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This monograph is devoted to an entirely new branch of nonlinear physics - solitary intrinsic states, or autosolitons, which form in a broad class of physical, chemical and biological dissipative systems. Autosolitons are often observed as highly nonequilibrium regions in slightly nonequilibrium systems, in many ways resembling ball lightning which occurs in the atmosphere. We develop a new approach to problems of self-organization and turbulence, treating these phenomena as a result of spontaneous formation and subsequent evolution of autosolitons. Scenarios of self-organization involve sophisticated interactions between autosolitons, whereas turbulence is regarded as a pattern of autosolitons which appear and disappear at random in different parts of the system. This monograph is the first attempt to provide a comprehensive summary of the theory of autosolitons as developed by the authors over the years of research. The monograph is comprised of three more or less autonomous parts. Part I deals with the physical nature and experimental studies of autosolitons and self organization in various physical systems: semiconductor and gas plasma, heated gas mixture, semiconductor structures, composite superconductors, optical and magnetic media, systems with uniformly generated combustion matter, distributed gas-discharge and electronic systems. We discuss feasibility of autosolitons in the form of highly nonequilibrium regions in slightly nonequilibrium gases and semiconductors, "hot" and "cold" regions in semiconductor and gas plasmas, static, pulsating and traveling combustion fronts.
Preface. Introduction. Part One: Physics of Autosolitons and Phenomena of Self-Organization in Active Systems. 1. `Ball Lightning' in Semiconductors and Gases. 2. Regions of High or Low Electron Temperature in Heated Semiconductor and Gas Plasmas. 3. Traveling Pulses and Other Autowaves in Excitable Media. 4. Static, Traveling, and Pulsating Autosolitons. 5. Current Filaments in Systems with Single-Valued Voltage-Current Characteristic. 6. Static and Traveling Strata in Solids and Gases. 7. Hot Spots in Semiconductors and Semiconductor Structures. 8. Autosolitons in Other Active Media. 9. Classification of Active Distributed Media. 10. Classification of Autosolitons and Phenomena of Self-Organization. Part Two: Theory of Autosolitons. 11. Static Autosolitons in One-Dimensional Media (KN and KI-Systems). 12. Stability and Evolution of Static Autosolitons in One-Dimensional Media (KN and Ki-Systems). 13. Static Autosolitons in Two and Three-Dimensional Media (KN and KI-Systems). 14. Theory of Strata: Interacting One-Dimensional Autosolitons (KN and KI-Systems). 15. Spike Static Autosolitons and Strata (KLambda and KV-Systems). 16. Pulsating Autosolitons (KOmega-Systems). 17. Traveling Autosolitons and Autowaves (KOmega and Omega-Systems). 18. Autosolitons in Bistable (Trigger) Systems. Part Three: Scenarios of Self-Organization and Turbulence in Active Distributed Media. 19. Structures near Stratification Point of Homogeneous State of the System. 20. Effects Definitive for Rearrangment of Autosolitons and Strata (K-Systems). 21. Scenarios ofSelf-Organization in Ideally Homogeneous One-Dimensional Systems. 22. Scenarios of Self-Organization in Real One-Dimensional Systems. 23. Self-organization in Two and Three-Dimensional Systems. 24. Turbulence in Active Systems. Conclusion. Appendix 1: Asymptotic Theory of Static Autosolitons and Strata. Appendix 2: Analytical Investigation of Autosolitons and Strata in an Axiomatic Model of Active Medium with Diffusion. References.