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Physics - Atomic, Molecular, Optical & Plasma Physics | Cluster Beam Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials

Cluster Beam Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials

Milani, Paolo, Iannotta, Salvatore

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999, VIII, 194p. 118 illus..

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  • About this book

  • Cluster assembled materials are a new class of materials. They have a high potential for special applications. For the first time their formation and potential applications are presented in a comprehensive book
The book describes the synthesis of nanostructured materials by cluster beam deposition. The preparation and characterization of clusters in molecular beams is described in detail providing both the background and the know-how needed to exploit all the capabilities of this technique in the synthesis of new materials. Its implementation with surface science diagnostic tools will be analyzed and discussed, together with the cluster-surface interaction and cluster coalescence phenomena. The different aspects of characterization of nanocrystalline materials from cluster precursors will be presented and discussed. A discussion of the integration of cluster beam methods with other production techniques and an evaluation of its technological revelance complete the book.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » cluster - composite - deposition - film - nanocomposite - nanostructure - surface - surface science - thin films

Related subjects » Atomic, Molecular, Optical & Plasma Physics - Characterization & Evaluation of Materials - Nanotechnology - Physical Chemistry - Surfaces, Interfaces, Thin Films, Corrosion, Coatings

Table of contents 

1. Introduction.- 2. Molecular Beams and Cluster Nucleation.- 2.1 Molecular Beams.- 2.1.1 Continuous Effusive Beams.- 2.1.2 Continuous Supersonic Beams.- 2.1.3 Pulsed Beams.- 2.2 Nucleation and Aggregation Processes.- 2.2.1 Classical Theory.- 2.2.2 Homogeneous Nucleation by Monomer Addition.- 2.2.3 Homogeneous Nucleation by Aggregation.- 2.2.4 Nucleation of Clusters in Beams.- 2.2.5 Semi-empirical Approach to Clustering in Free Jets.- 3. Cluster Sources.- 3.1 Vaporization Methods.- 3.1.1 Joule Heating.- 3.1.2 Plasma Generation for Cluster Production.- 3.1.3 Laser Vaporization.- 3.1.4 Glow and Arc Discharges.- 3.2 Continuous Sources.- 3.2.1 Effusive Joule-Heated Gas Aggregation Sources.- 3.2.2 Magnetron Plasma Sources.- 3.2.3 Supersonic Sources.- 3.3 Pulsed Sources.- 3.3.1 Pulsed Valves.- 3.3.2 Laser Vaporization Sources.- 3.3.3 Arc Pulsed Sources.- 4. Characterization and Manipulation of Cluster Beams.- 4.1 Mass Spectrometry.- 4.1.1 Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.- 4.1.2 Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.- 4.1.3 Retarding Potential Mass Spectrometry.- 4.2 Detection Methods.- 4.2.1 Ionization of Clusters.- 4.2.2 Charged Cluster Detection.- 4.2.3 Cluster Beam Characterization.- 4.3 Cluster Selection and Manipulation.- 4.3.1 Size and Energy Selection.- 4.3.2 Quadrupole Filter.- 4.3.3 Separation of Gas Mixtures in Supersonic Beams.- 5. Thin Film Deposition and Surface Modification by Cluster Beams.- 5.1 Kinetic Energy Regimes.- 5.2 Diffusion and Coalescence of Clusters on Surfaces.- 5.3 Low-Energy Deposition.- 5.3.1 Cluster Networks and Porous Films.- 5.3.2 Composite Nanocrystalline Materials.- 5.4 High-Energy Deposition.- 5.4.1 Implantation, Sputtering, Etching.- 5.4.2 Thin Film Formation.- 6. Outlook and Perspectives.- 6.1 Cluster Beam Processing of Surfaces.- 6.2 Nanostructured Materials Synthesis.- 6.3 Perspectives.- References.

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