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Physics - Optics & Lasers | Near-field Nano/Atom Optics and Technology

Near-field Nano/Atom Optics and Technology

Ohtsu, Motoichi (Ed.)

1998, XIV, 302 p.

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  • About this book

Intrinsic features of the optical near field open a new frontier in optical science and technology by finally overcoming the diffraction limit to reach nanometric dimensions. But this book goes beyond near-field optical microscopy to cover local spectroscopy, nanoscale optical processing and storage, quantum near-field optics, and atom manipulation. Near-Field Nano/Atom Optics and Technology provides the first complete and systematically compiled account of the science and technology required to generate the near field, and features applications including imaging of biological specimens and diagnostics for semiconductor nanomaterials and devices. This monograph will be invaluable to researchers who want to implement near-field technology in their own work, and it can also be used as a textbook for graduate or undergraduate students.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Dispersion - Nanomaterial - Raman spectroscopy - Taper - diffraction - imaging - microscopy - optics - photonics - polarization - semiconductor - spectroscopy

Related subjects » Optics & Lasers

Table of contents 

1. Introduction.- 1.1 Near-Field Optics and Related Technologies.- 1.2 History of Near-Field Optics and Related Technologies.- 1.3 Basic Features of an Optical Near Field.- 1.3.1 Optically “Near” System.- 1.3.2 Effective Field and Evanescent Field.- 1.3.3 Near-Field Detection of Effective Fields.- 1.3.4 Role of a Probe Tip.- 1.4 Building Blocks of Near-Field Optical Systems.- 1.5 Comments on the Theory of Near-Field Optics.- 1.6 Composition of This Book.- References.- 2. Principles of the Probe.- 2.1 Basic Probe.- 2.1.1 Optical Fiber Probe for the Near-Field Optical Microscope.- 2.1.2 Principle of the Imaging Mechanism: Dipole-Dipole Interaction.- 2.1.3 Resolution.- 2.1.4 Contrast.- 2.1.5 Sensitivity.- 2.2 Functional Probe: New Contrast Mechanisms.- 2.2.1 Signal Conversion by Functional Probes.- 2.2.2 Absorption and Emission: Radiative and Nonradiative Energy Transfer.- 2.2.3 Resonance, Nonlinearity, and Other Mechanisms.- References.- 3. Probe Fabrication.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Selective Etching of a Silica Fiber Composed of a Core and Cladding.- 3.2.1 Geometrical Model of Selective Etching.- 3.2.2 Pure Silica Fiber with a Fluorine Doped Cladding.- 3.2.3 GeO2 Doped Fiber.- 3.2.4 Tapered Fibers for Optical Transmission Systems.- 3.3 Selective Etching of a Dispersion Compensating Fiber.- 3.3.1 Shoulder-Shaped Probe.- 3.3.1.1 Shoulder-Shaped Probe with a Controlled Cladding Diameter.- 3.3.1.2 Shoulder-Shaped Probe with a Nanometric Flattened Apex.- 3.3.1.3 Double-Tapered Probe.- 3.3.2 Pencil-Shaped Probe.- 3.3.2.1 Pencil-Shaped Probe with an Ultra-Small Cone Angle.- 3.3.2.2 Pencil-Shaped Probe with a Nanometric Apex Diameter.- 3.4 Protrusion-Type Probe.- 3.4.1 Selective Resin Coating Method.- 3.4.2 Chemical Polishing Method.- 3.5 Hybrid Selective Etching of a Double-Cladding Fiber.- 3.5.1 Triple-Tapered Probe.- 3.5.2 Geometrical Model of Selective Etching of a Double-Cladding Fiber.