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Is a genuine logic of scientific discovery possible? In the essays collected here, Hintikka not only defends an affirmative answer; he also outlines such a logic. It is the logic of questions and answers. Thus inquiry in the sense of knowledge-seeking becomes inquiry in the sense of interrogation. Using this new logic, Hintikka establishes a result that will undoubtedly be considered the fundamental theorem of all epistemology, viz., the virtual identity of optimal strategies of pure discovery with optimal deductive strategies. Questions to Nature, of course, must include observations and experiments. Hintikka shows, in fact, how the logic of experimental inquiry can be understood from the interrogative vantage point. Other important topics examined include induction (in a forgotten sense that has nevertheless played a role in science), explanation, the incommensurability of theories, theory-ladenness of observations, and identifiability.
Introduction. 1. Is Logic the Key to All Good Reasoning? 2. The Role of Logic in Argumentation. 3. Interrogative Logic as a General Theory of Reasoning. 4. What is Abduction? The Fundamental Problem of Contemporary Epistemology. 5. True and False Logics of Scientific Discovery. 6. A Spectrum of Logic of Questioning. 7. What is the Logic of Experimental Inquiry? 8. The Concept of Induction in the Light of the Interrogative Approach to Inquiry. 9. Semantics and Pragmatics for Why-Questions. 10. The Varieties of Information and Scientific Explanation. 11. On the Incommensurability of Theories. 12. Theory-Ladenness of Observations as a Test Case of Kuhn's Approach to Scientific Inquiry. 13. Ramsey Sentences and the Meaning of Quantifiers. 14. Towards a General Theory of Identifiability.