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This book is a compilation of articles based on some of the talks given at the Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS) in Valdivia during the course of a celebration to th mark the 60 birthdays of Ramon Latorre and Enrico Stefani. Ramon Latorre is one of the most outstanding figures in channel Biophysics today. The first surprise is that he trained as a Biochemist! He soon, however, became a biophysicist through his work with Guayo (Eduardo) Rojas who guided him during his Ph. D thesis in the Laboratorio de Fisiologia Celular in Montemar. His work at N. I. H with Gerald Eherenstein and Harold Lecar constitutes one of the milestones of single ion channel Biophysics. This classical work, done in planar bilayers, set the basis for understanding voltage-dependent conductances with single channel studies and predates, by many years, later studies using patch clamping techniques. Ramon was one of the firsts to find and recognize the importance of calci- activated potassium channels and to begin a detailed study of channel properties. He pioneered the ideas of voltage and calcium modulation of the open probability and he added detailed studies of gating and its modulation by other ions. Ramon is also interested in permeation and selectivity and he produced classical studies on the number of water molecules in the channel and sites occupied by barium. Results and concepts that have recently taken front page as the structure of KcSa has been described.
CHANNELS AND PUMPS EARLY IN EVOLUTION – INTRODUCTION – ION CHANNELS IN BACTERIA - ANIMAL CELLS – CONCLUSIONS – REFERENCES - THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF AQUAPORIN 0 IN LENS PHYSIOLOGY – INTRODUCTION – REGULATION OF WATER PERMEABILITY AND THE LENS – SINGLE-MOLECULE WATER PERMEABILITY OF AQP0 AND AQP1 – REGULATION OF AQP0 WATER PERMEABILITY –CONCLUSIONS – ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – REFERENCES - CENTRAL ROLE OF THE Ca2+i REGULATORY SITE IN IONIC AND METABOLIC MODULATION OF Na+/Ca2+ EXCHANGER IN DIALYZED SQUID AXONS – INTRODUCTION – METHODS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION – ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – REFERENCES - CALCIUM DEPENDENCE OF CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNELS (RYANODINE RECEPTORS) FROM SKELETAL AND CARDIAC MUSCLE – INTRODUCTION – METHODS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION – CONCLUSIONS – ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – REFERENCES - MODULATION OF RYANODIN RECEPTOR CHANNELS FROM RAT BRAIN CORTEX IN LIPID BILAYERS – INTRODUCTION – MATERIALS AND METHODS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION – CONCLUSIONS – ACKNOWLEDGMENT – REFERENCES - EXOCYTIC PATHWAY CHECK POINTS FOR FUNCTIONAL POTASSIUM CHANNELS IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE – INTRODUCTION – THE EXOCYTIC PATHWAY – POTASSIUM CHANNELS AS SUBSTRATES OF THE EXOCYTIC PATHWAY – CONCLUDING REMARKS – REFERENCES - C-TERMINI REGION SHARED BY ß2A, ß1B, AND ß3 SUBUNITS CONFER PREPULSE FACILITAION TO CARDIAC CALCIUM CHANNELS – INTRODUCTION – METHODS – RESULTS – DISCUSSION – ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – REFERENCES - DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF Ca CHANNELS AND SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN NORMAL AND ATAXIC KNOCK-OUT MICE – INTRODUCTION – MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF VDCC – CALCIUM CHANNELOPATHIES – CALCIUM CHANNELS AND NEUROTRANSMITTER RELEASE AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION – CONCLUSIONS – REFERENCES - INVESTIGATING THE MODULAR BASIS OF BK CHANNEL ACTIVATIN BY CALCIUM – INTRODUCTION – PROGRESS TOWARD BK(CA) CHANNEL STRUCTURE – PROGRESS TOWARD BK(CA) CHANNELFUNCTION – REFERENCES - HELICAL NATURE OF THE VOLTAGE SENSOR – INTRODUCTION – SHAKER CHANNEL WORKS WITH S3-S4 SEGMENT DELETED – RESTORING THE S3-S4 LINKER FIVES CONFUSING RESULTS – UNDERSTANDING THESE RESULTS – CONCLUSIONS – REFERENCES - PEPTIDE TOXINS AS CONFORMATIONAL PROBES FOR K-CHANNELS – INTRODUCTION – PORE-SPECIFIC TOXINS FOR POTASSIUM CHANNELS – PEPTIDE TOXINS BIND TO OPEN AND CLOSED CHANNELS – POSSIBLE ORIGINS FOR THE CLOSED-OPEN STATE DEPENDENCY - TOXINS BLOCK C-NACTIVATED AND CLOSED CHANNELS EQUALLY – CONCLUDING REMARKS – ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – REFERENCES - MOLECULAR PARTICIPANTS IN VOLTAGE-DEPENDANT GATING – INTRODUCTION – RESULTS – CONCLUSIONS – REFERENCES - CA2+ DYNAMICS AT NERVE-TERMINAL ACTIVE ZONES MONITORED BY ENDOGENOUS KCA CHANNELS – INTRODUCTION – METHODS – RESULTS – DISCUSSION – ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – REFERENCES - FINE TUNING OF EXCITABILITY BY KCA CHANNELS IN MUDPUPPY PARASYMPATHETIC NEURONS – INTRODUCTION – RESULTS – CONCLUDING REMARKS – ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – REFERENCES - TWINKLE TWINKLE LITTLE SPARK: OUT OF TUNE POTASSIUM CHANNELS – INTRODUCTION – RESULTS – CONCLUDING REMARKS – ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – REFERENCES - A CLC-2-LIKE CHLORIDE CONDUCTANCE IN DROSOPHILA PHOTORECEPTORS – INTRODUCTION – OVERVIEW OF CIC CHANNELS WITH EMPHASIS ON CIC-2 – RESULTS – ACKNOWLEDGMENTS - REFERENCES