- 3.5.3 Application-Oriented Probes: Pencil-Shaped Probe and Triple-Tapered Probe.- 3.6 Probe for Ultraviolet NOM Applications.- 3.6.1 UV Single-Tapered Probe.- 3.6.2 UV Triple-Tapered Probe.- 3.6.2.1 Advanced Method Based on Hybrid Selective Etching of a Double Core Fiber.- 3.6.2.2 Geometrical Model.- References.- 4. High-Throughput Probes.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Excitation of the HE-Plasmon Mode.- 4.2.1 Mode Analysis.- 4.2.2 Edged Probes for Exciting the HE-Plasmon Mode.- 4.3 Multiple-Tapered Probes.- 4.3.1 Double-Tapered Probe.- 4.3.2 Triple-Tapered Probe.- References.- 5. Functional Probes.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Methods of Fixation.- 5.3 Selecting a Functional Material.- 5.4 Probe Characteristics and Applications.- 5.4.1 Dye-Fixed Probes.- 5.4.2 Chemical Sensing Probes.- 5.5 Future Directions.- References.- 6. Instrumentation of Near-Field Optical Microscopy.- 6.1 Operation Modes of NOM.- 6.1.1 c-Mode NOM.- 6.1.2 i-Mode NOM.- 6.1.3 Comparative Features of Modes of NOM.- 6.2 Scanning Control Modes.- 6.2.1 Constant-height Mode.- 6.2.2 Constant-Distance Mode.- 6.2.2.1 Shear-force Feed Back.- 6.2.2.2 Optical Near-Field Intensity Feedback.- References.- 7. Basic Features of Optical Near-Field and Imaging.- 7.1 Resolution Characteristics.- 7.1.1 Longitudinal Resolution.- 7.1.2 Lateral Resolution.- 7.2 Factors Influencing Resolution.- 7.2.1 Influence of Probe Parameters.- 7.2.2 Dependence on Sample-Probe Separation.- 7.3 Polarization Dependence.- 7.3.1 Influence of Polarization on the Images of an Ultrasmooth Sapphire Surface.- 7.3.2 Influence of Polarization on the Images of LiNbO3 Nanocrystals.- References.- 8. Imaging Biological Specimens.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Observation of Flagellar Filaments by c-Mode NOM.- 8.2.1 Imaging in Air.- 8.2.2 Imaging in Water.- 8.3 Observation of Subcellular Structures of Neurons by i-Mode NOM.- 8.3.1 Imaging in Air Under Shear-Force Feedback.- 8.3.1.1 Imaging of Neurons Without Dye Labeling.- 8.3.1.2 Imaging of Neurons Labeled with Toluidine Blue.- 8.3.2 Imaging in Water Under Optical Near-Field Intensity Feedback.- 8.3.2.1 Imaging in Air.- 8.3.2.2 Imaging in PBS.- 8.4 Imaging of Microtubules by c-Mode NOM.- 8.5 Imaging of Fluorescent-Labeled Biospecimens.- 8.6 Imaging DNA Molecules by Optical Near-Field Intensity Feedback.- References.- 9. Diagnosing Semiconductor Nano-Materials and Devices.- 9.1 Fundamental Aspects of Near-Field Study of Semiconductors.- 9.1.1 Near-Field Spectroscopy of Semiconductors.- 9.1.2 Optical Near Field Generated by a Small Aperture and Its Interaction with Semiconductors.- 9.1.3 Operation in Illumination-Collection Hybrid Mode.- 9.2.- 9.2.1 Sample and Experimental Set-up.- 9.2.2 Spatially Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy.- 9.2.3 Two-Dimensional Mapping of Photoluminescence Intensity.- 9.2.4 Collection-Mode Imaging of Electroluminescence.- 9.2.5 Multiwavelength Photocurrent Spectroscopy.- 9.3 Low-Temperature Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy.- 9.3.1 Near-field single quantum dot spectroscopy.- 9.3.2 Low-Temperature NOM.- 9.3.3 Sample and Experimental Set-up.- 9.3.4 Fundamental Performance of the System.- 9.3.5 Physical Insight of Single Quantum Dot Photoluminescence.- 9.3.6 Observation of Other Types of Quantum Dots.