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This book details a systematic characteristics-based finite element procedure to investigate incompressible, free-surface and compressible flows. The fluid dynamics equations are derived from basic thermo-mechanical principles and the multi-dimensional and infinite-directional upstream procedure is developed by combining a finite element discretization of a characteristics-bias system with an implicit Runge-Kutta time integration. For the computational solution of the Euler and Navier Stokes equations, the procedure relies on the mathematics and physics of multi-dimensional characteristics. As a result, the procedure crisply captures contact discontinuities, normal as well as oblique shocks, and generates essentially non-oscillatory solutions for incompressible, subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inviscid and viscous flows.
Governing Equations of Fluid Mechanics.- Constitutive and State Equations.- State Equations for Reacting Air.- Euler and Navier Stokes Systems.- Quasi One-Dimensional and Free-Surface Equations.- Overview of CFD Algorithm Development.- The Finite Element Method.- Non-Linearly Stable Implicit Runge-Kutta Time Integrations.- One-Dimensional Non-Discrete Characteristics-Bias Resolution.- Characteristics-Bias Controller and Length.- Computational Analysis of Quasi-1-D Incompressible Flows.- Numerical Study of Generalized Quasi-1-D Free Surface Flows.- CFD Investigation of Generalized Quasi-1-D Compressible Flows.- Multi-Dimensional Characteristics and Characteristics-Bias Systems.- Multi-Dimensional Incompressible Flows.- Multi-Dimensional Free-Surface Flows.- Multi-Dimensional Compressible Flows.