
Case Western Reserve University
School of Medicine
Department of Psychiatry
Cleveland, Ohio
Abdus Sattar, Ph.D.
Case Western Reserve University
School of Medicine
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Cleveland, Ohio
Steffanie A. Strathdee, Ph.D.
University of California San Diego
School of Medicine
La Jolla, California
Alice M. Tang, Ph.D.
Tufts University School of Medicine
Boston, Massachusetts
Lucia Volk, Ph.D.
San Francisco State University
San Francisco, California
John Weeks, Ph.D.
San Diego State University
San Diego, California
Larissa Wilberschied
March of Dimes
White Plains, New York

Publication Policies 

Submission is a representation that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. A statement transferring copyright from the authors (or their employers, if they hold the copyright) to Springer will be required before the manuscript can be accepted for publication. The Editor will supply the necessary forms for this transfer. Such a written transfer of copyright, which previously was assumed to be implicit in the act of submitting a manuscript, is necessary under the U.S. Copyright Law in order for the publisher to carry through the dissemination of research results and reviews as widely and effectively as possible.

Submissions 

The Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health accepts original research articles, reviews articles, brief reports, reports from the field, and letters to the editor.
All manuscripts must be submitted in Word. Illustrations and maps must be reduced to images contained within the text.
Original research articles of no more than 3000 words should include the following sections:
Background
Theoretical/conceptual framework
Methods
  • Participants
    Data Collection
    Measures
    Analysis
A statement indicating that the research was reviewed and approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national ethical review committee
Results
Discussion
New Contribution to the Literature
References
Brief reports may consist of no more than 1500 words with no more than 10 references and, whenever possible, should adhere to the same heading format as original research manuscripts.
Review articles should be no longer than 6000 words.
Book reviews are limited to 1000 words and provide the following information in this format:
Author, Book title. City: Publisher, pages, price.

Manuscript Style 

Type double−spaced on one side of 8−1/2 X 11 inch white paper using generous margins on all sides (including copies of all illustrations and tables). All copies must be dark, sharp, and clear. Computer−generated manuscripts must be of letter quality (not dot−matrix).
Cover Letter
The cover letter must include the following:
The title of the article
The name, affiliation, and contact information (address, telephone, fax, and e-mail) of the corresponding author
A statement that the manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under submission elsewhere
A statement indicating that there is no conflict of interest or, alternatively, disclosing any conflict of interest that may exist
A statement delineating the role of each author in the manuscript that has been submitted, e.g. development and implementation of methods, preparation of manuscript, statistical analysis, etc.
A statement indicating that all authors have reviewed the submitted manuscript and approve the manuscript for submission
Title Page
A title page is to be provided and should include the following, and should be typed as a footnote to the author’s name. The suggested running head should be less than 80 characters (including spaces) and should comprise the article title or an abbreviated version thereof.
The title of the article
Author’s name (no degrees)
Author’s affiliation
Suggested running head
The affiliation should comprise
The institution
The department
The city and state or nation
For office purposes, the title page should include
The name of the corresponding author
The complete mailing address
The fax and telephone numbers
The e-mail address
Abstract
The abstract is to be no longer than 150 words. Original research articles must have a structured abstract that includes Background, Methods, Results, and Discussion.
Key Words
A list of 4−5 key words is to be provided directly below the abstract. Key words should express the precise content of the manuscript, as they are used for indexing purposes
Section Headings
All sections should carry headings (such as INTRODUCTION, METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, etc.), typed flush left. All acknowledgments (including those for grant and financial support) should be typed in one paragraph (so−headed) on a separate page that directly precedes the References section.
All manuscripts must indicate whether the study was reviewed and approved by an institutional review board (IRB)/ethics review committee (REC). In situations in which there has been no approval by an IRB or REC, the authors must indicate what other measures were utilized for ethical review of the research prior to its initiation. Manuscripts relating to original research that lack this verification will not be accepted for publication.
List references (type double−spaced) numerically in order of text appearance at the end of the paper (after text and before tables and figure−caption list). Use the appropriate Arabic numeral in parentheses on the baseline for citation in the text. Where there are three or more authors, only the first author’s name is given in the text, followed by et al.
References should include (in this order):
Last names and initials of all authors
Name of publication
Year published
Volume and issue number
Inclusive pages
Abbreviations of journal names should conform to Index Medicus style; journals not listed in Index Medicus should not be abbreviated.
The style and punctuation of the references should conform to that used in the journal −− illustrated by the following examples:
Journal Article
1. Littleford LN, Wright MO: Health consequences of positive and negative interracial interactions at a predominantly Caucasian public university. J Gender Culture Health 1998; 3:129−145
Book
2. Loue S: Legal and Ethical Aspects of HIV−Related Research. New York: Plenum Press; 1995
Contribution to a Book
3. Marshall PA, Koenig BA, Grifhorst P, van Ewijk M: Ethical issues in immigrant health care and clinical research: In: Loue S, ed. Handbook of Immigrant Health. New York: Plenum Press; 1998:203−226
Footnotes
Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, footnotes should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and should be typed at the bottom of the page to which they refer. Place a line above the footnote, so that it is set off from the text. Use the appropriate superscript numeral for citation in the text.
Illustrations (photographs, drawings, diagrams, and charts) are to be numbered in one consecutive series of Arabic numerals. Illustrations and maps must be reduced to images contained within the text.
Tables should be numbered (with Roman numerals) and referred to by number in the text. Each table should be typed on a separate sheet of paper. Center the title above the table, and type explanatory footnotes (indicated by superscript lowercase letters) below the table.

