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Physics - Applied & Technical Physics | Flash Memories - Economic Principles of Performance, Cost and Reliability Optimization

Flash Memories

Economic Principles of Performance, Cost and Reliability Optimization

Richter, Detlev

2014, XXIV, 268 p. 185 illus.

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  • A complete memory product and system optimization analysis is provided in-depth for NAND flash based solid-state storage systems
  • A Performance Indicator Methodology is developed to support a requirement based application shown for the specific example of a flash memory development process
  • A higher abstraction level is introduced to guide engineering teams responsible to develop system solutions to overcome the complexity of weaknesses of flash memories
  • Describes cost and performance issues and thus the road commercial success of Memory IC Design

The subject of this book is to introduce a model-based quantitative performance indicator methodology applicable for performance, cost and reliability optimization of non-volatile memories. The complex example of flash memories is used to introduce and apply the methodology. It has been developed by the author based on an industrial 2-bit to 4-bit per cell flash development project. For the first time, design and cost aspects of 3D integration of flash memory are treated in this book.

Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined.  

Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based product development process.

The Performance Indicator methodology is applied to demonstrate the importance of hidden memory parameters for a successful product and system development roadmap. 

Flash Memories offers an opportunity to enhance your understanding of product development key topics such as:

·        Reliability optimization of flash memories is all about threshold voltage margin understanding and definition;
·        Product performance parameter are analyzed in-depth in all aspects in relation to the threshold voltage operation window;
·        Technical characteristics are translated into quantitative performance indicators;
·        Performance indicators are applied to identify and quantify product and technology innovation within adjacent areas to fulfill the application requirements with an overall cost optimized solution;  ·        Cost, density, performance and durability values are combined into a common factor – performance indicator - which fulfills the application requirements

Content Level » Research

Keywords » HW / SW Co-Design - Hardware (HW) Design - Key Indicator Models - Memory Design - NAND Flash - Non-volatile Memories - Performance/Cost Indicator - Reliability - Software (SW) Design - Solid-state storage - System Optimization

Related subjects » Applied & Technical Physics - Circuits & Systems - Condensed Matter Physics - Materials

Table of contents 

1 Introduction.

2 Fundamentals of Non-Volatile Memories. 2.2 Non-Volatile Storage Element – Cell Operation Modes. 2.3 Non-Volatile Cell – Electron and Non-Electron based. 2.4 Flash Memory Array. 2.5 Memory Building Blocks. 2.6 Flash Memory Algorithm and Vth Window Definition. 2.7 Multiple Bits per Cell Area - Flash Memory Concepts. 2.8 Summary of NVM Fundamentals.

3 Performance Figures of Non-Volatile Memories. 3.1 Memory Performance Parameter Definition. 3.2 Performance Parameters for Flash Memories. 3.3 Performance and Durability. 3.4 Performance Parameter and Durability Summary.

4 Fundamentals of Reliability for Flash Memories. 4.1 Reliability Parameter based on Vth Window Margin Analysis. 4.2 Data Integrity – Data Retention Parameter. 4.3 Reliability Parameter Endurance - Number of Writes. 4.4  4.5 Reliability Margin Optimization on Product Level. 4.6 Flash Memory Reliability Summary.

5 Memory based System Development and Optimization. 5.1  5.2 Memory-Centric System Specification. 5.3 Memory Efficiency Parameters for Competitiveness. 5.4 Memory System Optimization. 5.5  Summary – Flash Memory based System Optimization.

6 Memory Optimization - Key Performance Indicator Methodology. 6.1 Performance, Cost per bit, and Reliability Optimization. 6.2 Definition of Performance Indicators. 6.3 Definition of a Performance Indicator Model . 6.4 Application of Performance Indicator Methodology. 6.5 Performance Indicator Methodology Summary.

7 System Optimization based on Performance Indicator Models. 7.1 7.2 Economic Principles of memory-centric System Development. 7.3 System Optimization based on Memory Array differences. 7.4 Integral Memory-centric System Optimization. 7.5 Failure Tolerant Systems – Design for Durability.

8 Conclusion and Outlook. 8.1 8.2 Summary. 8.3 Outlook for Flash Memories.

9 References.

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