- 9.4 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Polysilane Molecules.- 9.4.1 Polysilanes.- 9.4.2 Near-Field Ultraviolet Spectroscopy.- 9.4.3 Imaging and Spectroscopy of Polysilane Aggregates.- 9.5 Raman Spectroscopy of Semiconductors.- 9.5.1 Near-Field Raman Spectroscopy.- 9.5.2 Raman Imaging and Spectroscopy of Polydiacetylene and Si.- 9.6 Diagnostics of Al Stripes in an Integrated Circuit.- 9.6.1 Principle of Detection.- 9.6.2 Heating with a Metallized Probe.- 9.6.3 Heating by an Apertured Probe.- References.- 10. Toward Nano-Photonic Devices.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Use of Surface Plasmons.- 10.2.1 Principles of Surface Plasmons.- 10.2.2 Observation of Surface Plasmons.- 10.2.3 Toward Two-Dimensional Devices.- 10.2.4 Toward Three-Dimensional Devices.- 10.2.5 A Protruded Metallized Probe with an Aperture.- 10.3 Application to High-Density Optical Memory.- 10.3.1 Problems to Be Solved.- 10.3.2 Approaches to Solving the Problems.- 10.3.2.1 Structure of the Read-Out Head.- 10.3.2.2 Storage Probe Array.- 10.3.2.3 Track-less Read-out.- 10.3.3 Fabrication of a Two-Dimensional Planar Probe Array.- References.- 11. Near-Field Optical Atom Manipulation: Toward Atom Photonics.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.1.1 Control of Gaseous Atoms: From Far Field to Near Field.- 11.1.2 Dipole Force.- 11.1.3 Atomic Quantum Sheets: Atom Reflection Using a Planar Optical Near Field.- 11.1.4 Atomic Quantum Wires: Atom Guidance Using a Cylindrical Optical Near Field.- 11.1.5 Atomic Quantum Dots: Atom Manipulation Using a Localized Optical Near Field.- 11.2 Cylindrical Optical Near Field for Atomic Quantum Wires.- 11.2.1 Exact Light-Field Modes in Hollow Optical Fibers.- 11.2.2 Approximate Light-Field Modes in Hollow Optical Fibers.- 11.2.3 Field Intensity of the LP Modes.- 11.3 Atomic Quantum Wires.- 11.3.1 Near-Field Optical Potential.- 11.3.2 Laser Spectroscopy of Guided Atoms with Two-Step Photoionization.- 11.3.3 Observation of Cavity QED Effects in a Dielectric Cylinder.- 11.3.4 Atomic Quantum Wires with a Light Coupled Sideways.- 11.4 Optically Controlled Atomic Deposition.- 11.4.1 Spatial Distribution of Guided Atoms.- 11.4.2 Precise Control of Deposition Rate.- 11.4.3 In-line Spatial Isotope Separation.- 11.5 Near-Field Optical Atomic Funnels.- 11.5.1 Atomic Funnel with Atomic Quantum Sheet.- 11.5.2 Sisyphus Cooling Induced by Optical Near Field.- 11.5.3 Monte Carlo Simulations.- 11.6 Atomic Quantum Dots.- 11.6.1 Phenomenological Approach to the Interaction Between Atoms and the Localized Optical Near Field.- 11.6.2 Atom Deflection.- 11.6.3 Atom Trap with a Sharpened Optical Fiber.- 11.6.4 Three-Dimensional Atom Trap.- 11.7 Future Outlook.- References.- 12. Related Theories.- 12.1 Comparison of Theoretical Approaches.- 12.2 Semi-microscopic and Microscopic Approaches.- 12.2.1 Basic Equations.- 12.2.2 Example of an Evanescent Field.- 12.2.3 Direct and Indirect Field Propagators.- 12.2.4 Electric Susceptibility of Matter.- 12.3 Numerical Examples.- 12.3.1 Weak vs. Strong Coupling.- 12.3.2 Near-Field- and Far-Field-Propagating Signals.- 12.3.3 Scanning Methods.- 12.3.4 Possibility of Spin-Polarization Detection.- 12.4 Effective Field and Massive Virtual Photon Model.- 12.5 Future Direction.- References.

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