Resubmissions 

Revised manuscripts must be resubmitted within 90 days of the date of the editorial decision to be reviewed as a resubmission. Resubmissions received after this time frame will be evaluated as new submissions.
All resubmissions must be accompanied by a cover letter containing a point-by-point response to reviewers’ comments.

Page Charges 

The journal makes no page charges. Reprints are available to authors, and order forms with the current price schedule are sent with proofs.

English Language Editing 

For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
  • Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
  • Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
  • Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.

.

为便于编辑和评审专家准确评估您稿件中陈述的研究工作,您需要确保您的英语语言质量足以令人理解。如果您需要英文写作方面的帮助,您可以考虑:
● 请一位以英语为母语的同事审核您的稿件是否表意清晰。
● 查看一些有关英语写作中常见语言错误的教程。
● 使用专业语言编辑服务,编辑人员会对英语进行润色,以确保您的意思表达清晰,并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
请注意,使用语言编辑服务并非在期刊上发表文章的必要条件,同时也并不意味或保证文章将被选中进行同行评议或被接受。
如果您的稿件被接受,在发表之前,我们的文字编辑会检查您的文稿拼写是否规范以及文体是否正式。

.

エディターと査読者があなたの論文を正しく評価するには、使用されている英語の質が十分に高いことが必要とされます。英語での論文執筆に際してサポートが必要な場合には、次のオプションがあります:
・英語を母国語とする同僚に、原稿で使用されている英語が明確であるかをチェックしてもらう。
・英語で執筆する際のよくある間違いに関する英語のチュートリアルを参照する。
・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。
英文校正サービスの利用は、投稿先のジャーナルに掲載されるための条件ではないこと、また論文審査や受理を保証するものではないことに留意してください。
原稿が受理されると、出版前に弊社のコピーエディターがスペルと体裁のチェックを行います。

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영어 원고의 경우, 에디터 및 리뷰어들이 귀하의 원고에 실린 결과물을 정확하게 평가할 수 있도록, 그들이 충분히 이해할 수 있을 만한 수준으로 작성되어야 합니다. 만약 영작문과 관련하여 도움을 받기를 원하신다면 다음의 사항들을 고려하여 주십시오:
• 귀하의 원고의 표현을 명확히 해줄 영어 원어민 동료를 찾아서 리뷰를 의뢰합니다.
• 영어 튜토리얼 페이지에 방문하여 영어로 글을 쓸 때 자주하는 실수들을 확인합니다.
• 리뷰에 대비하여, 원고의 의미를 명확하게 해주고 리뷰에서 요구하는 문제점들을 식별해서 영문 수준을 향상시켜주는 전문 영문 교정 서비스를 이용합니다. Nature Research Editing Service와 American Journal Experts에서 저희와 협약을 통해 서비스를 제공하고 있습니다. Springer 저자들이 본 교정 서비스를 첫 논문 투고를 위해 사용하시는 경우 10%의 할인이 적용되며, 아래의 링크를 통하여 확인이 가능합니다.
영문 교정 서비스는 게재를 위한 요구사항은 아니며, 해당 서비스의 이용이 피어 리뷰에 논문이 선택되거나 게재가 수락되는 것을 의미하거나 보장하지 않습니다.
원고가 수락될 경우, 출판 전 저희측 편집자에 의해 원고의 철자 및 문체를 검수하는 과정을 거치게 됩니다.

Springer Open Choice 

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription−based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springers online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please visit the link below to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription−model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.

Research Data Policy 

A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.
The journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Persistent identifiers (such as DOIs and accession numbers) for relevant datasets must be provided in the paper.

Data availability

The journal encourages authors to provide a statement of Data availability in their article. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found, including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. Data availability statements can also indicate whether data are available on request from the authors and where no data are available, if appropriate.
Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):
1. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
2. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
3. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
4.Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study
5. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:
Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at researchdata@springernature.com.
This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the role of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest 

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Although an author may not feel there are conflicts, disclosure of relationships and interests affords a more transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of real or perceived conflicts of interests is a perspective to which the readers are entitled and is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement on the title page that is separate from their manuscript, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals 

1) Statement of human rights

When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
For retrospective studies, please add the following sentence:
“For this type of study formal consent is not required.”

2) Statement on the welfare of animals

The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals have been followed, and that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists).
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If applicable (where such a committee exists): “All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, please select one of the following statements:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”

Informed consent 

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”

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